Annotated Bibliography of ALC Faculty’s Recent Research Publications

YearTitle
AuthorType
2021One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Policy and Shifting Identities among Chinese Singaporeans (in English)
Goh, Yeng Seng and Fong, Yeow Wah (2021). One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Policy and Shifting Identities among Chinese Singaporeans. In Klöter, Henning and Saarela, Mårten Söderblom (Ed.), Language Diversity in the Sinophone World: Historical Trajectories, Language Planning, and Multilingual Practices (PP. 164-181). New York: Routledge.
Goh Yeng SengBook Chapters
 This chapter provides an overview of language planning in Singapore since the country’s independence in 1965. It examines official responses toward societal multilingualism and the ideologies underlying language planning, notably the promotion of English and Mandarin. Before independence, Mandarin was hardly ever used within the Chinese population. It was only after 1965 that it became an official language—alongside English, Malay, and Tamil Language—and gradually gained dominance over the other Sinitic varieties through education and intensive campaigning. The chapter argues that the evolution of bilingualism within the Chinese community, which accompanied a shift in identity from overseas Chinese to Chinese Singaporeans, resulted in an increasing percentage of Chinese Singaporeans using English predominantly as a home language. Meanwhile, in an era of global Mandarin, Singapore is gradually shifting toward a language situation where Chinese is increasingly learned merely as a foreign language and is not being used in the home context.
2018Further Studies on Phrase-Sentence Interface—Rethink of Chinese Sentence-Completing Element.
Overseas Chinese Education, No.4, 5-15

也谈短语与句子接口——汉语完句成分的再思考
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 It is sentence-completing element that determine whether a phrase can transform to be a sentence or not. The sentences should be identified as two different kinds belong to language level and discourse level. There are some shortcomings in those current interpretations of Chinese sentence-completing element. When the sentence information is calculated, both the cognitive inference for whole construction and the specific constraints of different sentence components needed to be taken into consideration. The minimal basic sentence should be regarded as a starting point to the determination of sentence-completing elements in language teaching, which can avoid the sentence-completing error being treated as other kinds of error.
 汉语短语实现为句子需要完句成分作为支撑,现有完句成分的几种归因解释还存在一些不足。完句成分研究中应注意区分语言和言语这两个不同层面的句子,对于语句信息量的计算既要考虑整体的认知推理解读,也要考虑不同类型完句成分的分项要求,而教学中完句成分的确立应以最小基础句为出发点,避免将“完句”问题扩大为不同层面的多因语误。
2017One People, One Nation, One Singapore: Language Use and Identity among Chinese Singaporeans (in Chinese)
Goh Yeng Seng (2017). Teaching Chinese as an International Language: A Singapore Perspective (PP.211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

落地生根的胡姬花:新加坡華裔語言形態與身份認同解讀
Goh Yeng SengJournal-Refereed
 Migrating from homeland in China to Singapore, Singapore Chinese put down roots, have a family and eventually become citizens in Singapore. The implementation of the racial integration policy in the past fifty years has not only forged a distinctive Chinese Singaporean identity, but also brought a major change in the sociolinguistic landscape. There is thus a significant variation in attitudes towards Chinese language and culture and ethnic Chinese identity across generational cohorts, due to different home language use and education background. It is essential, in the age of globalisation, for mainland Chinese and Chinese overseas to recognise and respect the fact that Chinese overseas has evolved a distinctive identity over time and space.
 新加坡華人從祖籍地中國移居到「星洲」,積極融入居留地生活,成家立業,繁衍後代,入籍成為新加坡公民。經過新加坡建國五十年來積極推動的種族融合政策,不僅潛移默化地建構出有別於中國祖籍地的華人身份認同,新加坡華族社會語言生態也發生重大變化。不同世代、不同家庭常用語、不同教育背景的華裔,對華族語言文化認同以及對華人族群認同出現顯著差異。在全球化時代中,祖籍地中國人與世界各地的華人,應該尊重與接受華裔經過時空變遷後產生的異質事實。
2017Teaching Chinese as an International Language: A Singapore Perspective (in English)
Goh Yeng Seng (2017). Teaching Chinese as an International Language: A Singapore Perspective (PP.211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goh Yeng SengScholarly Book (Refereed)
 Bilingual and bicultural scholar Yeng-Seng Goh offers the first in-depth English language analysis of global Chinese, exploring the spread of Chinese beyond China and its emergence as a global language. Approaching the topic from a Singapore perspective, Goh uses this fascinating language ecosystem, with its unique bilingual language policy, as a case study for Chinese language learning. Offering clear insights into the pedagogy of teaching Chinese as an international lang+G3uage (TCIL), this book covers a range of important topics, such as the sociolinguistic profile of Chinese language student-teachers, the use of English in the teaching of Chinese, the teaching of Chinese by non-native teachers, information and communications technology in L2 learning and teaching, the progressive Chinese pronunciation programme and the progressive testing of receptive skills. In doing so, it presents a new, integrative approach to the compilation of Chinese learner’s dictionaries, an innovative bilingual hybrid model for training TCIL teachers, and a solid theoretical framework for Masters of Arts programmes in TCIL and a unique perspective on the establishment of translation as a service industry.
2017Corpus of Primary School Chinese Teaching Materials in Singapore: A Study on its Construction and Application
Luo, Q.M. (2017). Corpus of Primary School Chinese Teaching Material in Singapore: A Study on its Construction and Application. Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press

教材语料库的建构与应用
Luo QingmingScholarly Book (Refereed)
 This study constitutes an exploration of the construction and application of the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus. It focuses mainly on three major objectives: a) the construction of a pedagogically tagged Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus; b) the utilization of the constructed primary school Chinese textbook corpus to conduct relevant research on language elements and to explore the content and methodology of textbook corpus-aided primary school Chinese teaching; c) to further undertake research on second language vocabulary acquisition in conjunction with teaching.

As textbook corpora are important teaching resources and aid, they play a significant role in aiding language teaching experts in the compilation of teaching syllabus, extraction of vocabulary table for teaching, and the provision of teaching reference materials. Nevertheless, textbook corpora are used mostly for indirect applications in the field of second language teaching. The application of textbook corpora to directly serve classroom teaching has yet to receive sufficient attention, especially in the field of Chinese language teaching.

Based on usage objectives, data sources and annotation methods, textbook corpora can be further divided into pedagogical corpora, textbook corpora and textbook-information databases, all of which vary widely in terms of usage. The textbook corpus constructed under this study can be directly applied to classroom teaching and textbook language research. While the development and application of this type of corpora remain in the infancy stage for non-Chinese languages, this study is the first of its kind in the realm of Chinese language.

Textbook corpora that target classroom teaching and textbook language research are different from other corpora in terms of corpus selection and annotation, functional design and interface presentation. Complying with the basic principles and procedures of corpus development, the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus further exhibited innovation and breakthroughs in the context of functional development and search software design. It achieved the extraction and computation of language information such as phonology, Chinese characters, vocabulary, collocation, etc and was able to address the demand for diverse, personalized and convenient teaching in relation to search method and interface design, thereby realizing the designated research objectives of this study.

This study makes reference to corpus-based and corpus-driven research models and utilizes the constructed textbook corpus to undertake a non-systemic statistical analysis of the language elements of Singapore primary school Chinese textbooks. Firstly, Claude Shannon’s Information Theory (1951) is applied to undertake a more comprehensive analysis of the phonological load of Singapore primary school Chinese textbooks. Results indicate that the total load is unevenly distributed within the internal Chinese phonetic system - vowels have the highest phonological load, followed by consonants, with tones having the lowest phonological load. In terms of the average load of phonemes, tones command the highest phonological load, with a greater divergence in the phonological load of the internal subsystems of consonants, vowels and tones. The divergence in the usage frequency of phonetic elements and the internal configuration of phonetic systems is the main cause for the differences in Chinese phonological load. These preliminary conclusions are of reference value to the study and pedagogical research of Chinese phonetic acquisition. Secondly, this study uses statistical methods to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the vocabulary system of Singapore primary school Chinese textbooks, revealing a skewed distribution of Chinese word classes in textbooks, including a significant difference in the recurrence rate of different word classes as well as the internal recurrence rate within the same word class, and an abnormal distribution phenomenon of few high frequency words and numerous single frequency words. Textbook concurrence is not common, accounting for approximately 6%-10%. Concurrence occurs more between content words, with a close relationship between the number of syllables of multi-category words and word class.

In exploring the application of the Singapore primary school Chinese textbook corpus to the teaching of Chinese, reference is made in this study to Tim Johns’ data-driven learning theory (1991). From the perspectives of the applicability of textbook corpus to different teaching stages and segments, and the combination of textbook corpus with internet multimedia technology, this study further sets out an in-depth discussion of the feasibility of the application of textbook corpus to Singapore primary school Chinese teaching and puts forward concrete methods and examples to further prove that based on pedagogical principles, textbook corpus can achieve an effect unmatched by printed textbooks in aiding classroom teaching.

This study uses the constructed textbook corpus to conduct research on vocabulary acquisition in conjunction with teaching. Through a small-scale comparative experiment on pedagogy, this study further illustrates that teaching pedagogy which utilizes textbook corpus-based vocabulary repetition has a positive effect in improving the effectiveness of vocabulary learning of students.

This study concludes with a summary of the research topic, including the research findings, and further points out existing inadequacies as well as the direction for further research.
 本研究探讨新加坡小学华文教材语料库的建构和应用,主要围绕目标:建构具有教学法标注的教材语料库;用建构的语料库进行语言要素相关研究,探讨其辅助华文教学的内容和方法;最终开展与教学相结合的二语词汇习得研究。

新加坡小学华文教材语料库实现了语音、汉字、词汇、搭配等多项语言信息的提取和统计,在检索方式和界面设计上满足多样化、人性化和便捷化的教学需求,达成本教材语料库的研究设计目标。

本研究利用所建构的教材语料库对新加坡小学华文教材中的语言要素进行了非系统性的统计分析。首先,采用Shannon(1951)的信息理论对新加坡小学华文教材的语音负担进行了较全面的分析,结果显示,汉语声母、韵母、声调内部子系统的语音负担存在较大差异。原因主要是语音要素的使用频率和语音系统内部的配置差异。这些初步结论对汉语语音的习得和教学具有参考价值。其次,本研究运用统计学的方法对新加坡小学华文教材词汇系统进行全面分析,发现教材中的汉语词类呈现偏态分布特征;不同词类的重现率差异显著;教材兼类现象并不普遍,多发生在实词之间。

在探讨新加坡小学华文教材语料库在华文教学中的应用方面,本研究借鉴Johns(1991)的语料驱动学习理论,从教材语料库在不同教学阶段、不同教学环节的应用,以及它与网络多媒体技术相结合等三个角度,对教材语料库应用于新加坡小学华文教学的可行性进行了深入探讨,提出了具体方法和实例,从教学原理上证明了教材语料库在辅助课堂教学方面能起到纸本教材无法达到的作用。

通过一个教学法对比实验,证明了基于教材语料库的词汇重现对学生提高词汇学习的效益具有积极的作用。

本研究最后课题总结,研究中存在的不足,确定了进一步方向。
2016Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities
Li. L., & Tan, C. L. (2016). Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 1 (Springer), 381-387.

家庭知识水平环境和它对于新加坡儿童华语口头与书写能力的影响
Tan Chee LayJournal-Refereed
 In a bilingual environment such as the Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children’s language and literacy abilities. This study examined Singaporean Chinese–English bilingual children’s HLE and its influence on their Chinese oral and written language ability. Parents of seventy-six Chinese–English bilingual preschoolers completed a HLE survey. Children’s Chinese oral and written language abilities were measured with age appropriate tasks. Results of the HLE survey revealed that, on the average, children’s Chinese language and literacy related activities, either carried out independently or with parents, were not frequent, but correlated significantly with children’s oral and written language ability. A set of regression analysis showed that, after controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), children’s language preference at home made a unique contribution, both to their Chinese language and literacy related activities and to their Chinese oral language ability. Similarly, children’s Chinese language and literacy related activities were found to make unique contribution to their Chinese written language ability after the effect of family SES and language preference was accounted for, emphasizing the crucial aspects of home literacy activities for developing children’s Chinese written language ability.
 双语环境给新加坡华人社群带来的挑战是如何推广华语成为儿童的日常用语,以便保存华语和华族文化。充分的证据显示家庭语言和知识水平环境对于儿童的语言和识字能力是有影响的,而这项研究就针对新加坡英汉双语儿童的家庭环境来探讨它如何影响儿童华语口头与书写能力。这研究包括使用适龄测试来衡量76名学龄前儿童的口头和书写能力,并让他们的家长填写一份关于他们家庭语言和知识水平环境的问卷。问卷成绩显示语言和识字相关的活动虽然在家中不是很频繁,但对儿童的语言和识字能力有相对的影响。一组回归分析显示:在对照家庭社会经济地位后,儿童在家中的语言偏好促成他们语言和识字相关的活动以及华语口头能力。同样的,在掌握了家庭社会经济地位和语言偏好,相关的活动也为儿童的华语书写能力起着特别的贡献。这推进家庭文化活动对于发展儿童华语书写能力的重要性。
2015Phonological functional load: A textbook corpus-based analysis
Luo, Q.M. (2015). Phonological functional load: A textbook corpus-based analysis. Taiwan Journal of Chinese as a Second Language, 10, 29-47.

基于教材语料库的语音负担分析
Luo QingmingJournal-Refereed
 Phonological functional load, similar to phonemic functional load, refers to the amount of linguistic information carried by a single phonological unit (initial, final, tone, syllable). The phonological functional load of teaching materials, being an important quantifying indicator for phonological information, has direct impact on the hierarchical stratification of Chinese phonological elements, the writing of phonology-oriented teaching materials, as well as students’ acquisition of phonological information. This essay makes use of Singapore’s primary school Chinese textbook corpus and various statistical methods to calculate the phonological functional load of initials, finals, tones and other phonological constructs present in the textbook corpus. Results have shown that phonological functional load varies for initials, finals and tones in Chinese language. Overall, the total phonological functional load is the greatest for finals, followed by initials, and lastly tones. However, as for average phonological load, tone carries the greatest amount of information. Within each sub-phonological system (e.g. initial sub-system, finals sub-system, and tone sub-system), there is also greater internal variations in functional load. The main cause of variations in phonological functional load for Chinese language is the difference in the frequency of phonological constructs. In other words, there is a positive relationship between the frequency of phonological constructs and the size of phonological functional load. However, it is also important to note that the frequency of phonological constructs is not the only factor influencing the size of phonological functional load. The number of possible combinations between different initials, finals and tones, as well as the binary opposition or complementary relationship between phonological units, has direct impact on phonological functional load too. These preliminary conclusions about the concept of phonological functional load will have practical implication on future research into students’ acquisition of phonological information.
 本文利用新加坡小学华文教材语料库结合数理统计原理对教材包括声母、韵母、声调等语音构成要素进行语音负担测算。结果显示,汉语声母、韵母和声调的语音负担不平均。声、韵、调内部子系统的语音负担也存在较大差异。各语音构成要素在使用频率上存在差异,频率与语音负担成正比。而语音系统内部配置,语音单位元之间的对立或互补关系也会直接影响二元对立的语音负担。
2015Overseas Chinese Vocabulary and Grammar: Teaching and Research
Shanghai: Fudan University Press

海外汉语词汇语法教学与研究
Xu FengScholarly Book (Refereed)
 The book is an excellent academic writing which combines theoretical exploration and practical application, mainly discussing the problems related the teaching of Chinese vocabulary and grammar. Moreover, the book contains both general discussion and concrete analysis, providing insightful understanding of the relevant topics. The book has been divided into three parts respectively discussing the overseas environment of Chinese teaching, the cognitive construction of vocabulary and the application of pedagogical grammar. The three parts are systematically integrated into a holistic system.
 本书结合新加坡华文教学,对海外汉语教学所设计的的词汇语法问题做了认真细致而深入的探讨。在本体研究基础之上突出了语言应用研究,既有关于双语教育政策的理论探索,也有针对个别词语释义和用法的细致观察,突出了海外汉语教学的疑点和难点。
2014A Corpus-Based Analysis on Distribution of Parts of Speech in Singapore Primary School Chinese Textbooks
Luo, Q.M. (2014). A Corpus-Based Analysis on Distribution of Parts of Speech in Singapore Primary School Chinese Textbook. In Hong, L.J. (Ed.), Chinese Teaching in Different Linguistic, Cultural and Policy Contexts (pp. 250-271). Shanghai: Xuelin Press.

基于汉语教材语料库的词类分布考察
Luo QingmingBook Chapters
 In recent years, Chinese teaching circles have made progress in the study of the frequency effect of textbooks. More and more research support the efficiency of vocabulary acquisition, which is related to the frequency of teaching vocabulary. High-frequency words are more easily acquired than low-frequency words. Through the quantitative analysis of the teaching materials, scholars also found that the existing Chinese textbooks generally face the problem of having too high frequency words and too low proportion of low-frequency words. However, most of the existing studies are based on the statistical description of the vocabulary of teaching materials, but they are seldom involved in the distribution and frequency of words in different parts of speech. This article takes this as the breakthrough point, with the aid of the Singapore elementary school Chinese teaching material corpus, discusses the present primary school Chinese teaching material's word class distribution. The main body of the thesis is divided into two parts. The research method used by the corpus linguistics, the proportion of all kinds of content words and function words, word frequency statistics textbooks, and their characteristics. Secondly, analysis of the number and distribution of conversion words.
 学者们发现现有汉语教材普遍高频词过于集中和低频词比重过大。本文借助新加坡小学华文教材语料库,探讨小学华文教材词类分布情况。论文分两个部分。首先运用语料库语言学研究方法,统计教材中各类实词和虚词比重及词频特征。其次,分析兼类词数量和分布情况。
2014The impact of word frequency on second language acquisition: A study based on textbook corpus
Luo, Q.M. (2014). The impact of word frequency on second language acquisition: A study based on textbook corpus. In Chen, F., Jiang, X., Jiang, L.P., Lu, J.M., Shi,F., Sun, D.J., Wang, J.Q., Zhang, B.,Zhang, J.S., Zhang, X.P., Zheng, Y.Q., Zhou, J.S. (Ed.), Research on Chinese Applied Linguistics(3) (pp. 98-110). Beijing: The Commercial Press.

基于教材语料库的词汇重现对二语习得的影响
Luo QingmingBook Chapters
 This study uses 2x3 mixed experimental design, to explore the different teaching level repetition rate of two different teaching methods to reproduce (reproduction and processing of traditional vocabulary teaching materials based on corpus) influence on learners of Chinese vocabulary acquisition. The results show that the frequency effect of the repetition rate of textbooks is significant, and the teaching effect of high-frequency words are better than that of low-frequency words, no matter what teaching strategies are adopted. In the area of teaching methods, the acquisition effect of lexical repetition based on teaching material corpus is better than that of traditional random vocabulary teaching, but the acquisition advantage is not the same at different teaching material reproduction rates. At a low recurrence rate (1 repetition), the difference between the two is not obvious, but the repetition rate is better than the traditional vocabulary teaching method at the medium and high repetition rate (3-5 repetition). The experimental results support the standard threshold hypothesis and the dual process recognition theory.
 本研究采用2x3混合实验设计,探讨两种不同教材教学重现率(基于教材语料库的重现与传统词汇教学处理)对学习者词汇习得的影响。结果显示,教材重现率的词频效应显著,无论何种教学策略,高频词的词汇习得效果均优于低频词。
2014On the Construction Ba NP YI V
Chinese Language Learning, NO.3, 46-54.

"把NP一V”的句法、语义和语用功能
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 This paper discusses the features of the construction of “Ba NP一V ”. Those features are manifested in three aspects: the subjective minute quantity comes from “一”; the demand of one—syllable action verb and the dependence of “Ba NP一V ” clause. In comparison with “一 VP” Construction, “Ba NP一V ” emphasizes “Subjective Disposal", while in comparison with the ordinary Ba-Construction,it emphasizes the result and status caused by the momentary verb “V”, which expressed in two fields of vision. It makes the effect of flashing lamp to strengthen the description of a situation.
 本文对现代汉语“把NP一V”的句法特点、语法意义和语用功能作了分析和解释。“把NP一V”具有强烈的单音节动作动词要求和后续小句强制要求,与一般“把”字句的动补糅合表达不同,“把NP一V”采取分视域表达;而与其它形式的“一V”句相比,该句式则突出了“主观处置意义”,突显施动者对某事物的某一处置动作,从而强调其与后续动作/行为结果/状态之间的紧密衔接关系。这种主观化的分视域表达能够强化情景特征,具有特别的生动意义。
2013On the Grammatical Meaning of the Modal Adverb “Bin” and Its Teaching Practice in TCSL
RESEARCH ON CHINESE APPLIED LINGUISTICS (pp. 177-187). BEIJING, China: The Commercial Press.

也说语气副词“并”的语法意义及其教学
Xu FengConference Presentations (with publication)
 The multiple functional attributes of modal adverb “bin” make different understanding. By comparing the different function, it shows that they all come from the semantic function of declaration.it means a negation to previous inference. There is no specific word in English to express this kind of pragmatic negation. The explanations and examples in some dictionaries are not complete. The conjunction between the context and the language background should be pay more attention. It is the core meaning of “bin” that is the key point to understand and grasp the usage of the modal adverb.
 语气副词“并”的多重功能属性造成了对其语法意义的不同认识和理解。通过比较“并”的不同功能,可以看出这些不同功能源出于“并”的“申明”语义功能,即申明对前文所形成或存在的某种推断的否定。汉英两种语言对译调查表明,这种语用推理否定在英语中并无汉语中类似的专用功能词语。目前一些辞书的解释说明及出例都存有不同程度的问题。此类虚词教学更应注重上下文及语言背景知识的衔接和推断,把握核心意义是准确理解和掌握词语用法的关键。
2013A Rethink of the trans-classed words in Chinese—Based on A Quantitative survey of Vocabulary Outline for HSK
Journal of international Chinese studies, No.2, 27-48.

处理汉语兼类词的再思考——基于《汉语水平词汇和文字等级大纲》兼类词的统计与分析
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 This paper compares the statistics analysis results of multi-category words in Modern Chinese Dictionary and the Syllabus of Graded Word and Characters for Chinese Proficiencies. It demonstrates that he limited quantity of Chinese multi-category words does not led to serious problem, the way to mark Noun & Verb multi-category words as one category words will encounter difficulties in explanation of usage of multi-category words. The strict stand for multi-category words nowadays is worth discussing.
 本文对《汉语水平词汇与文字等级大纲》中的兼类词作了较为详尽的统计分析并与《现代汉语词典》(2005版)进行了对比。统计分析表明,即便采取较为宽松的标准,汉语兼类词的数量也有限,不会造成所谓兼类过多的情况。兼类词处理上的不同是“小范围内的大麻烦”,而麻烦的部分原因恰恰与以往担心兼类过多而将自指类动名兼类词单类化的做法有关。辞书与教材标注词性的主要目的是概括反映词语的句法属性,帮助学习者掌握词语的用法。兼类词标注的单类化会在词语用法的解释和处理上遇到一定的困难,从语言教学角度看,《大纲》和《现汉》采取兼类词从严标准的处理办法值得商榷。
2013Some Deficiencies of Modern Chinese Learners Dictionary in Its Idiom Entries
Lexicographical Studies, No.3, 51-59.

《现代汉语学习词典》成语条目中的几个问题
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 This paper analyses the idiom entries in Modern Chinese Learners Dictionary, arguing that relevant entries still have some deficiencies in terms of entry selection, definition, example and usage. The dictionary should design its idiom entries by paying more attention to the needs of modern Chinese learners. Moreover, the development of a learners’ dictionary high in quality relies on the detailed consideration of its components, the careful selection of its entries and the meticulous compilation of its content on the basis of existing dictionaries.
 本文对《现代汉语学习词典》所收部分成语词条作了分析和讨论,认为这些成语在出条形式、意义解释、配例和用法说明等几个方面都还存在着一些不足。学习词典在处理成语词条时应更多地从现代汉语学习者学习的角度考虑,只有在借鉴前人的基础上细加推敲,才能真正突出学习特点,成为不同类型汉语学习词典中的楷模。
2012On Chinese Communicative Grammar
Nantah Journal in Chinese Language and Culture, Vol 7.2, 39-79.

汉语交际语法论析
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 The Chinese Grammar system for teaching Chinese as a foreign language nowadays are analytic, its characteristic is unidirectivity. When the learners of second language study grammar, they often face both analytical problems and the problems of expression. The learners also need to organize information reasonably and effectively. Therefore, the way from ideation to structure is indispensable. Chinese communication grammar meets the need to expression, it also can take the advantage of learner’s first language knowledge and competence. This kind of grammar based on language function and the analytic teaching grammar complement each other.
 现有的对外汉语教学语法体系主要采取分析路线,属于单向性解码语法。第二语言学习者学习语法既有分析的问题也有表达的问题,从语言编码的角度看,第二语言学习者还需要如何把所要表达的信息合理而有效地组织起来,因此,采取由意念到语法结构的路向也是一种不可或缺的有效做法。汉语交际语法按照从内容到形式编织和组织,既符合学习者语言表达生成的要求,也能够较好地利用学习者已经有的第一语言知识和能力。这种基于功能导向的交际语法与现有分析型教学语法并行不悖,相辅相成。
2011On the Cognitive construction of Chinese Polysemous Functional words in TCSL
Overseas Chinese Education, No.2, 37-47.

汉语作为第二语言的多义虚词认知建构
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 A contradiction between the single dimensional direction of teaching polysemous functional words and the multi-dimensional semantical network of these words is difficult to avoid. The polysemy of word is the embodiment of the extension of the core porotype meaning. The key point to setting of semantic entries of a word depends on the cognitive basic-level category. The situation cognition of polysemous functional words is just first step, the consolidation and deepening of meaning depends on the core semantic item which run through the whole cognitive process. The language background and learners type are two factors in determination of core semantic item, the item may be flexible based on different cognitive mechanisms.
 多义虚词教学的单向度线性过程(分义项按顺序)与词义建构结果的立体语义网络之间存在着难以回避的矛盾。词语的多义性是词语相关意义构成的以原型为核心的概念范畴,其义项的设立关键在于基本层次范畴的概念转域。情境认知只是多义虚词建构过程中的第一步,其语义深化和巩固则有赖于一个能贯穿于所有意义并用以强化学习者词义心理节点连接强度的核心义,而这个核心义的确定需要考虑学习者的背景和类型,具有动态性和灵活性。此外,多义虚词的认知建构也应考虑并充分利用第一语言的相关认知机制。
YearTitle
AuthorType
2019Sebutan Johor-Riau and Sebutan Baku in the context of the Singaporean Malay Identity

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2019). Sebutan Johor-Riau dan Sebutan Baku dalam Konteks Identiti Masyarakat Melayu Singapura. Issues in Language Studies, 8(2), 61-78.

Sebutan Johor-Riau dan Sebutan Baku dalam Konteks Identiti Masyarakat Melayu Singapura
Mukhlis Abu BakarJournal-Refereed
 The establishment of Radio Malaya in 1946 in Singapore was an important milestone in the development of Sebutan Johor-Riau (SJR) as the standard pronunciation in Malay in Malaysia and Singapore. However, in 1993, in line with efforts to standardise Malay pronunciation in the archipelago, the Singapore government introduced Sebutan Baku (SB) as the standard pronunciation, replacing SJR, for use in schools, broadcasting stations and during official ceremonies. Unlike Malaysia, which returned to SJR in 2000, Singapore retained SB. This paper reviews the literature on standard pronunciation in Malay in the context of the socio-history of the Malays in Singapore and Malaysia and re-evaluates SB as a standard pronunciation. The following points emerged: 1) SJR (or /ə/ variety) and /a/ variety are two models of standard pronunciation in Malay that evolved naturally (SJR in the south, and the /a/ variety in the north, of the Malay Peninsula); 2) significant events that occurred within SJR’s distributed network made it a standard pronunciation that is more influential than the /a/ variety; 3) the Singapore Malay language identity is closely related to SJR; 4) SB is a created model of pronunciation based on the principle 'words are pronounced as they are spelled' and cannot be applied to Malay for as long as words are not spelled as they are pronunced; 5) SB as spoken in Singapore emerges as a hybrid – a mix of SB and SJR. This paper also discusses the implications from the continuation of the SB policy in Singapore.
 Penubuhan Radio Malaya pada tahun 1946 di Singapura merupakan titik penting dalam perkembangan Sebutan Johor-Riau (SJR) sebagai sebutan standard bahasa Melayu di Malaysia dan Singapura. Bagaimanapun, pada tahun 1993, selaras dengan usaha pembakuan sebutan bahasa Melayu di Nusantara, pemerintah Singapura mengisytiharkan Sebutan Baku (SB) sebagai sebutan standard, menggantikan SJR, untuk digunakan di sekolah-sekolah, stesen-stesen penyiaran dan di upacara rasmi. Tidak seperti Malaysia yang kembali kepada SJR pada tahun 2000, Singapura mengekalkan SB. Makalah ini menyorot evolusi sebutan standard bahasa Melayu dalam konteks sosio-sejarah orang Melayu Singapura dan Malaysia dan turut menilai semula kebakuan SB. Lima gagasan penting telah dikenal pasti: 1) SJR (atau kelainan /ə/) dan kelainan /a/ merupakan dua model sebutan standard bahasa Melayu yang tumbuh secara tabii (SJR di selatan Semenanjung dan kelainan /a/ di utara); 2) Peristiwa-peristiwa penting yang berlaku secara kebetulan dalam jaringan ketersebaran SJR menjadikannya sebutan standard yang lebih berpengaruh daripada kelainan /a/; 3) Identiti bahasa orang Melayu Singapura terkait rapat dengan SJR; 4) SB pula adalah model sebutan yang dibuat-buat berpandukan prinsip ‘sebut sebagaimana dieja’ dan tidak dapat dipakai untuk bahasa Melayu selagi ejaan tidak menepati sebutan; 5) SB yang dituturkan di Singapura muncul sebagai sebutan hibrid – campuran SB dan SJR. Makalah ini turut membincangkan implikasi daripada penerusan dasar SB di Singapura.
2017Harmonising Literature and Language. NIE NEWS.No.99, 22.

Pengharmonian Sastera dan Bahasa, Berita NIE
Hadijah RahmatProfessional Publications
 A/P Hadijah was invited to give a talk on " Building Intercultural Understanding and Appreciation Through Literary Dialogues: Chinese in the Malay Classical Literature" organized by Tropical Literature & Art Clubs on 23 Oct 2016. She discussed the role and significance of literature in building inter-cultural understanding, the significant of developments of Malay literature and contribution of classical authors such as Tun Sri Lanang who promoted the cultural and political understanding between two ethnicity and country.
 Profesor Madya Hadijah Rahmat, timbalan ketua ALC, menyampaikan ceramah tentang “Membina Pemahaman dan Apresiasi Silang Budaya Melalui Dialog Sastera: Pemaparan Cina dalam Sastera Klasik Melayu” pada 23 Oktober 2016. Acara tersebut adalah anjuran Kelab Sastera dan Seni Tropikal Singapura, Beliau membincangkan peranan penting sastera untuk membina pemahaman dan keharmonian kaum dan silang budaya di Singapura, dan tahap perkembangan penting sastera Melayu dan sumbangan penulis seperti Tun Sri Lanang yang telah menyumbang untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan pemahaman budaya dan politik antara dua kaum dan negara ini.
2016Malay Language in the Malay Archipelago: Between Status and Reality

Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah (2016). In Nor Hashimah Jalaludin (Ed.) Pengajian Alam Melayu (pp. 3-21). Selangor, Malaysia: Department of South East Asia, SOAS University of London & Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Bahasa Melayu Di Nusantara: Antara Status Dan Realiti.
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Conference Presentations (with publication)
 Malay Language has been elevated to the status of the national language and official language in the countries in the Malay archipelago. In the course of a sophisticated and rapidly changing way of life, language use, in the real sense, is increasingly challenged. The English language has increasingly taken over the communication role within the community of language users, especially the younger generation. This study has looked at the realities of language use in the context of three countries namely Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.
 Bahasa Melayu telah di angkat statusnya sebagai bahasa kebangsaan dan bahasa rasmi di negara-negara di Nusantara. Dalam menjalani kehidupan yang serba canggih dan arus perubahan yang deras berlaku telah menyebabkan penggunaannya dalam erti kata yang sebenar semakin tercabar. Bahasa Inggeris sebaliknya yang semakin mengambil alih dalam komunikasi masyarakat penggunanya, khususnya kelompok generasi yang lebih muda. Kajian ini telah meninjau kedudukan kepengunaan bahasa yang sebenar dalam konteks tiga negara iaitu Singapura, Malaysia dan Indonesia.
2016Gender bias in Malay Language.

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2016). International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Special Issue(6), 456-461

Ketidakseimbangan Gender dalam Bahasa Melayu
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Journal-Refereed
 This article discusses the sexist elements in the Malay language. Some examples from the list of proverbs that showcase the Malay heritage were deconstructed in terms of word use/selection as well as the implicit and explicit meaning, and they pointed towards a gender bias. The findings proved that most forms of Malay proverbs displayed a sexist attitude towards women.
 Kajian ini menelusuri elemen-elemen sesksis yang wujud dalam bahasa Melayu. Beberapa contoh dari senarai peribahasa yang merupakan warisan khazanah Melayu telah dikupas pemilihan bentuk katanya serta juga makna implisit dan eksplisit yang menyerlahkan sikap berat sebelah terhadap sesuatu gender. Hasil kajian membuktikan kebanyakan peribahasa yang mempunyai unsur seksis dalam bahasa Melayu ini memaparkan bentuk yang bias terhadap wanita.
2016Declining Influence of Malay Language in Singapore: Its Impact on the Development of Language and Nation

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2015). Jurnal bahasa Jendela Alam, 35(9), 39 - 65

Hakisan Pengaruh Bahasa Melayu di Singapura: Impaknya Kepada Perkembangan Bahasa dan Bangsa
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Journal-Refereed
 Many challenges are faced in the preservation of the Malay language in Singapore. Although its status has been elevated as the national language and it is one of the official languages, in reality, its usage is very limited and the language ability of its native speakers is also declining. Supported with reasons, this phenomenon is highlighted as well as its impact on the future of the Malay language in Singapore.
 Bahasa melayu di Singapura menhgadapi pelbagai cabaran bagi pelestariannya. Walaupun statusnya telah diangkat sebagai bahasa kebangsaan dan salah satu daripada bahasa rasmi, namun dari segi realitinya, penggunaannya amat terbatas dan keupayaan bahasa dalam kalangan penutur natifnya juga kian merosot. Perkara ini disorot dengan meninjau sebab musabab serta impaknya terhadap masa depan bahasa Melayu di Singapura.
2015Malay, English and Religion: Language maintenance in multilingual Singapore

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2015). Malay, English and Religion: Language maintenance in multilingual Singapore. Issues in Language Studies, 4(1), 1-18.

Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Inggeris dan Agama: Pengekalan Bahasa di Singapura yang Berbilang Bahasa
Mukhlis Abu BakarJournal-Refereed
 The ideologies underlying Singapore’s language-in-education policy drive home the message that students should feel some form of emotional connection to their mother tongue. At the same time, English is privileged leading many to index it with education, upward mobility, modernity and prestige. Singaporean parents are cognisant of these ideologies and play an important role in mediating their children’s affiliation to the respective languages and influencing their language use patterns. This study seeks to obtain a sense of how parents of 8-year old children struggle with competing ideologies when enrolling their children in one of two Islamic religious education programmes: English-medium Kids aL.I.V.E. and Malay-medium mosque madrasah. Parents of 35 children from the two programmes reported on their use of Malay and English, and their children’s proficiency in, and use of, the two languages. Their reports suggest that the children were equally proficient in both languages but English was their dominant language. Parents were highly supportive of the language medium of the respective programmes, but irrespective of which language they supported, many were strongly affiliated to Malay citing reasons that mirror the state ideology that calls on its citizens to stay rooted in their ethnic heritage through their mother tongue.
 Ideologi yang mendasari dasar bahasa dalam pendidikan Singapura mengandungi anjuran bahawa pelajar harus merasakan perkaitan emosi dengan bahasa ibunda mereka. Pada masa yang sama, bahasa Inggeris mendapat layanan istimewa yang mendorong ramai untuk mengaitkannya dengan pendidikan, mobiliti peningkatan, kemodenan dan prestij. Para ibu bapa Singapura menyedari ideologi-ideologi ini dan memainkan peranan penting dalam membantu anak-anak mereka menjalin hubungan dengan bahasa-bahasa yang mereka tuturkan dan mempengaruhi corak penggunaan bahasa mereka. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran bagaimana ibu bapa kanak-kanak berumur 8 tahun bergelut dengan ideologi-ideologi yang saling bersaing apabila mendaftarkan anak-anak mereka dalam salah satu daripada dua program pendidikan agama Islam: Kids aL.I.V.E. dalam bahasa Inggeris dan madrasah masjid dalam bahasa Melayu. Ibu bapa 35 kanak-kanak dari kedua-dua program melaporkan penggunaan bahasa Melayu dan Inggeris oleh anak-anak mereka, dan penguasaan mereka dalam kedua-dua bahasa. Laporan mereka menunjukkan bahawa kanak-kanak sama mahir dalam kededua bahasa tetapi bahasa Inggeris adalah bahasa dominan mereka. Ibu bapa sangat menyokong bahasa yang digunakan dalam program masing-masing, tetapi apapun bahasa yang mereka sokong, ramai mempunyai afiliasi yang kuat dengan bahasa Melayu, dengan memetik sebab-sebab yang mencerminkan ideologi negara yang menyeru rakyatnya supaya terus terikat dengan warisan etnik mereka melalui bahasa ibunda mereka.
2015Language Absorption in Cultural Encounters: Usage of Malay Words in Other Languages in Singapore

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2015). Penyerapan bahasa Dalam Pertembungan Budaya: Penggunaan kata-kata Melayu dalam Pertuturan Bahasa Asing di Singapura. Pendeta, 6, 28- 45

Penyerapan bahasa Dalam Pertembungan Budaya: Penggunaan kata-kata Melayu dalam Pertuturan Bahasa Asing di Singapura
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Book Chapters
 Cultural absorption in plural societies happens often and one cultural aspect that is frequently borrowed is the aspect of language. This kind of borrowing often happens when a particular concept does not exist within the community that borrows. When the community is unable to identify or refer to a new idea or concept in the context of a plural society, the language borrowing process takes place. Multilingual and multi-cultural communities living side-by-side in Singapore for decades has resulted in the creation of a new form in their respective languages whereby native users of these languages may not be able to understand it if they were not residing in Singapore. Based on surveys conducted with the Chinese and Indian societies in Singapore, Malay words used by them when speaking in English or in their native language were listed out. In addition, the Malay words used by them are clarified in terms of semantics, based on their perception and understanding. The findings proved that a large number of words from the Malay language were used in the context of language conversations in other languages among the Chinese and Indian communities in Singapore.
 Penyerapan budaya dalam kalangan masyarakat yang bertembung sering terjadi dan salah satu daripada sumber yang kerap menjadi bahan yang dipinjam adalah aspek kebahasaan. Peminjaman sebegini sering berlaku bahanakan ketiadaan benda atau konsep yang dirujuk itu dalam masyarakat yang meminjam. Dengan ketiadaan kosa kata bagi merujuk benda atau konsep yang baru diketemui dalam masyarakat yang ditembungi itu, maka berlakulah proses meminjam bagi aspek kebahasaan ini. Masyarakat multi bahasa dan multi budaya yang hidup berjiran di Singapura selama beberapa dekad telah menghasilkan satu bentuk baru dalam bahasa masing-masing yang mana pengguna asli bahasa-bahasa tersebut mungkin tidak dapat memahaminya jika tidak menginap di Singapura. Hasil daripada tinjauan yang dijalankan terhadap masyarakat Cina dan India di Singapura, kata-kata bahasa Melayu yang mereka gunakan sewaktu berbicara dalam bahasa Inggeris atau bahasa ibunda mereka telah disenaraikan. Di samping itu, kata-kata bahasa Melayu yang mereka gunakan itu dijelaskan juga aspek semantiknya berdasarkan persepsi dan pemahaman mereka. Hasil kajian ini membuktikan sejumlah besar kata-kata dari bahasa Melayu telah digunakan dalam konteks perbualan bahasa asing di kalangan masyarakat Cina dan India di Singapura.
2015Bawean Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Language Shift and Language Maintenance.

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2015). Bawean Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Language Shift and Language Maintenance.
In Rohayah Mohd Lani & Sundusia Rosdi (Eds.), Masyarakat Bawean Singapura La-Ao-Be (pp. 41-58). Singapore: Persatuan Bawean Singapura.

Bahasa Bawean Di Singapura: Satu Kajian Pengalihan dan Pengekalan
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Book Chapters
 The members of the Malay community in Singapore come from varied backgrounds and originate from the different areas within the region, including the Bawean Island. This study reveals the extent to which the Bawean language persists in the Singapore context. This study also utilizes the Social Network theory that reviews the language chosen by respondents while communicating with people from various backgrounds. Data collection from a segment of the Bawean population across three generations has yielded solid proof that Bawean language in the Singapore context can be classified as an ‘endangered language’. The segment of the third-generation was not able to converse in Bawean. However, the Bawean community is an active group that carries out various activities, striving towards preserving the Bawean language in Singapore.
 Masyarakat Melayu di Singapura rata-rata mempunyai latar belakang yang rencam dan berasal usul dari pelabagai daerah di rantau ini, termasuklah Pulau Bawean. Kajian ini menyingkap sejauh mana bahasa Bawean masih mampubertahan dalam konteks Singapura. Kajian ini juga telah memnafaatkan teori rangkaian sosial (Social network theory) yang meninjau penggunaan bahasa yang dipilih oleh para responden sewaktu berkomunikasi dengan interlocutor dari pelbagai latar. Hasil pengumpulan data dari kelompok masyarakat bawean dalam 3 generasi yang berbeza, bukti kukuh diperolehi di mana bahasa bawean dalam konteks Singapura dapat dikelompokkan sebagai ‘endangered language’. Kelompok generasi ketiga secara keseluruhantidak mampu menggunakan bahasa bawean. Walaubagaimanapun, masyarakat Bawean merupakan golongan yang aktif menjalankan pelbagai aktiviti dan berusaha mengekalkan bahasa Bawean di Singapura.
2015Language Absorption in Cultural Encounters

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2015). Language Absorption in Cultural Encounters.
In Abdul Hamid Mahmood (Ed.), Memartabatkan Bahasa Melayu. Aspek Kebahasaan (Conference held in Frankfurt, Germany) (pp. 331- 353). Perak, Malaysia: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Penyerapan Bahasa dalam Pertembungan Budaya
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Book Chapters
 The community of native Malay language users are always working on how the language is able to fulfil all communication needs for various backgrounds and settings. Hence, the Malay language used in this modern era has changed greatly in the development of its society which is largely embedded in the flow of knowledge. In order to meet the needs of communication in various fields, the Malay language has absorbed a lot of foreign words through the borrowing process from foreign languages.
 Masyarakat natif pengguna bahasa Melayu sentiasa mencari usaha agar bahasa yang digunakan itu mampu memenuhi setiap keperluan kominikasi bagi pelbagai latar dan laras. Maka itu, bahasa Melayu yang digunakan dalam era moden ini telah banyak berubah bahanakan perkembangan masyarakatnya yang sama-sama mendayungi arus perkembangan ilmu. Bagi memenuhi keperluan kominikasi dalam pelbagai bidang, bahasa Melayu telah menyerap banyak sekali kata-kata asing melalui proses peminjaman dari bahasa-bahasa asing.
2014Adventurous Spark - Crossing the continent of life and digging the valley of Humanity through an Antology of Poems by Yatiman Yusof (1970-2013)

Hadijah Rahmat (2014). Adventurous Spark - Crossing the continent of life and digging the valley of Humanity through an Antology of Poems by Yatiman Yusof (1970-2013). Yusof (pp. xxvi-Iiv). Singapore: Pustaka Melayu Publishing.

Percikan Kembara – Merentas Benua Kehidupan dan Mencangkul Lembah Kemanusiaan Melalui Antologi Puisi Yatiman Yusof (1970-2013)
Hadijah RahmatUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The article is an introduction to the anthology of poems written by Mr Yatiman Yusof, veterant community leader in Singapore. A/P Hadijah has made an analysis of Yatiman's poems and find his unique style of expression and thinking. His poems are compact, firm and energetic which reflect his strong love for community, country and humanity and his search for truth.
 Esei ini adalah Pengenalan untuk antologi puisi tulisan Encik Yatiman Yusof, seorang tokoh pemimpin masyarakat di Singapura. A/P Hadijah telah membuat analisa terhadap puisi-puisi ini dan menemui keunikan gaya pengucapan dan pemikiran penyair. Puisi-puisi Yatiman adalah padat, tegas dan bertenaga, yang mencerminkan rasa cinta pada masyarakat, negara dan kemanusiaan dan penggalian kebenaran.
2012Variety of Malay Words and Terminologies in the Malay Archipelago.

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2012). Variety of Malay Words and Terminologies in the Malay Archipelago.
In Mahzan Arshad, Idris Mohd Radzi & Naffi Mat (Eds.), Malay Language Studies - Development & Challenges (pp. 131-152). Perak, Malaysia: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Kepelbagaian Kata-kata dan Istilah Bahasa Melayu di Nusantara
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Book Chapters
 The formulation of terms and the creation of words for any concept or thing and event in the Malay language is based on the efforts of organisations given autonomy by the government in countries that promote the Malay language as the national language and official language. The term created is required to support one concept only and one concept must also have only one term to refer it. The accuracy of terms, as such, facilitates knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. For general words, the control in terms of word creation and the mastery of word meaning is more difficult to implement because of differences in the experiences and way of life of the language users in the different areas. The issue of diversity of words and terms is examined in this study.
 Penggubalan istilah serta penciptaan kata-kata bagi satu-satu konsep atau benda dan peristiwa dalam bahasa Melayu didasarkan kepada usaha badan-badan yang diberi kuasa autonomi oleh pemerintah dalam negara-negara yang memartabatkan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan dan bahasa rasmi. Istilah yang dicipta wajiblah mendukung satu konsep sahaja dan satu konsep itu juga wajib mempunyai satu istilah sahaja bagi merujuknya. Ketepatan istilah sebegini memudahkan perkongsian ilmu dan penyebaran maklumat. Bagi kata-kata umum pula, pengawalan dari aspek penciptaan kata serta penempelan makna kata lebih sukar dilakukan kerana perbezaan pengalaman dan cara hidup masyarakat pengguna bahasa di lain-lain kawasan. Isu kepelbagaian kata dan istilah inilah yang dikupas dalam kajian ini.
2012Diversifying the Unified, Unifying the Diverse: A Case of Regional Malay Language

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2012). Diversifying the Unified, Unifying the Diverse: A Case of Regional Malay Language.
In Abdul Hamid Mahmood, Siti Saniah Abu bakar & Sanat Md. Nasir (Eds.), Memartabatkan Bahasa Melayu (Elevating the Status of Malay Language) (pp. 195 - 206). Perak: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Merencamkan Yang Satu, Menyatukan yang Rencam: Kes Bahasa Melayu Serantau
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Book Chapters
 The papers that have been compiled into this book chapter discuss the various terms and words within the Malay language on a regional level. Regional use of BM is becoming increasingly divergent whereby each area that is delineated based on political boundaries has its own words or terms. The efforts to standardise regional language have met many obstacles and challenges. The vocabulary/terminology which has been shaped by regional differences have been listed out and matched with existing alternatives based on components that bear similar meanings. Such deviations can widen the Malay language gap at a regional level and if there are no concerted efforts at standardization, BM speakers in different countries in the region will face problems in communication because there is no element of mutual understanding for this one language.
 Kertas kerja yang telah dijadikan bab dalam buku ini membicarakan kepelbagaian istilah dan kata dalam bahasa Melayu di peringkat serantau. Penggunaan BM di peringkat serantau semakin menyimpang di mana masing-masing kawasan yang digarisi sempadan politik khususnya mempunyai penggubalan kata atau istilah yang tersendiri. Usaha menyeragamkan di peringkat serantau juga banyak mengalami hambatan dan cabaran. Senarai kata/istilah yang mempunyai kerencaman bentuk di rantau ini telah disenaraikan serta dipadankan dengan alternatif-alternatif yang wujud dengan berdasarkan komponen makna yang didukung. Penyimpangan sedemikian boleh melebarkan lagi jurang perbezaan bahasa Melayu di peringkat serantau dan jika tiada usaha penyeragaman yang bersungguh-sungguh, maka, penutur-penutur BM di negara-negara yang berbeza di rantau ini akan menghadapi masalah dalam komunikasi kerana ketiadaan unsur saling faham memahami bagi bahasa yang satu.
2012Features of Malay Language in Singapore.

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2012). Singapore International Journal of language and Literature, 1(1), 145-158.

Fitur-fitur Bahasa Melayu di Singapura
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Journal-Refereed
 The widespread use of Malay language throughout the archipelago has given rise to diversity in the structure of the language itself. The unique environment of each area, in particular, countries that elevate its dignity as a national language and official language have widened its gap in various aspects such as its phonological, morphological and syntactic aspects and its semantic diversity. This divergence with its increased prominence has created specific features for Malay in the countries of the archipelago. The distinctive features of the Malay language that have emerged in Singapore are derived from various aspects of linguistics and are presented in this study.
 Penggunaan bahasa Melayu dalam kawasan yang luas di seluruh Nusantara telah menimbulkan kepelbagaian dalam bentuk bahasa itu sendiri. Persekitaran yang unik bagi setiap kawasan, khususnya negara yang mengangkat martabatnya sebagai bahasa kebangsaan serta bahasa rasmi telah melebarkan jurang perbezaannya dari pelbagai sudut; seperti aspek fonologinya, aspek morfologinya, aspek sintaksisnya dan juga kepelbagaian semantiknya. Jurang perbezaan yang semakin prominen ini telah menimbulkan fitur-fitur khusus bagi bahasa Melayu di negara-negara di Nusantara. Fitur-fitur distingtif bahasa Melayu yang wujud di Singapura telah dicungkil dari pelabagai aspek linguistik dan dipaparkan dalam kajian ini.
2011The Noble Portrait of Humanity in Educational World-- A Festschrift in Honour of Dr Abbas Mohd

Hadijah Rahmat, Mana Sikana and Kartini Anwar (Eds.). (2011). The Noble Portrait of Humanity in Educational World-- A Festschrift in Honour of Dr Abbas Mohd Shariff. Singapore: ALC, NIE.

Citra Murni Insan dalam Dunia Pendidikan
Hadijah RahmatUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book is festschrift by the ALC in honour of one of the academic staff who had served with dedication. It is also a collective appreciation by various Malay-Muslim organization and educational institutions in Singapore to Dr Haji Abbas bin Mohd Shariff for his services and contribution to his beloved community and country. The ideal image of Dr Haji Abbas as ‘Tokoh Arif Budiman’ or the Icon of a learned person who contributes to society” in the field of education would be remembered in the history of ALC and the Malay-Muslim community and continues be the inspiration for current and future generations.
 Buku ini merupakan sebuah penghormatan dari NIE untuk seorang tokoh akademik yang telah berkhidmat dengan penuh dedikasi. Ia juga penghargaan kolektif dari berbagai pertubuhan Melayu-Islam dan institusi di Singapura kepada Dr Haji Abbas bin Mohd Shariff atas sumbangan beliau kepada masyarakat dan negara. Dr Abbas adalah lambang tokoh Arif Budiman dalam bidang pendidikan. Semoga jasanya akan dikenang oleh masyarakat kini dan akan datang.
2011Vitality of Malay Language in Singapore: A Historical perspective

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2015). Vitality of Malay Language in Singapore: A Historical perspective.In Hadijah Rahmat, Azhar Ibrahim Alwee & Jupri Supa'at (Eds.), Yang Terukir Bahasa dan persuratan Melayu (pp. 42-48). Singapore: MBMS. Unipress Printing Co.

Daya Hidup Bahasa Melayu di Singapura: Satu penulusuran sejarah.
Roksana Bibi Binte Abdullah Book Chapters
 This chapter traces the brief history of the usage and glory of the Malay language in Singapore and its development across several decades until its use in the modern context. The tracing of this lengthy development is conducted by referring to valid references. This aids the reader in exploring further the development of the language in the Singapore context. In the modern context, the status of ML that is declining is analysed by the author by providing the rationale for the causes, its consequences, and implications for the future of ML in Singapore. Application of Matrix Language Framework Theory and Social Network Theory shows a trend among Malay language users in Singapore to switch to the English language.
 Bab ini menelusuri sejarah ringkas penggunaan dan keagungan bahasa Melayu di Singapura dan perkembangannya merentas beberapa dekad sehingga BM dalam konteks moden. Penelusuran perkembangan yang agak panjang ini dilakukan dengan teliti melalui rujukan-rujukan yang diperakui. Ini membantu pembaca bagi meninjau lebih lanjut tentang perkembangan bahasa dalam konteks Singapura. Dalam konteks moden, kedudukan BM yang semakin merundum telah dianalisis oleh penulis dengan memberikan rasional-rasional yang bernas akan sebab musabab serta akibat dan implikasinya terhadap masa depan BM di Singapura. Pengaplikasian teori Rangka bahasa matriks dan Teori Rangkaian sosial jelas memperlihatkan pengguna bahasa Melayu dalam kalangan masyarakat Melayu di Singapura semakin beralih ke bahasa Inggeris.
2010Diverse Languages, One Identity: A Guide to Conversation in the Chinese, Malay and Tamil Languages. Diverse languages, one identity : a guide to conversation in the Chinese, Malay and Tamil languages. Singapore: National Institute of Education (Singapore)

Hadijah Rahmat. Seetha Lakshmi (Project Manager), Lim Seok Lai, Rakkappan Velmurugan (Language Advisors), Goh Yeng Seng (Academic Advisor.1) Hadijah Rahmat, Sivakumaran A Ra (Academic Advisors.2&3) Mohamad Aidil (Languge Advisor).

Pelbagai Bahasa, Satu Identiti: Panduan untuk Perbualan dalam bahasa Cina, Melayu dan Tamil. Institut Pendidikan Nasional (Singapura)
Hadijah Rahmat Book Chapters
 Diverse Languages, One Identity is a joint initiative between the National Institute of Education and National Library Board to help foster cohesiveness in Singapore’s multiracial community. This booklet aims to create an awareness of the spoken mother tongue among students and teachers and serves as a good platform to build understanding and respect among the various races in Singapore. This joint project based booklet has a collection of eight scenarios of a university student’s life at university (for eg. Ordering food at the canteen, going to the library, meeting the lecturer, etc.). All scenarios have been translated, transliterated in four languages in print and recorded in voice form. A team of advisors and editors worked together with the NIE Trainee teachers and technological officers.
 Pelbagai Bahasa, Satu Identiti ialah inisiatif bersama antara Institut Pendidikan Nasional (NIE) dan Lembaga Perpustakaan Negara (NLB) untuk membina perpaduan dalam masyarakat berbilang kaum di Singapura. Buku kecil ini bertujuan memupuk kesedaran terhadap bahasa pertuturan ibunda dalam kalangan pelajar dan guru serta menyediakan ruang untuk membina persefahaman dan sikap hormat-menghormati dalam masyarakat berbilang bangsa di Singapura. Buku kecil, yang dihasilkan melalui projek bersama ini, mengandungi koleksi lapan senario dalam kehidupan pelajar di universiti (contohnya, membeli makanan di kantin, melawati perpustakaan, mesyuarat dengan pensyarah, dan lain-lain lagi). Kesemua senario ini telah diterjemahkan dan ditransliterasi ke dalam empat bahasa dalam bentuk cetak dan juga rakaman suara. Satu pasukan penasihat dan editor telah bekerjasama dengan para guru pelatih NIE serta para pegawai teknologi.
YearTitle
AuthorType
2019We and our Tamil Language/ Heritage Language outside India and Sri Lanka

Seetha Lakshmi (2019). We and our Tamil Language/ Heritage Language outside India and Sri Lanka. Puthiya Panuval: An International Journal of Tamil Studies. 9 (2), April 2019- pp. 38-53

தாய்மொழி, பாரம்பரிய இந்தியாவுக்கும் இலங்கைக்கும் வெளியே நாமும் நம் தமிழ்மொழியும் பாரம்பரிய மொழியும்
Seetha Lakshmi Journal-Refereed
  Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, First Language and Second Language have their unique and in depth meanings in today’s globalization. In Singapore, we have a special arrangement in our bilingual education. Ideally, a child acquires its first language i.e. its mother tongue, at home and come to the school to learn English. Under our Singapore’s meaningful bilingual policy, a child learns English at School as first language and mother tongue language at second language level. Mother tongue acquisition provides a strong foundation to itself and for the facilitation of English language. It is an additional resource for a child to use its mother tongue language to learn and acquire English. Parents can believe this to introduce mother tongue language and English at home. Without the mother tongue language acquisition, the child will lose its invaluable ancestors’ language and its rich cultural benefits. Outside Tamil Nadu (India) and Sri Lanka Tamil language has its official language status in Singapore along with Chinese, Malay and English. Government continuously supports all of its initiatives towards Tamil. Let us continuously let a Tamil child to acquire its cultural language, that is, its mother tongue language (Tamil) and also to develop its character and confidence. As educators, we can try our best to facilitate them to use Standard Spoken Tamil (Spoken Tamil), create interesting story books and design our lessons based on their interesting topics. In today’s globalization, it is unique and important for a child to know its Mother tongue language to understand its linguistic and cultural features and develop itself as a confident user of its cultural language. And also, to stand on its own without losing the identity. This also provides a great opportunity to be bilingual and a bicultural citizen.
 மொழி, முதல் மொழி, இரண்டாம் மொழி ஆகியன தனித்தனிப்பொருளையும் தனித்துவமான பொருளையும் கொண்டவை. எனினும் தாய்மொழியை வீட்டில் முதல்மொழியாகவும் பிறகு பள்ளியில் இரண்டாம் மொழியாகவும் படிக்க வாய்ப்புக் கிடைத்திருப்பது சிங்கப்பூரில் உள்ள போற்றக்கூடிய ஓர் அம்சம். இந்தியாவிற்கும் இலங்கைக்கும் வெளியே தமிழ்மொழி இங்கு அதிகாரத்துவ மொழிகளில் ஒன்றாகத் திகழ்கிறது. அரசின் ஆதரவும் தமிழின் வளர்ச்சிக்கான அத்தனை முன்னெடுப்புகளும் தமிழ்ச் சமூகம் செய்த வரம் ஆகும். ஒரு குழந்தை தான் வாழும் பண்பாட்டின் மொழியான தாய்மொழியைக் கைவரப்பெறுவது அதன் கல்வி வளர்ச்சிக்கும் குண மேம்பாட்டுக்கும் அடையாளம் சார்ந்த தன்னம்பிக்கைக்கும் பிற பண்பாடுகளை அறிந்து போற்றவும் வழி வகுக்கும். அத்தகைய நிலையில் தாய்மொழியை முதலில் குழந்தைக்கு அறிமுகப்படுத்தி அதனுடன் ஆங்கிலத்தை அறிமுகப்படுத்தலாம். அங்கே ஆங்கிலத்தின் மேம்பாட்டுக்கு, முதலில் கைவரப்பெற்ற தாய்மொழி பேருதவியாக இருக்கும். தமிழுக்குச் சிங்கப்பூரில் அரசு வழங்கும் ஆதரவு போற்றிப் புகழக்கூடியது. அத்தகைய ஆதரவை நன்கு பயன்படுத்தித் தமிழ் படிக்கும் மாணவர்களைச் சிறந்த குடிமக்களாக உயர்த்த அவர்கள் விரும்பும் தலைப்புகளில் பாடங்களை வடிவமைப்பதும் தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழை வகுப்பறையில் பயன்படுத்துவதும் அவர்களை அதிகமாகப் பேச ஊக்குவிப்பதும் தமிழை இளம் வயதிலேயே அவர்களது சிந்தனை மொழியாக ஊக்குவித்து நடைமுறைப்படுத்துவதும் மாணவர்களுக்கு ஏற்ற கதைப்புத்தகங்களை உருவாக்குவதும் இன்றைய உலகமயமாக்கத்தில் உள்ளூர் மயத்தை நன்கு புரிந்துகொள்ளவும் மாணவர்கள் தம் சொந்தக்காலில் நிற்கவும் வழி வகுக்கும். தாய்மொழியின் பலம் தனித்துவமானது. அதன் உதவியுடன் இருமொழி பயிலும் மாணவர்களையும் இரு பண்பாட்டறிவு பெற்ற குடிமக்களையும் உருவாக்க ஆசிரியர்களுடன் பெற்றோரும் உதவுவது பயன் மிக்கது. இதனால் இன்றைய உலகமயமாக்கச்சூழலில் சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் மாணவர்கள் தமக்கான அடையாளத்தையும் பண்பாட்டையும் மறவாது வாழ வழி இருக்கிறது.
2017Tamil Language abroad and the Need for dictionary

ஆராய்ச்சித் தொகுதி - முதற்பதிப்பு). அகராதியியல் துறை. தஞ்சாவூர்: தமிழ்ப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்.

அயலகத்தில் தமிழ்மொழியும் அகராதியின் தேவையும்
Sasikumar Ponnalagu Book Chapters
  Language is an effective tool that aids in expressing intentions, desires and thoughts of humans in many different ways. However, there are some languages in the world that are being used only in the spoken or written form. Languages that exist in both forms are the ones that are regarded exceptional. A dictionary organises the words offered in languages with such qualities in a structured manner and provides meaningful explanations. Dictionary helps to have knowledge on the different forms of words and their various meanings. Dictionary which can be classified as monolingual, bilingual, and multi lingual has many procedures to be compiled and released. When we look at dictionaries used by Singapore schools during examinations, Chinese, Malay and Tamil languages have 46, 8, 6 dictionaries respectively. Besides Tamil Language, the other two languages have electronic dictionaries. This affects Tamil students who are learning the language at a second level. Such conferences would need to research alternative ways to resolve this. Additionally, dictionaries that can be used by students with ease have to be created with code mixing and code switching in languages taken into consideration.
 மனிதனின் எண்ணங்களையும் ஆசைகளையும் சிந்தனைகளையும் பல்வேறு வழிகளில் வெளிப்படுத்தும் ஓர் ஒப்பற்ற சாதனமாக மொழி திகழ்கிறது என்று கூறலாம். எனினும், உலகில் சில மொழிகள் பேச்சு அல்லது எழுத்து மொழிகளாக மட்டுமே புழக்கத்தில் இருந்து வருகின்றன. இரண்டு வழக்குகளிலும் உள்ள மொழிகளே சிறந்த நிலையிலுள்ள மொழிகள் எனலாம். இத்தகைய பண்புகளைப் பெற்ற மொழியில் வழங்கப்பெறும் சொற்களை ஓர் ஒழுங்கு அடிப்படையில் தொகுத்து அவற்றுக்குத் தேவையான விளக்கங்களையும் கொடுப்பதே அகராதி ஆகும். ஒரு சொல்லின் பல்வேறு படிமானங்களையும் பல்வேறு விதமான பொருளையும் அறிய அகராதி உதவுகின்றது. ஒருமொழி அகராதி, இருமொழி அகராதி, பன்மொழி அகராதி என்று வகைப்படுத்தப்படும் அகராதியைத் தொகுப்பதிலும் வெளியிடுவதிலும் பல படிநிலைகள் உள்ளன. சிங்கப்பூர்ப் பள்ளிகளில் தேர்வுகளின்போது பயன்படுத்தும் அகராதிகள் என்று பார்க்கும்போது, சீன மொழியிலும் மலாய் மொழியிலும் தமிழ் மொழியிலும் முறையே 46, 8, 6 நூல் வடிவிலான புத்தகங்கள் உள்ளன. தமிழ்மொழியைத் தவிர மற்ற இரு மொழிகளிலும் மின்னியல் அகராதிகள் உள்ளன என்பது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கதாகும். தமிழ்மொழியை இரண்டாம் மொழியாகப் பயிலும் மாணவர்களை இது பாதிக்கின்றது எனக் கூறலாம். இதற்கான மாற்று ஏற்பாடுகளைப் பற்றி இத்தகைய மாநாடுகள் ஆராய வேண்டும். மேலும், பல்லினச் சமுதாயத்தில் உள்ள மொழிக் கலப்பையும் மொழித் தாவலையும் கருத்தில் கொண்டு வகுப்பறைகளில் இலகுவாகப் பயன்படுத்தப்படும் அகராதிகள் உருவாக்கப்பட வேண்டும்.
YearTitle
AuthorType
In PressThe Traumatic Memory in the Old Style Poems during the 1940 in Singapore

(In Press) 《世界华文文学论坛文选》 [Selected Works of World Chinese Literature Forum], Wuhan, China

1940年代《南洋商报》旧体诗中的创伤记忆
Li JiaBook Chapters
 Nanyang Siang Pau, as the oldest Chinese newspaper in Singapore, published a great number of classical-style poems, of which a substantial portion dealt with the theme of Anti-Japanese War. These poems often displayed a distinctive character of epics and often imitated famous works of the Tang dynasty. Despite being formulaic, they were popular during the tumultuous period as they were easy to understand and to recite. Although the language of some works were straightforward and rough, it truly reflects the traumatic memories in that era.
 作为星洲地区最悠久的华文报纸——《南洋商报》在1940年前后刊载了大量旧体诗相当一部分与抗战的内容有关,这些旧体诗歌的出现有着深刻的历史渊源和背景,具有鲜明的时代烙印。这些旧体诗所书写内容集中展现了那个特殊年代的历史、政治以及民生,因此具有鲜明的“诗史”特色;而在诗歌的创作上,常直接模仿盛唐名作,虽有生硬之嫌,但在那个血与火的年代,却以其易于创作、易于激发共鸣、易于理解、易于传唱而受到欢迎。这一时期的旧体诗的语言风格或者戏谑讽刺,或者伤感哀痛,不免有直白、粗糙之病,却真实的反映出人们在那个时代的创伤记忆。
2020The Merits and Mistakes of Zhang Qian and the Entanglement of Dayuan Biography in the Historical Records

Journal of Hubei University (Philosophy and Social Science), 47(3), 119-128.

凿空之功与逢君之恶——张骞功过评说与《史记·大宛列传》的若隐不发
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Zhang Qian was mostly praised positively since the Han Dynasty. His perseverance, loyalty to the country and his integrity had made him an outstanding model for his envoys. His first contribution to the development of the Silk Road was praised by future generations. But in fact, Zhang Qian had also drawn criticism from many people. The paper sorts out the comments on Zhang Qian in historical books and literature after the Western Han Dynasty, and then goes back to "Historical Records of Dayuan Biography" in the Shiji to analyze Sima Qian's views on Zhang Qian and his expressions in the book. Sima Qian praised Zhang Qian's conduct as an envoy, affirming the epoch-making significance of "cutting out" the Western Regions; however, he could not understand the importance of war against the Western Regions and the Xiongnu. Therefore, Sima Qian implied his opinions in his historical writing. He satirized insufficient capacity and outrageous statements of Zhang Qian; criticized Emperor Wu of Western Han for starting wars with neighbouring countries. Sima Qian intended to make up for the shortcomings of policies in the unspoken text, and his views also influenced people to judge of Zhang Qian.
 自汉迄今对于张骞的功过评价,多以正面褒扬为主,他坚韧不拔、舍生忘死的精神,忠于国家、宽厚诚信的品行,令其成为使臣的杰出楷模;而他凿空西域,开拓丝绸之路的首功,更是为后人所颂扬。但其实张骞也曾招致不少人的批评,指责其逢君之恶、生事劳人。文中梳理了西汉以后史籍和诗文中对于张骞功过两极化的评论,继而上溯到《史记·大宛列传》,分析司马迁对于张骞的看法,以及在书中的表达。本文认为在对于张骞的评价上,展现出司马迁冷静的理性精神与饱满的感性情感间的纠葛。司马迁嘉奖张骞作为使节的品行,肯定其“凿空”西域的划时代意义;但却不赞成或者说无法理解武帝对西域和匈奴战争的重要性。故而司马迁在微言中寄寓“大义”,在客观记史之中,委婉表达对于张骞其人和开通西域诸事的主观感受,讽刺其才具不多,任意妄言;批评张骞为谋个人私利,挑动武帝通大夏、攻大宛,导致国家虚耗、民怨沸腾。司马迁在若隐不发的文字中,意欲“补弊起废”,而其看法亦造成了后人对于张骞的褒贬评价。
2019A Preliminary Study on the New Poems in Nanyang Siang Pau Before the Great Upheaval

The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies, 11.2(null), 3-25.

“乾坤含疮痍,忧虞何时毕”——大动荡前夜《南洋商报》副刊中的新诗书写
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 In 1937, Japan brazenly began her full-scale invasion of China. This heralded the start of the Second World War in Asia. Before the outbreak of the war, the Nanyang poetry circle had faithfully reflected the various social conflicts that were hidden beneath the peaceful surface. In particular, poets had written about the conflicts between ethnicities, labour and management, the identity as an overseas Chinese and the local consciousness of being a Malayan Chinese, as well as that between the May Fourth New Thought movement and backward feudal thoughts. Researching on the new poetry published in the Nanyang Siang Pau during the 1930s, this writer has used the analysis method of socio-historical criticism as well as a "historical poem" perspective that integrates history into the study of literature to analyse the realistic contradictions that are reflected in these new poems and the resulting multi-cultural mentality. At the same time, this writer will also explore the connection between the Nanyang poetry circle and China’s May Fourth New Literature Movement so as to point out that the former was the inheritor and weapon used by the latter to rescue society via literature.
 1937年日本悍然发动全面侵略中国的战争,从而拉开了第二次世界大战在亚洲的序幕。战争爆发之前,南洋诗坛对于当时隐伏在平静表面下的各种社会矛盾都有着忠实的反映。特别是民族矛盾、劳资矛盾、侨民意识与马华本土性意识之间的观念冲突、五四新思潮与落后封建思想间的矛盾,都有诗人付诸笔端予以表现,而以民族和阶级矛盾占主要篇幅。笔者从《南洋商报》1930年代所刊载的新诗入手,运用社会历史批评的分析方式,同时以“诗史”为角度,将历史融入到文学的研究范畴,分析这些新诗中所反映出的现实矛盾以及由此带来的多元社会心态。与此同时探讨南洋文坛与中国五四新文学之间的联系,说明当时南洋文坛正是继承了五四思想解放的武器,以文学的形式对现实社会进行反戈一击。
2019A Master Poet of the South: An Analytical Study of the Classical Chinese Poetry of Khoo Seok Wan

Li Yun Academic Journal (Beijing Normal University), 30(null), 49-68

邱菽园旧体诗创作风貌析论
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Among the Chinese intellectuals who moved overseas, Khoo Seok Wan was a poet who dedicated his hard work to classical Chinese poetry. He was hailed as "A Master Poet of the South" and was rich in creative works. Khoo Seok Wan’s classical Chinese poetry have always kept a focus on Chinese politics and livelihood, expressed deep national feelings, chanted home culture, and integrated a large number of classical allusion into his writing. Khoo Seok Wan often came into contact with many new things, the fresh words in the poems and the extraterritorial vision show unique characteristics; in addition, he also had a lot of poems with the local characteristics of Nanyang. His poems showed a collision of the traditional style of classical Chinese poetry and the modern Nanyang society, and indicated the vitality and tolerance of traditional literary forms in a foreign country.
 在移居海外的华人知识分子中,丘菽园是于旧体诗致力甚勤的一位诗人,被誉为“南国诗宗”,创作丰富。丘菽园的旧体诗中始终保持着对中国政治民生的关注,表达出深沉的故国情思,不断歌咏家乡风物,更将大量的语典、事典融入诗歌的写作之中;由于侨居南洋,丘氏常常接触到不少新生事物,诗中的新鲜语汇与域外视野呈现出别具一格的特色;此外丘氏还有不少具有南洋在地特征的诗篇,这些都显示了传统的旧体诗文学样式与近现代文化碰撞的痕迹,彰显出传统文学形式在异域的生命力和包容性。
2019The Literary Styles of “Nan” in Zhao Ming Selected Works and “Yu” in the Pre-Qin Texts

Li, J. (2019). The Literary Styles of Nan in Zhao Ming Selected Works and Yu in the Pre-Qin Texts. Journal of Anhui University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), 43(4), 43-49.

《文选》“难”体与先秦“语”体
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 The literary styles of Nan, Duiwen and Shelun in Wenxuan have always been different in their styles, characteristics and sources. By discussing the characteristics of form, content, structure and nature in the article "Nan Shu Fu lao", this paper points out that the Nan has the characteristics of the pre-Qin Yu style: the form of questioning, the content of the politics, and the purpose of argumentation and the relatively divided genres of writing system are derived from the Yu style. At the same time, this article points out that "Nan Shu Fu lao" has made a breakthrough in the design of the characters on both sides of the dialogue, and explains its significance. In addition, through comparative analysis of the stylistic features of "Dui Chu Wang Wen", "Da Ke Nan", "Jie Chao", and "Da Bin Xin", it points out that the pre-Qin Yu style was the origin of the Dui Wen and She Lun. The paper also specifically analyses Dui Wen and She Lun’s new stylistic features in the Han and Wei Dynasties.
 《文选》中的“难”、“对问”、“设论”,历来对其文体分类、特征及其文体来源众说纷纭莫衷一是。本文通过讨论《难蜀父老》一文在形式、内容、结构、性质等方面的特点,指出“难”体具备先秦“语”体的特征:即对问的形式、有关国家政治的内容,强烈的议论说理的目的,以及相对类型化的写作体制,其文体当来源自“语”体。同时,本文指出《难蜀父老》在对话双方人物的设置方面,较“语”体有所突破并说明其意义。此外,通过比较分析《对楚王问》、《答客难》、《解嘲》、《答宾戏》的文体特点,指出先秦“语”体当与“对问”“设论”都有源流关系,并具体分析其在汉魏六朝所展现出的新文体特征。
2019Research on Ouyang Xiu in European and American Sinology from the Perspective of Literary Studies

International Sinology Journal

从文学角度谈欧美汉学界的欧阳修研究

国际汉学
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 In view of Ouyang Xiu’s tremendous achievements in the fields of Chinese literature, history and philosophy in Northern Song China, a group of renowned sinologists from Europe and America, such as James T. C. Liu, James J. Y. Liu, Yu-shih Chen, Peter K. Bol, Ronald C. Egan, and Richard L. Davis, have conducted a series of comprehensive or detailed studies, based on the translation and introduction of Ouyang Xiu’s various works. This article attempts to sort out and analyze the achievements of research on Ouyang Xiu with a focus on the literary studies in European and American Sinology from the two aspects of research content and characteristics. Generally speaking, the overall study of Ouyang Xiu by the European and American scholars mainly focuses on his political, ideological and literary achievements and the relationships among the three. Some of the research on Ouyang Xiu puts particular emphasis on the field of literature, including literary theory and literary genres. Meanwhile, European and American scholars clearly show the special characteristics of emphasizing translation, text and various details in Ouyang Xiu’s studies.
 鉴于欧阳修在中国文学、史学、经学等多个领域取得的巨大成就,欧美汉学界在译介其各类作品的同时,也展开了一系列或全面或细部的研究,并涌现出了一大批成果丰硕的知名学者。本文尝试以文学研究为中心,从研究内容和研究特色两个层面来梳理和评析欧美汉学界的欧阳修研究的成果。概括而言,欧美学者对于欧阳修的整体研究主要关注其政治、思想和文学成就以及三者之间的关系;局部性的研究则以文学领域为主,包括文学理论及诗、词、文、赋诸文体。另外,欧美学者在欧阳修研究中鲜明地体现出重翻译、重文本和重细节的特点。
2019Modern Chinese Newspapers and Pre-war Han Poetry in Singapore and Malaya

Sino-Hamanitas Journal

近现代报刊传媒与战前新马汉诗

人文中国学报
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Han poetry (classical Chinese poetry) did not enter the sphere of the general public until the publication of Malaya's first newspaper, Lat Pau, in 1881. In the 60 years of its publication history, from 1881 to late 1941 before the downfall of Singapore and Malaya, the Lat Pau witnessed a rapid, robust development of Chinese newspapers. Following this were the respective debuts of more than 20 newspapers, such as Penang Sin Poe, Sing Po, Thien Nan Shin Pao, Jit Shin Pao, Union Times, Chong Shing Yit Pao, Nanyang Siang Pau, and Sin Chew Jit Poh. These newspapers became important for the circulation of classical poetry, as some of them published poems on a periodic basis and some daily. Therefore, the status of Chinese journals and newspapers and preferences of the editors were decisive factors in the development of Malayan Han poetry. Meanwhile, the “new-style poetry” that emerged at this time may be seen as products of Chinese newspapers published at this time. Furthermore, the significance of publishing classical Chinese poetry in modern newspapers lies not only in the provision of communication channels and the preservation of original materials, but, more importantly, they brought the poets’ creative works from a “private sphere” to the “public space,” and thereby conveyed to the reader the values of aesthetic appreciation, cultural reproduction, and social and political participation.
 在1881年《叻报》创办之前,新加坡和马来西亚的汉诗创作无法进入公衆的视野。而在《叻报》创立至1941年底新马沦陷前的60年间,新马中文报纸的发展异常迅猛,陆续诞生的报纸计有《槟城新报》、《星报》、《天南新报》、《日新报》、《总汇新报》、《中兴日报》、《南洋商报》、《星洲日报》等二十馀种。这些华文报纸,几乎每一种都定期或不定期地登载旧体诗。因此,华文报刊的定位、副刊主编的喜好等也会影响到新马汉诗的发展。同时,新马地区这一时期出现的“新派诗”亦可视爲这一传播载体影响下的産物。另外,就华文报刊对于传统汉诗发展的意义而言,近现代华文报刊登载汉诗的意义不仅仅局限于提供传播渠道和保存原始史料,更爲深层的价值在于诗人的创作成果从“私人领域”进入了“公共空间”,从而实现向广大读者传达审美欣赏、文化再现和社会政治参与等层面的价值。
2019The Cross-century Dialogue between Su Shi and Tao Qian

Journal of China Su Shi Studies, 11, 47-56.

桃源、飞鸿、浊酒杯—东坡与渊明的千载对话
Zhang AidongJournal-Refereed
 This study aims to show the resonance of prominent literary man Su Shi with another literary man Tao Yuanming – a recluse of the Jin Dynesty through their poems of similar themes.

Appreciating Tao, however, Su Shi never ended up becoming a true recluse. This illustrates that the intellectual bearings of people from the past may only be achieved spiritually but cannot be emulated in exact actions. Even if Su Shi yearned for the action, all he could do was to stand at his time and connect spiritually according to his own personal demeanors. One may say that Su Shi has completed his dialogue and echoing with Tao Qian in his own unique poems.
 苏轼一生,从屈子的忠君爱国、身殉“美政”,到陶潜的“归去来兮”,“开荒南野,守拙归园田”,在田园中实现与物圆融,在浊酒杯中领悟人生奥妙,再到后来的本色澄清,恰恰经历了一个巨大的自省反思与回归之路。

苏轼曾象征性地说:“醒来知何处,归路老更迷。”也对其他归去方式的羡慕:如脱离生死的“大士”或羽化飞升的“神仙”。直至晚年他还在说:“可怜倦鸟不知时,空羡骑鲸得所归”。这似可看作苏轼对于自己终生意欲归返,企慕“大士”,却不能彻底实现的一种叹惋表达。虽说苏轼终未实现陶渊明式的“归去”,但“九死南荒吾不恨”,“有甚么歇不得处”,至“如挂钩之鱼”“忽得解脱”——这也许恰恰就是他的独特的“无家安住”的不归之归。
2018On the Reconstruction of History and the Narrative Strategy of Shiji: Taking Zhaizhong’s monopoly of power as an example

Invited Talk, National University of Singapore 31/08/2018, Singapore

历史的重构与《史记》的叙事策略
Li JiaConference Presentations(without publication)
 Hereditary Houses of the State of Zheng in Shiji, which was written by Sima Qian based on Zuozhuan, Guoyu and other historical materials. This paper will analyse how Sima Qian chose and edited the historical materials and compare the different points of view on the narration of fighting for the throne between Duke Zhao and Li by close reading of relevant paragraphs in Zuozhuan and Shiji. The paper will also explore how Sima Qian expressed what he thought of this historical event euphemistically but unambiguously. Although Sima Qian was a scholar of the Gongyang school of thought, it is clear that he had his own views. Zhai Zhong, the powerful and imperious official, must bear the primary responsibility to the increasing instability in the State of Zheng.
 司马迁在充分占有史料的基础上,通过多种的叙事策略传达自己对于历史的理解和认识。本文即以春秋时期郑国所发生的“昭厉之争”为例,通过对比《史记·郑世家》与《左传》的相关叙事,探讨太史公是如何将史料化繁为简,有意淡化昭公的历史作用;同时运用欲扬先抑和互见等手法突出祭仲对郑国历史的突出影响,从而含蓄而又明确的提出自己对于庄公死后,郑国政治板荡、国势的衰落原因的真知灼见,构建起一个与《左传》不同的历史世界。同时,司马迁的这种看法亦有别于当时公羊派学者的普遍认识,彰显出作为一名有独立思想史学家的卓越史识。
2018Anxiety Writing in 1930s Nanyang Prose: Focusing on the Supplements of the Nanyang Siang Pau

Li, J. (2018). Anxiety Writing in 1930s Nanyang Prose: Focusing on the Supplements of the Nanyang Siang Pau. Journal of South Sea Society, 72, 29-42.

1930年代南洋散文中的焦虑书写——以《南洋商报》副刊为中心
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 During the 1930s in Nanyang, there was a large group of literati active within the print media industry who aspired to improve their lives or to enlighten their fellow citizens. Others held hopes of igniting a wave of revolution. However, as such wishes and hopes went unfulfilled, it resulted in seeds of anxiety which explicitly or implicitly appeared in their writings. This commentary will consider the proses published within the supplements of the Nangyang Siang Pau to analyse the reasons behind the characterisation for such writings of anxiety. Through such analysis, one hopes to verify the interactivity and continuity between Nanyang literature and China literature.
 1930年代的南洋有一大批活跃在报刊杂志上的知识分子,希望改善生活的样貌,有的人怀抱着着启蒙国人的愿望,有的人则期望掀起一场革命的热潮,但以上种种愿望和诉求在现实中都遭受挫折,因而在其创作中都或明或暗的透露出焦虑的情绪因子。本文以《南洋商报》副刊中所载的散文为研究对象,对其焦虑书写的原因和表征做出分析,侧面验证南洋文学与中国文学在历史潜流中的互动性和承继性。
2018Landmark Poetics of the Lion City

Chen, Z. R. (2018). Landmark poetics of the lion city. City Book Room.

狮城的地标诗歌集

陈志锐(2018)。《狮城的地标诗歌集》。新加坡:城市书房。
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 Dr Tan's new poetry collection is titled Landmark Poetic of The Lion City. Featuring 99 poems personally selected by Dr Tan Chee Lay, this collection is divided into historical landmarks, cultural and religious landmarks, livelihood landmarks and tourist landmarks.
 陈志锐博士的新诗集题为“狮子城的地标诗歌集”。由陈博士亲自挑选99首诗,分为历史地标,文化和宗教地标,以及民生地标和旅游地标。
2018On the Classical Chinese Poets in the Pre-War Singapore Thong Chai Medical Institution

Research of Chinese Literature Journal

战前新加坡同济医院旧体诗人群像考

中国文学研究
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Most of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in the Singapore Thong Chai Medical Institution before 1941 were both well-skilled in therapy and proficient at poetry writing, who were an important part of literati group in early Singapore. Among them, Li Bogai, Hu Youting, Liang Rushan and Yan Yiyuan, who were four members of Singapore Tan Club founded by Qiu Shuyuan, were good at different style of writing, apart from the responsorial and presenting poems. Yan Fengqi and Liang Shaoshan were concerned about the current affairs of the motherland, and used their poems to record history. These Confucian TCM practitioners expanded the cultural space of the early Chinese ethnic groups in Singapore during the period of communications with other professional poets. Therefore, their poems played an indispensable role in the history of classical Chinese poetry in Singapore.
 战前新加坡同济医院的医师皆为医术精湛、工诗能文的儒医,是早期新加坡士人群体的重要组成部分。其中,黎伯概、胡幼汀、梁如山和颜怡园四位医师还是邱菽园创办之星洲檀社的成员,除雅集酬唱之作外,也创作其他类型的诗作;颜凤岐与梁少山两位的诗作关注祖国时政,以诗纪史。这些儒医在与其他行业诗人的交流中拓展了新加坡早期华人族群的文化空间,其诗作也为新加坡旧体文学的发展增添了浓墨重彩的一笔。
2018Cinderella in Different Dresses: from a Narrative Perspective

International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, 4(3), 174-178.

从叙事角度看不同版本的《灰姑娘》故事
Zhang AidongJournal-Refereed
 Cinderella, a classic fairy tale which is full of fantasy and hyperbolic nature has been enjoyed for centuries and its influence has been long lasting. The same story has been told in different countries yet with certain variations. This study compares the commonality and differences in the various versions of Cinderella. Sample texts are collected from both East and West.
 无论在东西方,《灰姑娘》的故事堪称家喻户晓。中国唐朝段成式的《叶限》是现存文字记载最早的灰姑娘型故事。与欧洲《灰姑娘》故事的比较研究为学者瞩目。本文将段成式的《叶限》、法国贝洛的《灰姑娘》及亚洲几个《灰姑娘》文本作为考察对象,进行情节、叙事方式以及叙事策略的比较,以见出不同语境中同一故事类型的文化及叙述学上的差异。
2017Classical Chinese Poetry in Singapore: A Perspective of Sinophone Literature

Monumenta Serica: Journal of Oriental Studies [Germany] Journal

华语语系视野下的新加坡华文旧体诗
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 The evolution of classical Chinese poetry in Singapore (CCPS) is closely related to the immigration experience of Chinese intellectuals in various periods. The travelogues of the foreign trips by Chinese officials dispatched to Singapore in the late Qing Dynasty, such as Zuo Binglong and Huang Zunxian, focused on the depiction of exotic landscapes and aimed to opening up horizons. The poems written by Khoo Seok Wan and Pan Shou, and numerous works published in local newspapers from pre-war to 1970s represented the highest achievement of the characteristically Singaporean poetry. The new type of poetry writing reflected on the “Xin Sheng Poetry Society” and poetic columns online had the characteristics of diversity in the way of communication and poetic theme, as well as uneven quality of creation. This paper attempts to present the different stages of CCPS and its characteristics in the past one hundred years from the perspective of Sinophone literature.
 新加坡华文旧体诗的发展,与各个时期华人知识份子的南洋体验密切相关。早期晚清出使星洲的官员左秉隆、黄遵宪等的海外纪游作品,大都集中于异域世界的描绘,旨在开阔视野,拓展诗境;战前到独立建国(1965)前后流寓南洋的文人邱菽园、潘受等的旧体诗创作及不同时期报章副刊的旧体诗创作,则代表了新加坡华文旧体诗本土化创作的最高成就;1980年代以来的「新声诗社」和网络专栏的新型书写,既有传播方式多元化、歌咏主题多样性的特点,也存在着创作水准参差不齐的隐忧。本文意在简要梳理新加坡华文旧体诗发展脉络的基础上,合理运用华语语系文学这一新概念,探讨新加坡华文旧体诗的文学归属,并在新框架观照下抉发出新加坡不同时期华文旧体诗创作的主导特征。
2017Cultural Space and Elite Network in Early Singapore: On Four Talents of Sin Chew

Asian Culture [Singapore]

早期新加坡的文化空间和精英网络:以星洲四才子为例
Wang BingScholarly Book (Refereed)
 Developing cultural space in Singapore was not an easy task, as it was a two-tier society that focuses on commerce and trading. On one hand, its development was restricted by the low literacy rate of the early Chinese immigrants. Therefore, the visiting literati played an important role in the local literary scene. On the other hand, the main drivers behind this development were the Chinese intellectuals who decided to call Singapore home. This article argues that the Four Talents—Ye Jiyun 叶季允(1859-1921), Shi Ruiyu 释瑞于(1867-1953), Khoo Seok Wan 邱菽园(1874-1941),and Lee Choon Seng 李俊承(1888-1966)—were in line with the above two conditions, and played very important role in their respective main areas. What is even more commendable is that their common literary attainments had greatly contributed to the expansion of local cultural space and social networks. In contrast to China, where literature was an essential tool for officialdom, literature in Singapore was more of a hobby and a means of emotional expressions. Hence, writers of classical Chinese poetry came from all walks of life and of all ages; they could be old-style literati, teachers, businessmen, labours, clerks, doctors, and even monks. This complex personnel structure was bound to require the elite group for making a distinction.
 在专注于商业与贸易的两极社会——新加坡,拓展文化空间并非易事。一方面,它的发展受到早期中国移民识字率低的制约。因此,那些过客文人在当地文学界起着重要的作用。另一方面,推动本地文化发展的主要力量是那些真正在新加坡落地生根的中国知识分子。本文认为,叶季允(1859-1921),释瑞于(1867-1953),邱菽园(1874-1941)和李俊承(1888-1966)符合以上两个条件,且在各自的主要领域中扮演着非常重要的角色。更值得称赞的是,他们共同的文学素养极大地促进了当地文化空间和社会网络的发展。与中国将文学视为晋升官场的工具不同,文学在新加坡则更多是一种业余爱好和一种情感表达方式。因此,华文旧体诗的作者来自各行各业。他们可能是旧式文人,教师,商人,劳工,文员,医生,甚至是僧侣。这种复杂的人员结构一定会造就一些脱颖而出的精英团体。
2017Classical Chinese Poetry in Singapore: Witnesses to Social and Cultural Transformations in the Chinese Community

Lexington Books, Rowman & Littlefield [USA]

新加坡华文旧体诗:华人社群社会文化变迁的见证
Wang BingScholarly Book (Refereed)
 As the essence of Chinese traditional culture, classical Chinese poetry in Singapore played a very important role in the social and cultural development of Singapore’s Chinese community. Numerous poems depicted the unique scenery of tropical rainforest and the customs with a Nanyang flavor, recorded the various historical events from the colonial era, the World War II to the independent nation, and reflected the poets’ multiple feelings. This book sketches out the brief history of classical Chinese poetry in Singapore over a hundred years, and focuses on the complex identity of poets from different generations, the function of literary societies in the construction of cultural space and the influence of modern media on the development of classical Chinese poetry based on the text interpretation. In addition, the author attempts to define different types of poetry writing using diaspora literature and Sinophone literature. The discussion of these topics will not only expand the research horizon of Chinese literature, but also provide a meaningful reference to the studies of the worldwide Chinese overseas, especially in Southeast Asia.
 作为中国传统文化的精髓,新加坡的华文旧体诗在新加坡华人社群的社会文化发展中扮演着非常重要的角色。许多诗歌描绘了热带雨林和南洋风情的独特风光,记录了从殖民时代,第二次世界大战到国家独立的各种历史事件,并反映了诗人的多重情感。本书概述了新加坡华文旧体诗的百年发展史,并在文本阐释的基础上着重介绍了不同世代诗人复杂的身份认同,文学团体在文化空间建设中的作用以及现代媒体对旧体诗发展的影响。此外,作者试图用离散文学和华语语系文学来界定不同类型的诗歌创作。这些话题的讨论,不仅将拓宽中国文学的研究视野,而且还将为世界范围内尤其是东南亚华人的研究提供有意义的参考。
2016Du Fu’s Follower in 1940s: Singapore Poet Pan Shou’s Anti-fascist Classical Poems

Li, J. (2016, March). Du Fu’s Follower in 1940s: Singapore Poet Pan Shou’s Anti-fascist Classical Poems,. Paper presented at 226th Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society, Boston, United States.

杜甫1940年代的追随者——新加坡诗人潘受的反法西斯旧体诗创作
Li JiaConference Presentations(without publication)
 Chinese literature in Singapore and Malaysia was already burgeoning back in the 1930s, when there was much emphasis on the local flavor. The invasion of China by Japanese troops in 1937 however, caused much concern among overseas Chinese for their land of origin, as well as worry for the safety of family and friends left behind, sparking off a certain sense of ethnic nationalism. This manifested as an ‘anti-invasion’ theme, and this became the dominant voice among different forms of writings during this period. Worries for the situation turned into a longing for freedom and justice among Chinese writers in Singapore. Pan Shou was famous as one of them. Under the ideological trend mentioned above, in 1940s he traveled in China from the South to the North and wrote hundreds of classical poems. For the first time, this paper seeks to scrutinise those poems through close reading. Firstly, Pan Shou inherited Tang poet Du Fu’s spirit of poetic history to record the chaos caused by War, his concern with ethnic nationalism and anti-fascist mood through the classical poem writing. Secondly, Allusions in Shiji and Hanshu which had a close connection with the ‘anti- invasion’ theme frequently appeared in his works. Thirdly, Pan Shou was used to writing in the long “gexing” style; the form of “jidushi”, collection Du-Fu’s poems), and the form of “tihuashi” (poems on paintings).
 上世纪30年代起,新马文学逐渐呈现出繁荣的景象,而1937年日本侵华,则在相当程度上刺激了星华作家的民族意识和在地意识。担忧故土家园、思念亲人安危,直接转化为“反侵略”的主题,而从中国南来避难的文人则无疑对这种思潮发挥了推波助澜的作用,激发了他们对自由和正义的渴望,因而出现了大量抗战救亡的作品。潘受是其中特别著名的一位,1940年代他足迹踏遍中国的大江南北,写下了上百首旧体诗。本文通过文本细读后的研讨,得出以下结论:首先,同样处于国破家亡之际,潘诗继承了唐代杜甫诗史的现实主义创作精神,他的诗歌忧国忧民,充满了爱国主义和反侵略的主题。其次,如同杜诗,潘受在其作品中大量引用《史记》、《汉书》中的典故;第三,潘受模仿杜甫写作了许多长篇歌行体和题画诗诗歌,并且写作了大量集杜诗,从中均可看出其对杜甫的私淑和追随。
2016Chronological Narrative and Locality-based Narrative in Early Chinese Prose: A Case Study of Wu-Yue Rivalry in Zuozhuan and Guoyu

International Journal of Comparative Literature & Translation Studies, 3, 44-52.

中国早期历史散文中的“依时叙事”与“依地叙事” ——以《左传》和《国语》中的“吴越相争”为例
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Chinese narrative tradition dates back to the Pre-Qin Period, and very often, such early historical prose employs a distinct narrative style. Amongst them, Zuozhuan is representative of the “chronological narrative” style, and Guoyu is representative of the “locality-based narrative” style. This paper seeks to analyse the narrative of “Wu-Yue rivalry” in the two texts from a narratological point of view, to understand how the two narrative styles influenced the plot development, characterisation, narrator perspective and significance, and narrative characteristics.
 中国叙事传统形成可以上溯到先秦时期,早期的历史散文往往具有鲜明的叙事特质。《左传》是“依时叙事”的代表、《国语》则为“依地叙事”的代表。本文由叙事学角度切入,以上述文献中载述“吴越相争”的历史事件为例,探讨在这两种叙述体式框架之下,对情节重心、人物形象、叙事者观点以及叙事意义、叙事特色,所产生的决定性影响。
2016Constructing A System of Irregularities: The Poetry of Bei Dao, Yang Lian and Duoduo

Tan, C. L. (2016). Constructing A System of Irregularities: The Poetry of Bei Dao, Yang Lian and Duoduo. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

诗歌中的不规则体系构建:北岛,杨炼和多多
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book investigates the poetics of three of the most internationally contemporary Chinese poets – Bei Dao, Yang Lian and Duoduo – who were all exiled from China after the 1989 Tiananmen student movement. Their poetry was later to be labelled ‘Misty Poem’ (Menglongshi). This book examines three aspects of the ‘Mistiness’ of the poets’ oeuvre: the socio-historic background where Misty poets live and write; imagery; and linguistic elements. After first identifying the roots of Mistiness, this book identifies imagistic and linguistic clues in order to construct a hermeneutical system that examines the irregularities of the Misty poetics and appreciates the polysemy of the poets’ works. The poem’s evocativeness is unveiled and the irregularity of the poetry’s Mistiness is established as its most powerful linguistic and imagistic aspect. The book then places the three poet’s different misty characteristics into contrast: Bei Deo’s twisted imagery and elliptical syntax, Yang’s imagery in a classically-inspired syntax, and Duoduo’s integration of images into a rhythmic syntax.
 本书以三位国际知名的中国诗人北岛,杨炼以及多多的作品集为研究对象。这三位诗人均于1989年天安门事件后流落异国, 其诗作后被称为“朦胧诗”。本书从三个角度考察他们的作品中的“模糊性”, 这三个角度分别是:朦胧诗人生活以及写作的社会历史背景;意象;以及语言要素。本书首先识别出模糊性的根源,然后辨别意向及语言中的线索,从而构造出可用来赏析朦胧诗作中的不规则现象以及一词多义现象的注释系统。回忆在诗作中被唤醒,朦胧中蕴含的不规则性被塑造,成为诗作中最有力的语言与意向角度。这本书随之将三位诗人不同的朦胧特点加以比对:北岛诗作中扭曲的意向和简略的句法,杨炼诗作中启迪于经典的意向和句法,以及多多诗作中意向与韵律句法的结合。
2016Textual Research on Three Rare Community Anthologies of Early Qing

Ming-Qing Literature and Documents Vol.5 明清文学与文献第五辑,页38-48

稀见清初社群诗选三种叙录
Wang BingBook Chapters
 Compiling the contemporary poetry anthology was quite popular during the Ming-Qing transition, especially regional anthology and group anthology. However, after lots of poetry anthologies banned by the Qing government, many became scattered and incomplete, so current researchers would find it difficult to see the whole picture. In recent years, despite series of discarded or banned by the compilers of the Complete Works of Chinese Classics and scholars’ study have collected more, there are still some poetry anthologies shelved on the library or even become the only existing copy, difficult to be seen by ordinary scholar. Now I will share three rare community anthologies of early Qing seen to academic colleagues according to the inscribed chronologically, followed by featuring the editors, records, versions, collection place, prefaces and postscripts, and slight comment.
 明末清初以来,编选同代诗歌选集颇为风行,尤以地域和群体性诗选为最。然遭禁之后,众多诗歌选集散落不全,难睹全貌,诚为憾事。近年来,尽管四库禁毁、未刊等系列丛书以及学者之著述已多有辑佚,仍有部分诗歌选集因存本极少而束之高阁,甚或沦为孤本,学者难识。兹将经眼之三种清初社群诗选,按照刊刻时间顺序,依次辑录其选者、著录、版本、馆藏和序跋等信息,并略作按语简评,以飨学界同仁。
2016Quasi-Scholar Groups in Establishing Cultural Space of Early Singapore

Overseas Chinese History Studies Journal

类士群体与新加坡早期文化空间的初创

华侨华人历史研究
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 The vast majority of immigrants living in the Chinese community of Singapore were not well educated during the late 19th and early 20th century. Hence, Chinese Consuls—Zuo Binglong and Huang Zunxian—successively founded many literary societies to promote the learning of literature. Khoo Seok Wan, who was one of Singapore’s literary pioneers, used his own newspaper and strong financial resources to establish literary societies and hold various activities for enhancing cultural atmosphere. Meanwhile, Nanyang tourism of other celebrities, such as Wei Zhusheng, Qiu Fengjia and Kang Youwei, participated in the construction of local cultural space in a certain extent. Therefore, all kinds of literary activities shaped a group of quasi-scholars who were similar to traditional scholars, and initially created cultural space in early Singapore.
 19世纪末至20世纪初,新加坡华人社群的文化素养普遍不高。左秉隆、黄遵宪等驻新领事先后创办诗文社团,对华侨民众进行文学教化;流寓星洲的文化名人邱菽园,亦藉自办报纸和雄厚财力之便,创设文学社团,举办多种文学活动,营造文化氛围;另外,卫铸生、丘逢甲、康有为等名士的南洋之行也在某种程度上参与了新加坡早期文化空间的构建。当然,诸种文学活动和创作实践也造就了一批类似于中国传统文士的知识精英阶层,初步开创了新加坡早期的文化空间。
2016Research on the Lost Collections of Contemporaries' Poems in the Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties

Journal of Jiangsu University (Social Science Edition) Journal

明末清初同人诗选佚著考

江苏大学学报(社会科学版)
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, it was a common practice to collect and publish the contemporaries’ poems, but such collections rarely left. Now according to relevant historical documents, this paper tries to examine a part of contemporaries’ poetic anthologies such as Shenting ji by Chen Hongxu, Shi biao by Xu Zeng, Jingyin pian by Wu Zongqian, Suihan ji by Wu Zonghan, Shi yu by Gong Xian and Shi feng chuxuan by Ye An, hoping to cast light on the living circumstance of the literati at that time.
 明末清初刊刻同人诗选蔚然成风,然传世者罕。兹据相关历史文献,对其中部分亡佚诗选,如陈弘绪《神听集》、徐增《诗表》、吴宗潜《惊隐篇》、吴宗汉《岁寒集》、龚贤《诗遇》和叶闇《诗逢初选》等略作考论,希冀在史料的钩沉稽要中窥见其时文士的生存境遇。
2016A Study of the Ming-Qing Intellectual Zhou Jing and His Career as an Advisor after 1644

Cheng Kung Journal of Historical Studies [Taiwan] Journal

明清文士周京生平及其入清後游幕考

成大历史学报
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Zhou Jing (Courtesy name Yuxun, Pseudonym Xiangshan) was born in Shangyuan county in Jiangning prefecture in the sixth year of Tianqi Reign (1626). According to the inference of academic circles, the date of his death should be after the forty-second year of Kangxi Reign (1703). He was very active in the circle of Jinling literati in late Ming and early Qing dynasty, because he was proficient in literary creation and medical skills, fond of sociality and career as an advisor of local officials or literary selector. Existing books included two selected works (Jindai shichao and Xiangshan jinchao chidu xiaopin) which both attached his poems and proses, and two medical books (Yilin shengmo daquan and Huoyou xinfa daquan) which both adapted from the previous medicine literature of others. Owing to the lack of literature, there were many mistakes in the review on Zhou Jing by researchers since the Qing dynasty. This paper will aim to restore living circumstance of ordinary literati around the middle of the seventeenth century by way of analyzing his life, works and career.
 周京,字雨郇,号向山,江南江宁府上元县人;生于明末天启六年(1626),卒年当在清初康熙四十二年(1703)之后;工诗文,操选政,懂医术,广游幕,喜交友,在明末清初的金陵文人圈中颇为活跃。现存着作包括选辑两部附有自稿的诗文选本——《近代诗钞》和《向山近钞尺牍小品》;编校刊刻了两部明代医学着作——《医林绳墨大全》和《活幼心法大全》。囿于文献资料的匮乏,清代以来的研究者对于金陵周京的评述多有错讹之处。兹从其人、其作和游幕经历三方面略作考辨梳理,并冀望还原明末清初普通文人的生存境遇。
2016The Boxue Hongci Examinations, Literary Anthologies by Emperors and the Literary Circles during the Kangxi and Qianlong Periods

Ming Qing yanjiu [Italy] Journal

康熙、乾隆时期的博学鸿词、御选本与文坛
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 As a result of political demands and imperial cultural cultivation, the Qing Dynasty reigns of Kangxi (1661–1722) and Qianlong (1736–1796) both paid great attention to the traditional Han culture. During these periods, two landmark events embodied the success of their cultural policy. These were the special examinations of boxue hongci (“breadth in learning and vastness in letters”, also called boxue hongru) in 1679 and 1736, and the publishing of numerous literary anthologies by the emperors. However, scholarly discussions have often focused mainly on aspects of political and cultural domination, and have rarely discussed the impact of these two events on literary circles in the early and middle Qing Dynasty. Thus, this paper examines the boxue hongci examination and the literary anthologies by Emperors as literary events and evaluate them from three perspectives. First, with regards to literary purposes, these two events fostered the link between official and elite discourses. Second, concerning literary styles, these two events together facilitated the emergence at the height of the Qing Dynasty styles known as qingzhen yazheng (“purity, authenticity, elegance and correctness”) and wenrou dunhou (“gentleness and restraint”). Third, with regards to literary layout, the two events changed the proportion of writers’ identity and actively advanced the balance of the north and south literary circles.
 出于政治统治的需要,加之帝王个人的文化修养,清代康雍乾三朝皆採取“稽古右文”之文治政策。其中,康熙十八年、乾隆元年、二年开考的博学鸿词科以及大量钦定、御选文学总集的编辑出版可谓反映清初文治实绩的标志性事件。可惜的是,长期以来学界对于二者的讨论仍局限于政治和文化统治层面,较少关注这两起事件对于清初文坛带来的深远影响。本文则将博学鸿词科和御选文学总集视为文学事件,从三个角度来评估它们的价值。1)就文学意图而言,两起事件初步达成了官方意识形态话语与知识精英话语的共谋;2)就文学风格而言,两起事件共同推进了“清真雅正”、“温柔敦厚”之盛世文风的形成;3)就文学格局而言,两起事件改变了创作群体的身份比例,积极推动了京城与江南文学圈“南北并峙”态势的形成。
2016Appreciation of the Selected Works in Singapore Chinese Literature (Vol.1)

Global Publishing, World Scientific Publishing Company Book

品读新华文学(第一辑)

世界科技出版社八方文化工作室
Wang BingUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 Singapore Chinese Literature (SCL) is a literary periodical, which was founded in 1978 and published by Singapore Association of Writers. SCL has already published 38 issues and about 2000 pieces of literary works since 2000. This book selected 25 excellent works by 22 MEd students from National Institute of Education for literary appreciation, and compiled an anthology from all of works published in SCL during the recent 16 years. Each appreciation articles can be regarded as a fine prose, whether in the content or the form, both for literary lovers and for ordinary readers.
 1978年创刊的《新华文学》,是新加坡作家协会主办的刊物。《品读新华文学》由八方文化出版,品读的对象以发表在《新华文学》杂志上的新华文学作品为主。本书为第一辑,收录25篇本地作家不同体裁作品以及22篇赏析文章。虽然属于文学鉴赏的范畴,但是每篇文章亦可视为言之有物、言之有序的散文,既可供文学爱好者参看,也可为普通读者阅览。
2016Su Dongpo's Zen Buddhist Thinking Reflected in his Mt Lushan Poems

Zhang, A. (2016). Su Dongpo's Zen Buddhist Thinking Reflected in his Mt Lushan Poems. Journal of Jilin Normal University (Humanities & Social Science Edition), 44(6), 22-26.

庐山清赏与东坡禅悟
Zhang AidongJournal-Refereed
 Su Shi's first remote trip of exile was to Huangzhou, Hubei. This post carried a nominal title, but no stipend, leaving Su in poverty. During this exile period, he got some Buddhist friends and began his Buddhist meditation. Four years later, Su was transferred to Ruzhou, which was considered a better place. Before reaching the post, Su visited Mt. Lushan and wrote some poems that carried insightful Zen Buddhist thinking. In this study, I shall analyze these poems with a focus on Su Shi’s Zen thinking and his enlightenment.
 元丰三年(1080)到元丰七年(1084),苏轼经历了乌台诗案后被贬黄州,又由黄州贬所“量移”汝州。经过一番痛苦的历练,对苏轼身心的震撼是不言而喻的。而痛定之后,随之而来的是对仕宦之途的反思和对人生、对生命的多方思考。本文以苏轼游历庐山的诗作为主轴,对其具禅悟特点的几首诗歌进行分析,概括苏轼禅悟的历程,梳理其禅悟的时代与个人因素的关系,进而得出结论:苏轼正是通过多方禅悟消解困境,养性安心,他“奇崛”的人生经历最终玉成了他“此心安处是吾乡”的了悟。

[关键词] 苏轼;庐山;人生求索;禅悟;此心安处
2015Study on Guoyu

Li, J. (2015). Discussion on Various Interpretations of Guoyu’s Nature. Chinese Confucian Classics (Tsinghua University), 16, 167-182.

《国语》研究
Li JiaScholarly Book (Refereed)
 This book researched on Guoyu comprehensively and systematically from catalog, edition, compilation, structural patterns, writing characteristics, and etc. The book firstly clarified the history of carving, revision and spread of the Gongxu edition in the Song, Ming and Qing periods and comments on the value of the Jinli’s Zeyuantang edition. Guoyu has many issues of disagreement and controversy; the book reviewed the compilation, the specific purpose and the nature of Guoyu, and drew new conclusions, thus revealing the important position of Guoyu in the early Chinese Classical Studies and historiography. In addition, the book focused on the characteristics of the Yu, and placed it under the background of the development of the pre-Qin Yu ti, thus opening up the significance of its stylistic research.
 从目录版本、编纂成书、篇章结构、文本细读、文学成就等多方面,对《国语》一个较为全面、系统的研究。对《国语》版本系统尤其是公序本和明道本的刊刻、修补和流传作了清楚追索。该书集中讨论了《国语》许多众说纷纭的关键性问题,诸如纂者、编纂目的、性质等问题,进而得到新的结论,从而揭示出《国语》在中国早期经学和史学上所占据的重要地位。此外,该书关注《国语》的“语”书特征,将之置于先秦语体发展演进的大背景之下进行定位,从而开拓了其文体学研究的重要意义。
2015Discussions of the Various Interpretations of the Nature of the Guoyu

Li, J. (2015). Study on Guoyu (PP. 280). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press.

《国语》性质诸说平议
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 There has been a lot of debate on Guoyu’s nature, and this paper criticises the opinions of “Guobieshi” (history of the States) , “ziliao huibian” (compilation of materials), affirms the rationalities of the opinions of “yushu” (discourses of the States) and “waizhuan” (informal commentary). This paper shares the following views. 1) Although Guoyu kept much rare historical records, it did not record real history on purpose. 2) It adopted conversations to compile the book, but Yu was not the compiling purpose. 3) Guoyu had a close relationship with Chunqiu, and the former did not interpret Chunqiu literally, but it protected virtue and fought vice and promoted the principle of Chunqiu, so it could be regarded as a book of Confucianism to spread the principle.
 对于《国语》的性质,历来众说纷纭,莫衷一是。 通过对“国别史”说、“数据汇编说”、“语书”说以及“外传”说进行梳理与辨析,本文认为《国语》虽然在客观上保存了许多珍贵的史料,却并非以实录历史为目的;采用对话的方式编写;但记“语”却并非编纂意图;《国语》与《春秋》关系密切,虽不从文字上解经,却有褒善贬恶、弘扬《春秋》大义的用心,可谓“传义”的儒学化典籍。
2015Analysis on the Critical Reviews of Overseas Chinese Poetry by Yi Junzuo

Newsletter for International China Studies Vol.10 Journal

易君左“华侨诗话”摭评

国际汉学通讯
Wang BingBook Chapters
 Yi Junzuo’s Huaqaio Shihua (Critical Reviews of Overseas Chinese Poetry) published in 1956, consists of three parts: “Notes on Poets and Poems of Overseas Chinese”, “Modern Criticism of Poets and Poetry”, and “Selected Contemporary Poems.” By reading this book, one can get some noteworthy information. First, with migration of some modern scholars, Classical Chinese poetic criticism gradually gained its roots in Southeast Asia. Second, Yi has shown in-depth research on poetic works from the late Qing to early Republic period. Third, Yi’s poetic thought reflected in his comment on other poets’ works.
 《华侨诗话》是易君左先生1956年收集编着的融海外华侨诗作选录与评点为一体的诗话著作,并附有近代名家诗论与现代古体诗选。翻检此著,实有三方面信息值得关注:其一,伴随着近代文人的移民迁徙,中国古典诗学已在东南亚诸国流播开来,其创作情形于此书可窥见一斑;其二,此书对于清末以至民国时期的知名诗家颇有研究,且所论诸家又为君左长辈先贤或同辈师友,极具文献价值;其三,易君左本人亦精通古典诗词创作,于评点他人诗作中亦可见其诗学观点。
2015Lin Shu as an Anthologist and Reviewer

Journal of Zhejiang University (Humanities and Social Sciences) Journal

作为选评家的林纾

浙江大学学报(人文社科版)
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Addition to the well-known ancient-style prose writer and translator of Western fiction, Lin Shu’s achievements included two dozen anthologies, all of which were full of commentary. On the editing motivations, there were commercial interests from the publishing industry especially the Commercial Press and large demand of textbooks brought by new educational system, besides Lin’s attempt to save ancient-style prose by anthologies. On the criticism of anthologies, Lin’s anthology series were two features with increasingly obvious literary concepts and, diverse and systematic practice of the commentary. Obviously, Lin’s self-image as an anthologist and reviewer was shaped by his numerous editing practices from the late Qing to early Republic period.
 林纾的成就除了众所周知的古文创作与小说翻译之外,尚有二十余部古文选本存世,且皆有评注。就编选动因而言,林纾系列选本除了力延古文之一线以外,也有清末出版业尤其是商务印书馆的商业考量,以及新式教育下教材热的积极推动;就选本批评而言,古文观念的融隐入显与评点实践的多元、系统为其主要特征。显然,在清末民初的选本热潮中,林纾凭借大量的编选实践又为自己塑造了一个选评家的角色。
2015Flower in the Mirror: the Search of Happy Land--a Comparative Study

Zhang, A (2015). Flower in the Mirror: the Search of Happy Land--a Comparative Study. In Kang, S. (Ed.), Collection of Essays on Chinese Fiction and Drama (selected papers from the 5th International Conference of Chinese Fiction and Drama) (pp. 55-68). Taipei: The Lernbook Publishing Co.Ltd.

《镜花缘》之乐土探寻——中西比较、文化解读
Zhang AidongBook Chapters
 Flowers in the Mirror contributes to the longing for ideal land in the end of the Qing dynasty that cultivated the traditional utopian thinking. The author's ideal society is expressed through the "ComityA of Nation". The name itself in Chinese, junzi, and is originally from Confucius tradition which means a person of noble character and integrity. Figment of the author's imagination, there is no putridity; no bribes between officials; citizens are all good-natured and live a joyful life under a steady and rich government.

Gulliver's Travels examines human nature through a misanthropic lens and through satire examines the changes English society was undergoing. The tale depicts the journey of Lemuel Gulliver, an Englishman, and his peculiar encounters. However, after all the adventurous experience, he is finally able to return to his home in England where he recovers from these unusual experience and however sets again on a new voyage.
 清代李汝珍(约1763-1830)的长篇游记小说《镜花缘》以唐武则天时代为叙事背景,描述了唐敖等人游历海外三十余国的奇异经历,也叙写了百花仙子及群芳因过被贬红尘,最终返本归原的故事。此小说思想新颖,想象丰富,充满机智。作者继承《山海经》的描绘,凭借丰富的学识,并以幽默、夸张的手法走笔,不仅寄寓了作者对幸福乐土、理想地域的探寻和构想,也折射出中华文化思维方面的一些特点。

十八世纪英国作家斯威夫特(Jonathan Swift(1667—1745)的《格列佛游记》(Gulliver's Travels)也是一部游记体小说。作品通过主人公离奇的经历和遭遇,辛辣地嘲讽了英国当时的社会政治,统治集团的昏庸,学术的荒谬,以及殖民战争的残酷暴戾等怪异的社会现实,其中也寄寓了作者对理想社会的求索。

上述两部小说,产生的地域不同,时间相距近百年,在东西方都拥有大量的读者群。本文尝试从作者不同的时代及思想文化背景出发,通过对比这两部小说于幸福地域的探寻,找出东西方文化与思维方式上的一些特点和差异。
2015Theory of shi: Wang Fuzhi vs. Liu Xie

Zhang, A (2015). Theory of shi: Wang Fuzhi vs. Liu Xie. In Anhui Normal University (Ed.) Proceedings of The 9th International Conference of Oriental Poetics (pp. 617-624). Wuhu, China: Anhui Normal University.

船山、刘勰“势”论比较
Zhang AidongConference Presentations (with publication)
 Wang Fuzhi is regarded as one of the most sophisticated original minds in the history of Chinese thought. He is also considered the prominent figure of the Chinese culture. His commentaries and other writings on topics such as cosmology and poetics have fascinated readers of all kinds.

In his poetics, Wang emphasizes the significance of good poetry that should exhaust both the principles of physics and metaphysics and go beyond the superficiality and as well reinforce the poetic influence or natural tendency shi.

In my paper, I intend to examine the key concept of Wang Fuzhi’s poetic theory shi. Furthermore, I shall discuss the similar concept which the Six Dynasties’ critic Liu Xie used in his critical works.
 六朝文学理论家刘勰和明清之际学者王船山生活在不同的历史时代。他们才高识卓,学问丰赡。两位大家都深刻的文学艺术见解,开阔不拘、又极具层面。

刘勰论“势”有着六朝时代的现实条件和理论依据;此“势”既与先秦诸子和兵法著作相关概念密切关联,又有语言层面的意义。

船山要在以“势”论诗,而“势”标志着言内之意与言外之意,景语和情语的内在联系和必然规律。他强调上乘诗作应缩万里于咫尺,变千年于一瞬,“无字处皆其意”,从而引发无穷的韵外之致。诗歌之动人,在其景外生景,言外有意,寥寥数句便让人遐想无限,达至“墨气所射,四表无穷” 的效果。船山之“势”论于刘勰之“势”有承继,但更是极大丰富并相当有创意地发展了此一概念,为后人留下了一份宝贵的文学理论遗产。

两位大家的诗论皆极有见地,本文尝试对其“势”论述进行一些梳理,分析比较以期得出某些启示。
2014An Analysis of the Compilation of the Guoyu

Li, J. (2014). An Analysis of the Compilation of the Guoyu. Historical Review (Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences), 146(2), 14-24.

《国语》编纂析论
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 It is truly difficult to determine Guoyu’s compilation since its chronology is very far. The paper is dedicated to the close reading of the texts and case studies to reconsider Guoyu’s readership and conjecture the compiler’s compilation intention. Most of the writings fall into four sections of remonstrance, or three sections of prophecy, both of which serve as caution. The compiling purpose of Guoyu is to make coming or current dominant statesman absorb experiences and lessons through successes or failures of the States. Based on studying the three discourses of Jin, the paper speculates that the book was compiled under a specific purpose. The compiler chose and enriched the discourses of the States according to its internal system although not perfectly.
 有关《国语》一书编纂诸问题,由于其成书古老而甚难考索。本文指出《国语》透过历史上的善恶成败事迹,向执政者进谏,使之从中得到经验教训,从而更好的修身治国。而这一编纂目的是藉该书所采用的劝谏性的四段式,和具有预言性的三段式结构达成。这种首尾呼应的篇章结构,有效的服务于该书鉴察往事,警戒将来的编纂目的。另外,该书所记史实多有出入,亦可证明其并非以实录历史为目的;而善恶兼记的特点则可证“明德”说的不足。此外,《晋语》中有连续三篇所载内容相似,但是三篇字数的多寡,内容的繁简,以及篇章的结构等都很不相同,通过比较分析,不难发现三篇的内容显然存在着由简到繁的衍变过程。本文认为《国语》的写作是作者在明确的编纂目的指导之下,将各国语书数据选择、充实、润色,虽未尽统一,却具有清晰的内在系统性。
2014Poetry Anthologies’ Strategy for Constructing of Literary History: A Focus on Contemporary Anthologies of the Early Qing

Ming Qing Studies 2014 Book Chapter pp. 181-203

诗歌选本的文学史建构策略: 以清初当代选本为中心
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Anthology of Qing poetry not only can edit and save the documents of Qing poetry, but also act as a carrier of poetic criticism. In the late case, Selector’s awareness of the literary history, as well as Qing Poetry Anthology played the unique role in constructing the Qing poetry history is its reflection of critical function. Of course, this construction can be started from two angles, namely the individual subjective choice and the collective selection by several anthologies. After the combination of these two strategies, a relatively objective Qing poetry history will then be presented to readers in a special form.
 清诗选本不仅承担着辑录、保存清诗文献的功能,而且还是诗学批评的重要载体。其中,清诗选家的文学史意识以及清诗选本在清诗史构建过程中发挥的独特作用就是其诗学批评功能的一种体现。当然,清诗选本对清诗史的构建可以从两个角度来审视,即选家个体的主观选择和多部选本的集体筛选。经过这两种策略的合力之后,一个相对客观的清诗史就会以特殊的形式呈现在读者面前。
2014A Commentary on Chinese Drama Research in Singaporean Academia

Ethnic Arts Quarterly Journal

新加坡华语戏曲研究述评

民族艺术
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 After a long period of transfer and spread, classical Chinese drama has been widely accepted by local Chinese in Singapore. Moreover, it gradually displays its Southeast Asian style by absorbing local culture. Meanwhile, the study of classical Chinese drama in Singapore shows a different landscape compared to Chinese academia. In terms of research direction, Singapore researchers have conducted fruitful research on ritual theatre, local operas and distinctive features in language and music Chinese drama. With respect to research methodology, local scholars pay more attention to the combination of the traditional and interdisciplinary studies, the integration of theoretical discussion and documents analysis, and the connections between study, teaching and performing of Chinese drama.
 经过漫长的移植流播,中国古典戏曲不仅早已在东南亚华人聚居的新加坡落地生根,而且在与当地社会文化因子融合之后,逐渐带有南洋本土色彩。与此相应,新加坡学界的华语戏曲研究也在某种程度上呈现出与中国学界不同的景观。就研究的内容向度而言,新加坡学界的宗教仪式剧研究成果颇丰,在地化地方戏研究用力甚多,戏曲语言与戏曲音乐研究特色鲜明;就研究的形式向度而言,新加坡学界注重三方面的结合,即传统研究路径与跨学科研究方法的结合,理论研究与史料整理的结合,以及戏曲研究与戏曲教学、表演的结合。
2014A Summary on Yi Junzuo’s Works

Newsletter of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy [Taiwan] Journal

民国文人易君左著作述要

中国文哲研究通讯
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Yi Junzuo was a famous and controversial litterateur during the Republican China, who continued to write and propound ideas in Hong Kong and Taiwan after 1949. On the one hand, he has lived in the north and south and traveled around the quartet; on the other hand, he was good at poetry and prose, was skilled in the calligraphy and painting together with talent and inspiration, so the number of his extant works was even more than 70 covering academic book, travel prose, biography, essays and poetry etc. This article aims to arouse the attention of the academia to scholars moved from North to South since the Republican China through briefly reviewed Yi Junzuo’s existing works.
 易君左是民国时期颇有声名且具争议的文人,1949年以后避居香港、台湾,继续著书立说。其一生辗转南北,游历四方,诗文书画,皆有所长,加之天资聪慧,文思泉涌,故而存世著作多达七十余部,涵盖学术论著、游记散文、传记、杂文、诗词等多个门类。本文即对经眼之易氏著作进行简明扼要之述评,以期唤起学界对民国以降自北南移文人的关注。
2014The Surplus of Meaning: a Notion in the Poetic Theory of Zhong Rong (ca.468-518)

Zhang,A. (2014). The Surplus of Meaning: a Notion in the Poetic Theory of Zhong Rong (ca.468-518). Chinese Language and Literature Research, 5(3), 70-74.

文尽意余”的诗歌美学——钟嵘《诗品》之形象喻示批评及启示
Zhang AidongJournal-Refereed
 The traditional Chinese critical device of using concrete and lively imagery to comment on poetry or poetic styles s clearly illustrated in Zhong Rong's Shipin. As commonly regarded, Zhong Rong is the first or among the first critics to use this device extensively in poetry criticism. This approach to literary works later became a basic model in literary and art criticism.

Zhong Rong is the earliest critic who tries to play on the paradox of language. Putting forward his famous definition of the poetic device xing (stimulus), he wrote: "When words come to an end but meaning lingers on, it is xing." This definition typified the maturity of the Chinese poetics at this time. It showed that the critics were not only aware of the paradox of language and were perplexed by it, but were also willing to take the advantage of this paradox. Their poetics might not emerge at a purely conscious level, however, their attempt -- working on the paradoxical relation between words and meanings in writing -- turned out to be a conscious one. It is this consideration of the relation between words and meanings that developed into the most distinctive and influential style of Chinese poetics.
 文尽意余”的诗歌美学——钟嵘《诗品》之形象喻示批评及启示 南 朝 钟 嵘 的 《诗 品 》是 中 国 古 代 第 一 部 诗 歌 批 评 专 著 。 与 前 代 政 教 为 中 心 的 诗 学 截 然 不 同 ,他 的 诗 论 着 眼 于 诗 歌 作 为 独 立 体 式 审 美 创 造 的 特 点 和 规 律 。 强 调 诗 歌 运 用 “即 目 ” “直寻 ”而“有滋 味 ”的“兴”体语 言达至 “文已 尽而意有余 ”的效果 。 论述 诗人与诗 作也着重于 个 体风格和艺 术魅力 。 诗歌 品评同诗歌 创作一样 ,其 形态和发展 离不开民 族文化 、哲学 思维的沾 溉 。 在 钟嵘的 诗学体 系 中 ,从 诗歌创 造 、诗篇 构 成 到 读 者 赏 鉴 、兴 象 构 成 ,都 极 为重 要 。

关 键 词 :形 象 喻 示 ;兴 ;言 与 意 ;文 已 尽 而 意 有 余 ;直 寻 ;滋 味
2013A Series of 4 Graded Picture Books for Pre-schoolers: The Little Caterpillar Series

Tan, C. L. (Ed.). (2013). A Series of 4 Graded Picture Books for Pre-schoolers: The Little Caterpillar Series. Singapore: NTU-SCCL Press. 

小毛虫丛书
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The Little Caterpillar Series is a graded picture book published by the Singapore Chinese Language Teaching and Research Center of Nanyang Technological University in cooperation with Lu Feng Technology. It is designed according to the reading ability and needs of preschool children.

This pre-school graded picture book has four levels and is suitable for children aged 3 to 7 years old. Parents and teachers can also choose to read the book according to the Chinese reading ability of the child, and let the children read from shallow level to deep level step by step.

This series has the characteristics of targeted, interesting content, and rich auxiliary activities.

Each book in the "Little Caterpillar Series" is accompanied by an interactive CD. In addition to the story animation, there are also reading activity sheets and MP3 files, so that adults and children can read, have fun and discover that learning Chinese is so interesting!
 《小毛虫丛书》分级读本系列

《小毛虫丛书》是南洋理工大学新加坡华文教研中心与陆锋科技合作出版的分级绘本,根据学前孩童的阅读能力和需要量身设计。

这套学前分级绘本共有四个级别,适合3到7岁的孩童阅读。家长和教师也可以根据孩童的华文阅读能力选择读本,更可以让孩童由浅而深,循序渐进地进行阅读。

本丛书具有目标针对性、图文内容趣味性、辅助活动丰富等特色。

《小毛虫丛书》每本书均附互动光碟,内容除了故事动画,还有阅读活动单与MP3档案,让大人小孩读得开心、看得开心、玩得也开心,学华文原来这么有趣!
2013Two Reflections on Chinese Literature in Global Contexts

Cultural China [Canada] Journal

关于中华文学域外传播的两点思考──理论原则和策略选择

文化中国
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 “Chinese Literature in Global Contexts” as an academic hot topic need demonstrate and reflect on two related questions: 1) Theoretical investigation and practical principles of Chinese literature in global contexts. In the former case, The theories of Talcott Parsons’ “Cultural Latency” and M. M. Bakhtin’s “Outsidedness” not only proved the necessity and importance of the extra-territorial spread of Chinese literature, but also explained the basic strategies and position. In the latter case, Chinese literature in global contexts should be hierarchical for audience, gradual to spread process and selective from the dissemination of content; 2) particularity and strategic options of Chinese literary translation. Literary translation have some unique properties such as the aesthetic, creative, cross-cultural and acceptable, so Chinese literary translation should not be certain kind of translation theory as the sole criterion; the appropriate translation strategy for popular readers should be an unity of domesticating in language and foreignizing in culture; professional interpreters should be local-based and supplemented by sinologists.
 当下,“华文文学域外传播”在成为学界热点话题之际,亟需论证和思考两个相关问题:其一,华文文学域外传播的理论考察与实践原则。就理论层面而言,巴赫金之“外位性”思想和帕森斯之“文化维模”理论足以证明华文文学域外传播的必要性和重要性,同时也提供了应该注意的策略和秉持的立场。就实践层面而言,华文文学之域外传播,从接受主体而言要有层次性,从传播过程而言要有渐进性,从传播内容而言要有选择性;其二,华文文学外译的特殊性与策略选择。由于文学翻译具有审美感、创造性、跨文化和可接受等独特属性,因此,华文文学外译不宜以某种翻译理论为唯一标准;面向大众读者较为合适的翻译策略是语言的归化与文化的异化的统一;华文文学外译人才应该以本土翻译家为主,合理吸收汉学家的翻译成果。
2013Presentation of Awareness of Literary History in the Selections of Qing Poetry

The New Asia Journal [Hong Kong] Journal

论清诗选本中文学史意识的呈现

新亚学报
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Numerous selections of Qing poetry are as a unique phenomenon in the history of Qing literature. These poetry selections represent a golden age of poetry creation in Qing Dynasty, revealing the literature history awareness demonstrated in the form of complicated criticism. This sense of literary history could be reflected in the preface and postscript of the selections, and also revealed in the concise comments by anthologists, even implied in the compiling process. Specifically in the inner meaning, the selections of Qing poetry not only introspect on the laws of poetry evolution in past dynasties and describe the development of Qing poetry, but also guide the mainstream poetic style and propagate some traditional literary ideas in different periods of Qing dynasty. In the strategies of presentation, the subjective selection of individual selector describes unique history of literature mainly through the number of selection and poet’s predilection of verse forms. The collective selection of many anthologies is more likely to choose the famous poets and their masterpieces, which can represent the highest achievement of Qing poetry, and give expression to their awareness of literary history in the process of evaluation. In brief, through exploring the awareness of literary history in the selections of Qing poetry, we have reason to believe that these selections are integral part of literary criticism in Qing Dynasty, and claim that they have similar critical functions with other forms of criticism.
 为数众多的清诗选本可谓是清代文学史上一道独特的风景。它们不仅昭示着清代诗歌创作的异常繁盛,同时也运用复合型的批评方式来表达选本的文学史意识。即这种文学史意识的彰显既可以显现于选本序跋作者的评论中,亦可流露于选者言简意赅的点评中,还有可能暗含在选者的选文过程中。具体而言,在内在意涵方面,清诗选本既有对历代诗歌发展演进规律的反思以及清诗发展脉络的梳理,也有对清代不同时期主流诗风的导引以及某些传统文学观念的阐扬;呈现策略方面,单个清诗选本主要通过选文数量的多寡、作者对某种诗体的擅长程度等手段来进行其个性化的文学史描述。多部清诗选本的集体筛选则更易遴选出能代表清诗发展成就的名家名作,组成一个相对完整的序列,在对名家的抑扬、进退中显示出清诗选本的文学史意识。总之,通过对清诗选本文学史意识多重意涵和呈现方式的挖掘,我们更有理由确信,清诗选本就是清代文学批评的一个有机组成部份,完全具备其他理论文本的批评职能。
2013Analysis on the Research for Khoo Seok Wan in the Singapore Academia

Newsletter for Research in Chinese Studies [Taiwan] Journal

邱菽园研究的回顾与前瞻

汉学研究通讯
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Khoo Seok Wan was the modern well-known overseas Chinese who was resident in Singapore. He not only had legendary experiences, but also obtained many achievements in the political movements, culture and education, as well as literary creations. With regard to this, Singapore academic research centered around three areas, including his life, career and literature, and created a number of research results with the advantage of collecting documents. What’s more, according to research status and characteristics in Chinese academic circles, arrangement of the original documents and expansion of research perspective will be focal points on studying of Khoo Seok Wan in the future.
 邱菽园是近代寓居新加坡的知名华侨,不仅人生经历富有传奇色彩,而且在政治运动、文教事业以及文学创作等方面皆颇有建树。为此,新加坡学术界的邱菽园研究亦主要围绕其生平、事业和文学研究三个领域展开,并借文献搜罗之便利,初步积累了一些研究成果。当然,结合当下华文学界的研究成果和研究特点而言,整理原始文献和拓展研究视域仍将是未来邱菽园研究的重点趋势。
2012On Ji An’s Memoir in Shiji and its English translation

Paper presented at Early Chinese History Workshop VI, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

论《史记》中的汲黯及其英译中的问题
Li JiaConference Presentations(without publication)
 This is on Ji An who lived in the period of the reign of Emperor Jing to Emperor Wu in the Han dynasty. His idea reflected the transformation process of ruling ideology from Huang-Lao Zi to Confucianism in this period. On the political governance methods, Ji An advocated Huang-Lao Zi, governing by Non-Intervention, and received effective results; as a minister, he adhered to Confucian doctrine, was loyal to the Monarch, and was also respected by Emperor Wu. Because of his devoted attitude, he was appreciated by Emperor Wu. On the other hand, the Emperor estranged and kept him away for his upright character. This paper also discusses some problems in its English translation.
 生活在汉景帝至汉武帝时期的汲黯,为西汉从黄老之术到儒术独尊转变过程中的典型人物。在治政之策上,他有效采用黄老之术,无为而治;在君臣之道上,他恪守儒家学说,忠君报国。面对这样的一位有“异己”思想的忠诚直臣,汉武帝表现出了既欣赏又疏远的态度。另外,本文将重点讨论对于《汲黯列传》中一些令人费解的文本,并且探讨其英译中出现的问题。
2012Moving Away from the Middle Path and View of Nature: Centered on Jiao Ran’s “Notion of Beauty and Artlessness”

Li, J. (2012). Moving Away from the Middle Path and View of Natural: Centered on Jiao Ran’s Notion of Beauty and Artlessness. Journal of Hefei Normal University, 30(2), 86-89.

中道自然观的渐行渐远:以皎然“至丽而自然”为中心
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 JIAO Ran was a poetry critic in the Tang Dynasty. Deeply steeped in the Daoist, Buddhist and Confucian traditions, he was considered a very important poet, often anthologised, and his completed works were collected on the Emperor’s orders. He wrote significant literary criticism, and was an important influence on the Ancient-Style Prose Movement of his time. This paper attempts to focus on his “Zhi li er ziran” (the most beautiful thing is natural) to discuss one of the Chinese poetry theories, that is to say, “Zhongdao” theory (the Middle Path, originated from the Buddhist Thought). Perhaps, the most successful Chinese Buddhist poet to resolve this paradox was Jiao Ran who proposed treatment of poetry as an intellectual instrument of Buddhist practice.
 以唐代诗评家皎然提出的“至丽而自然”说为中心,考察古代诗论中的中道自然观进行,可以看出,皎然的自然观更多地继承了盛唐风神,将之归入盛唐诗学的范畴更为合理。中道自然观渐渐淡出了后代诗论家的关注视野。
2012An Analysis of Guoyu’s Literary Nature

Li, J. (2012). An Analysis of Guoyu’s Literary Nature. Journal of Fu Jen Catholic University, 35, 86-105.

《国语》文学析论
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Guoyu is an important Chinese classic during the Pre-Qin Period. In fact, the study on its literary nature should have attracted more research. This paper mainly focuses on Guoyu’s discourse organisation, arguing method and writing style. Recording discourses in the events, made each chapter narrate one event completely. The author specialised in using foreshadowing, which is the hint dropped by the narrator on events about to happen or characters to appear later in the text. The author also applied an extravagant decoration and embellishment to make the plot complicated. Guoyu was very good at reasoning. It has definite argument, penetrating discussion and precise logic. Guoyu used a lot of arguing methods. Its language was exaggerated and somewhat imaginative which is full of satiric humour and subtle tactfulness. All above-mentioned has great effects on the narrative literary world in the later generations.
 《国语》乃中国先秦一部重要的典籍,但对该书的文学性探讨尚有欠深入。本文主要从篇章组织、说理方式以及行文风格等三个方面对《国语》的文学性进行析论。 认为《国语》于事中记语的篇章结构,使得每篇能以一事为起讫,因而在叙事的完整性上具有优长;在具体的写作上,该书善设伏笔,常常运用铺排、渲染之法欲抑先扬,从而使得情节曲折富有波澜。《国语》一书擅长说理,观点明确、议论透辟、逻辑严谨;注重论证,娴熟运用了多种论证方法,言辞富艳铺张,亦不乏虚构与夸张。在行文上,《国语》常有讽刺幽默、绵里藏针者,其文风韵藉婉转、意味悠长,这些都为后世古文家所称许和借鉴。
2012Anthology, Criticism and Canonization: An In-Depth Analysis of Ancient Chinese Literary Anthologies

Frontiers of Literary Studies in China Journal

选集,批评与经典化:对中国古代文学选本的深层分析
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Literary anthology is one of the key categories in ancient literary theory and criticism in China. Theoretically, anthology criticism falls into three groups: 1) the preface and postscript, 2) the annotation of the anthology, and 3) the selected works themselves. Due to its uniqueness, anthology criticism possesses two combinations, i.e. combination of direct explanation and indirect apprehension; combination of critical theory and practice. This paper claims that anthology as literary criticism has great theoretical value, which embodies literary concepts, summarizes literary development and promotes literary transmission. Therefore, literary anthology serves a compulsory part in canonization of Chinese literature.
 文学选本是中国古代文学理论与批评的一种重要形式。 从理论上说,选本批评可分为三个部分:1)序跋,2)选本的注释,3)所选作品本身。 由于其独特性,选本批评具有两种组合,即显性阐释和间接理解的组合以及批评理论与实践的结合。本文认为选本作为一种文学批评具有很大的理论价值,体现选者的文学观念,总结文学之发展,亦能促进文学传播。 因此,文学选本在中国文学的经典化过程中起到了十分重要的作用。
2012On the Three Great Poets in the Jiangzuo Area in the Context of Selections of Qing Poetry

Journal of Inner Mongolia University (Humanities and Social Sciences) Journal

刍议清诗选本视域中的 “江左三大家”

内蒙古大学学报(人文社会科学版)
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 There are many famous poets in the early Qing Dynasty, both adherents of a former dynasty and turncoat official, also the new talents and backbone of the contemporary Parnassus. Among them, Three Great Poets in the Jiangzuo Area is the most outstanding. In the process of canonization, Qing selections of Qing poetry play a very important role. On one hand, the selectors can use the carrier of their selections to choose a large number of famous poems, and accelerate the spread of writers and their works, and then achieve their canonization in the early Qing Dynasty; On the other hand, Qing selections of Qing poetry also provide an in-depth reflection about famous masterpieces for future generations of researchers, i.e. We can explore the complex process of poets’ canonization in contemporary or after the time, and the changes or evolution of their fame status by the study of Qing selections. Therefore, this article will take Three Great Poets in the Jiangzuo Area, in order to concretely analyze the process of poets’ canonization in the horizon of Qing selections of Qing poetry.
 清初诗坛名家众多,既有前代之遗民、贰臣,亦有本朝之新秀、中坚,其中尤以“江左三大家”最为卓著。在这些名家经典化的过程中,清诗选本扮演了十分重要的角色。一方面,清诗选家利用选本之载体,选录大量名家之诗作,加速了清初作家作品的流播,进而成就了清初作家的经典化;与此同时,清诗选本也为后世研究者提供了一个深入观照名家名作的视角,即通过清诗选本的考察,来探究清初作家在其时或其后诗坛中经典地位形成的复杂过程,以及声名地位的变化演进轨迹。本文遂以最有代表性的“江左三大家”为例,具体剖析清初名家在清诗选本视域中的经典化生成。
2011An Analysis of Chu and Han Advisers Who Had No Biography in the Shiji

Shiji. Xiangyu Culuture, 3, 2-8.

试论《史记》中无传的楚汉谋士
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 This paper discusses those advisors or strategists who had no biography during Chu and Han period in Shiji. It will compare the different attitudes and behaviours of Liu Bang and Xiang Yu to small advisers and probe reasons for Han’s success and Chu’s failure. It will also explore the imperative role of those small advisors to the special historical period, Chu-Han War and Han’s establishment, through the different situation of several founders of the state. Finally, it will analyse the great skill of Sima Qian’s writing.
 本文围绕楚汉时期那些在《史记》中没有传记的谋士、辩者展开,通过比较刘邦、项羽对待小谋士的不同态度和行为,探讨汉胜楚负的原因;并从汉初几位大功臣的遭际,探讨小谋士在楚汉战争以及汉初立国这一特殊时期对历史的推动作用。最后简析司马迁在记载这些谋士时所体现出的高超笔法。
2011On the Principle and Presentation on the Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Vol I, Edited by Stephen Owen

Li, J. & Qu, J. Y. (2011). On the Principle and Presentation on the Cambridge History of Chinese Literature (Volume I) Edited by Stephen Owen. Culture & Poetics (Beijing Normal University), 1, 298-319.

论宇文所安编《剑桥中国文学史》(上卷)之理念与呈现
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 This paper, by way of an analysis of Cambridge History of Chinese Literature ,Vol I, edited by Prof Stephen Owen, Prof Owen’s opinions on Compilation of Literature History in his earlier works and comparison with History of Chinese Literature edited by Prof Yuan Xingpei, probes Prof Owen’s concept in his new history of Chinese literature. This paper considers how Cambridge History of Chinese Literature underpinned the historicism methodology, emphasised the logic of acceptance and proposed that literature history was an account on previous literature and culture, and itself formed a part of literature history and the forming of Classics went through a series of complicated Intermediary, etc. In addition, this new literature history paid much attention to the role of cultural heritage on literature and the uncertainty of literature development. This book broke through the traditional literature stage according to the dynasties and carried out the concept of literary standard in writing the literature history. In a word, this book proposed many new opinions from the “bystanders”.
 通过对宇文所安教授主编的《剑桥中国文学史》(第一卷)的分析,结合其以往著作中有关编纂文学史的观点,并与袁行霈教授主编的《中国文学史》进行比较,探讨宇文教授新编文学史理念。本文认为《剑桥中国文学史》秉承了历史主义的研究方法,注重接受史的逻辑思维,提出了文学史是对以往文学文化的叙述、文学史本身就是文学史的一部分、经典的形成经过一系列复杂的中介过程等重要观点。此外,新编文学史还特别关注物质文化对文学的作用、文学发展的不确定性,并打破以朝代进行文学分期的传统、较好的贯彻了以文学本位书写文学史的观念,从“旁观者”的视角提出了颇多新见。
2011Stylistic Rules and Academic Achievements of Du Mu's Commentaries on the Sunzi

Li, J. (2011, May). Stylistic Rules and Academic Achievements of Du Mu's Commentaries on the Sunzi. Paper presented at Conference of Sunwuzi and Shiji, Suzhou, China.

杜牧注《孙子》的体例与创获
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 The paper study of the Commentary on Sunzi by Du Mu proposed that it was an outcome to flourish development of annotation and research upsurge on Sunzi in the Tang Dynasty. Du Mu’s commentary absorbed predecessors’ achievements, such as Cao Cao’s Sunzilvjie & Du You’s Tongdian. On the other hand, Du Mu had many of his own opinions except for its perfect annotation format. There are many citations of non-extant ancient books on the art of war and many famous cases of battles in the history. We can see the understandings of battle theory in the Commentary. It will be very important in Sunzi's research even in Chinese Military Philology.
 本文以杜牧的《孙子》注为研究对象,指出该书是唐朝注释学兴盛发展,以及《孙子》研究热潮下的产物。杜牧注一方面吸收了曹操《孙子略解》以及其祖杜佑在《通典》中对《孙子》的训解成果,另一方面又不被他们的看法所左右,能够自出机杼颇多新见。杜牧的《孙子》注体例完善,注中广引古佚兵书,并且大量征引史实和著名战例,亦不时可见杜牧对《孙子》作战理论的独特心解,丰富了注释的内容。杜牧注《孙子》不仅在《孙子》研究学史乃至军事文献学史上都具有重要的价值。
2011Two Tiers of Nostalgia and a Chronotopic Aura: Xu Zhimo and his Literary Cambridge Identity

Ng, L. S., & Tan, C. L. (2011). Two Tiers of Nostalgia and a Chronotopic Aura: Xu Zhimo and his Literary Cambridge Identity. In Chen, D. (Ed.) International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research: Languages, Literature and Linguistics (pp. 575-580). Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China): International Association of Computer Science & Information Technology.

两个层次的怀旧和“时空氛围”:徐志摩和他文艺作品中的剑桥
Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 More than a turning point in his life, Xu Zhimo’s (1897–1931) Cambridge experience is pivotal in producing and shaping one of the most romantic writers in modern China. Xu created a literary Cambridge that, more than any other foreign places that were portrayed in modern Chinese literature, is Chinese readers’ “dreamland” of the West. When the native Chinese Xu addressed Cambridge as “xiang” (native place), how should we see Xu’s nostalgia for his second homeland? Through his Cambridge works, Xu created a perceived image of the place to his readers, and this image possessed an aura that stood the test of time and space, which we would term as “chronotopic aura”. Furthermore, we shall analyse Xu’s Cambridge experience that evoked his nostalgia and to propose a new reading of Xu’s works on Cambridge in terms of the chronotopic aura between his literary Cambridge identity and his readers.
 徐志摩 (1897-1931)在剑桥的经历除了是他人生的一个重要转捩点,也塑造他成为当代中国浪漫主义作家之一。比起任何出现在现代华文文学里的西方国家,徐志摩文艺作品中的剑桥是不少华人对于西方国家所向往的幻境。当作为一名土生土长的中国人称剑桥为他的“乡”,我们该如何看待徐志摩对于他第二个家乡的思念?通过他的作品,徐志摩创造了他想要其他人都感受到的剑桥,一个经得起时空考验的氛围,或称 “时空氛围”。我们要研究徐志摩的剑桥经历如何勾起他的思念。同时,我们建议根据徐志摩文艺作品中的剑桥和它与读者之间的“时空氛围”重新享受他的作品。
2011The Bilingual Creative Writings of Singapore

新加坡双语创造性写作
Tan Chee LayKeynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 Constant and thorough communication with the different aspects of all potential markets is also essential in promoting a long-term relationship between an organisation and its customers. There are many avenues to communicate with consumers which consist of promotional strategies and marketing mix, however careful consideration must be taken before administrating such actions. These actions, including environmental and social awareness, budgeting and image-building, have a gigantic impact on the results of marketing communications and hence would be discussed and commented upon in the course of this evaluation.
 保持与所有潜在市场各部门进行持续全面的沟通对于促进组织与客户之间的长期关系至关重要。同时,与消费者沟通的途径有很多,这其中包括促销策略和营销组合,但是此类营销行为需要细致的管理及策划。 因为这些行为,不仅包括环境和社会意识,还包括预算编制和形象建设,都会对营销传播的结果产生巨大影响,因此将需要在此评估过程中进行讨论和评价。
2011A Study on Poetry Writing for the Imperial Examination in Conformity with the Imperial Poetics in the Qing Dynasty

Journal of Oriental Studies [Hong Kong] Journal

论官方诗学语境下的清代试律诗创作及其编选

东方文化
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Due to a series of reforms of the Imperial Examination system in the Qing dynasty, the writing and publication of Imperial Examination poems gained increasing popularity among the literati, especially during the reign of Emperor Qianlong (1735-1796). The Qing court prescribed strict rules for these examination poems in terms of structure, rhyming system, and even the use of analogies, though some of new writing styles were acceptable to the official taste. These requirements had not only implications on the recruitment of Imperial officers, but also on the formation and the development of the officially sanctioned poetics of the Qing dynasty.
 伴随着清代官方特别是乾隆朝对科场内容体制的革新,试律诗的创作与试律选本编刻蔚然成风。概括而言,清代试律诗在体例上对结构、用韵和用典有严格要求,在诗法上多承袭范式标准,也允许有部份新变;主题方面,务必要求典雅庄重;风格方面,力求做到巧雅结合。由于这种干禄文体是乾隆以降每个读书人科考入仕的敲门砖,因此,清代试律诗及其选本的产生,也深深地烙上了官方意识形态的印迹。也正是缘于此,清代试律诗的相关研究,必须放置于清代特定的官方诗学语境中,才能得到较为全面的考察。
2011Research on the Acceptance of Chinese Academic Circles for Stephen Owen’s Chinese Studies

Newsletter for Research in Chinese Studies [Taiwan] Journal

论中国学界对宇文所安汉学研究的接受

汉学研究通讯
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Stephen Owen is a well-known American sinologist nowadays and yields substantial results in history of Chinese literature, especially in the poetic history of Tang Dynasty, Chinese literary theory and comparative literature. Since 1980s, Chinese academic circles have traversed three phases accepting Stephen Owen’s sinology, including initial introduction, concentrated comments and multi-dimensional development. Meanwhile, their accepted attitude has undergone a process of being curious and cautious to be crazy and fascinated, and then to be rational and objective. Generally speaking, the merits of Stephen Owen’s study in China reflect in relatively scientific research attitude and diversified criticism carriers, while the imbalance of research orientation and the singularity of discipline field of vision are shortcomings. Therefore, breaking through the usual patterns of thinking and seeking a new angle of study will become a general trend of future study of Stephen Owen.
 宇文所安是当今颇具盛名的美国汉学家,在中国文学史尤其是唐代诗歌史、中国文论以及比较文学等领域成果丰硕。从上世纪八十年代至今,中国学界对宇文所安汉学研究的接受可以分为初始引入、集中介评和多元拓展三个阶段,接受心态也经历了从新奇谨慎到狂热迷恋再到理性客观的转变。总体而言,相对科学的研究态度和多样的批评载体是中国宇文所安研究的优长之处,研究方向的不均衡和学科视野的单一化则是其不足之处。因此,突破惯性思维模式、谋求新的研究角度将成为未来宇文所安研究的总体趋势。
2011On the Poetics of The Poetry by Six Poets from the Western Part of Zhejiang Province

Journal of Zhejiang Gongshang University Journal

论《浙西六家诗钞》的诗学倾向

浙江工商大学学报
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 The Poetry by Six Poets from the Western Part of Zhejiang Province is a selected poetry by six famous poets in the Daoguang period of Qing Dynasty famous poets. The compilers of the poetry are from the western Zhejiang. Wu Ying-he and MA Xun expressed their advocating of Song poems and Tang poems as well through a preface, profiles and comments. In particular, it was embodied in selector’s assessment of the six poets, comments on concrete poems and different interpretations as to poetic style of Qian Zai at that time.
 《浙西六家诗钞》是一部清代道光年间刊刻的选辑浙西六位名家诗作的清诗选本。选家吴应和和马洵在该选本中通过序跋、小传、评点等形式表达了宗宋为主、兼采唐诗的诗学倾向,具体体现于选家对“浙西六家”的评价、对具体诗家诗作的点评以及时人对钱载诗风的不同解读三个方面。
2011On the Periodization and Characteristics of Qing Selections of Qing Poetry

Journal of Chinese Studies [Hong Kong] Journal

论清代清诗选本的分期及其特征

中国文化研究所学报
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Qing selections of Qing poetry are not only numerous but also vary in basic characteristics in different periods. On the basis of the historical framework, and the development of the selections’ typology and their critical consciousness, we can divide Qing selections of Qing poetry into four phases: the initial phase, the prospering phase, the transitional phase, and the summation phase. Classifying Qing selections of Qing poetry into different periods will highlight the basic characteristics of the various phases, enable us to illustrate the development context of Qing selections of Qing poetry, and further our scholarly research.
 清人选清诗不仅数量众多,而且在不同时期的基本特征也有所不同。在梳理历史脉络的基础上,兼及选本类型和批评意识的发展,我们可以将清诗选本分为四个阶段:初始阶段,繁荣阶段,过渡阶段和总结阶段。将清诗诗分为不同阶段,突出各阶段的基本特征,使我们能够阐释清代诗歌的发展背景,并作进一步的学术研究。
2011On Literary Activities and Thought of Wei Yi-jie

Chung Cheng Journal of Chinese Studies [Taiwan] Journal

魏裔介之文学活动与文学思想析论

中正汉学研究
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Wei Yi-jie (1616-1686) was a well-known Neo-Confucianist in the early Qing Dynasty. His literary activities and thought have long been ignored in the academic circles. As a matter of fact, he was not only a diligent writer, contributing a great deal in editing and inscribing literary collections, but also chanted and composed verses adopting the same rhymes and sequence with scholars of different kinds. Expressing personal feelings truthfully, he composed poems and prose with an elegant style. He stressed the autonomy of literature on the basis of “Wen subjecting to Tao”. He introduced the notion of “true poem” based on the value “true temperament”. In addition, he had some deep thinking on the relations between literature and the era, between literary quality and the disposition of the writer. He also articulated his views on poetry appreciation. Giving the consideration to his prominent social status and his influence to the literary circles of his time, this study states that Wei Yi-jie’ s literary achievement both reflected the transformation of the literary style of the end of Ming and early Qing Dynasty, and set a model style for a grand age.
 魏裔介(1616-1686)为清初理学名臣,关于他的文学活动与文学思想,长期以来学术界鲜有关注。实际上,魏裔介在文学活动方面,不仅勤勉为文,喜好弄笔,编选刊刻多种诗文选本,而且与诸阶层文人均有诗文唱酬,往来频密。另外,自身诗文创作亦能做到发抒性情,风格醇雅。在文学思想方面,他不仅在“道主文从”的前提下肯定了文学的独立性,在融合“性情之正”和“性情之真”的基础上倡导“真诗”,还对文学与时代的关係、创作主体的素质以及作文阅诗之法等问题进行了具体深入的思考。结合魏裔介其时位高权重的社会地位和在清初文坛中的社会影响,本文认为,魏裔介的文学成就既反映了明末清初文风的转变,又带有明显地为盛世文风树立典范的功利色彩。
2011On the Formation of the Six Masters of the Early Qing Period

Journal of Macao Polytechnic Institute [Macao] 澳门理工大学学报Journal

论清初“国朝六家”的形成
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Six well-known poets Shi Run-zhang, Song Wan, Zhu Yi-zun, Wang Shi-zhen, Zha Shen-xing, Zhao Zhi-xin were called Six Masters of the Early Qing Period; The forming process of their classic status in the poetic circle at the beginning of Qing dynasty can be divided into two phases: Four Masters of Qing Dynasty and Six Masters of Qing Dynasty. The formation of these two stages is inseparable from the promotion of poetry critics and selectors. Of course, in the formation process of Six Masters of Qing Dynasty, we can also see the diversity of poetry patterns and complexity of evolution in contemporary poetry circle.
 清初六位著名诗人施闰章、宋琬、朱彝尊、王士禛、查慎行、赵执信被合称为“国朝六家”。他们在清初诗坛经典地位的形成,经历了“国朝四家”和“国朝六家”两个阶段,且每个阶段皆与其时诗论家和选家的推助密切相关。当然,在“国朝六家”的形成过程中,我们亦可窥见其时诗坛多元的诗学样态和复杂的演进轨迹。
2011The Complicity between the Poetry Education Thought of Confucians and the Political Teaching

Manzu Minority Research Journal

传统诗教与清廷政教的共谋——以孙鋐和铁保的御敕清诗选本为批评视角

满族研究
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 The anthology of Qing poem intervened by emperors is a unique and important type in the field of Qing anthology. Due to the involvement of the feudal emperors, these elections can basically be regarded as the publicity vehicle of official poetic discourse. Through two anthologies as an example namely HuangQing shixuan and Qinding xichao yasong Ji, We analyze the infiltration process of official discourse into the field of Qing Selected Poems and the formation background of “Qingzhen yazheng” (pure, true and orthodox correctness) poetic styles in Qing Dynasty from two angles which are the complicity between the poetry education thought of Confucians and the political teaching.
 御敕清诗选本是清代选本领域中的一个独特而重要的类型。由于封建帝王的参与, 这些选本基本上可视为清廷官方诗学话语的宣传载体。我们以《皇清诗选》和《钦定熙朝雅颂集》两部御敕清诗选本为例, 从传统诗教与清廷政教“共谋” 的角度来剖析御敕清诗选本的批评意识与实践在清廷官方诗学话语确立过程中所发挥的重要作用, 进而可以从一个新的角度来审视清代诗坛清真雅正诗风的形成背景。
2011Three Topics in Research on Women's Poetry Anthology in Qing Dynasty

Journal of Chinese Studies Chinese Culture University [Taiwan] Journal

清诗女性选本研究

中国文化大学中文学报
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 With the growth of women's writing groups, women's poetry anthology was far more than the previous generation in both quantity and scale during the Qing Dynasty. To explore the reasons for its prosperity, I think that it was mainly due to the growth of Female Writers Group in the Qing Dynasty, the support of well-known scholars on the creation and selection of women’s poems and overall enhancement to the quality of women poetry. These women’s anthologies clearly reflected three characteristics of women's writers Group of Qing Dynasty namely, regional, familial and dependency. In addition, by means of the compilation and interpretation in Qing women’s poetry anthologies, we can also get a glimpse of the conditions of female poetics under the guidance of male poetics in the Qing Dynasty.
 有清一代,女性诗歌选本不论在数量上还是在规模上都远超前代。究其繁盛之原因,主要归功于清代女性创作群体的壮大、知名士人对女性诗歌创作及选本编刻的支持、肯定以及女性诗歌创作质量的全面提升。这些女性选本鲜明地反映了清代女性创作群体的三个特徵,即地域性、家族性和依附性。另外,在清诗女性选本的编纂和释评中,我们也可窥见男性诗学话语主导下的女性诗学样态。
2011Qing Anthologies of Qing poetry in the Context of Poetics of Qing Dynasty

China Social Sciences Press Book

清人选清诗与清代诗学

中国社会科学出版社
Wang BingScholarly Book (Refereed)
 Anthology of Qing poetry by Qing poets is not only one category of selected poetry, but also a unique example of poetic criticism. As for the selection of poetry, it is closely related with constructing history of Qing poetry and the alternate of poetics trend. Therefore, this book is, on the basis of expounding the development of anthology of Qing poetry by Qing poets, to study the relation of Qing Poetry by anthology of Qing Poets and poetics of Qing dynasty so as to explore its function of criticism, try to locate its status and find out its literary value.
 清人选清诗既是诗歌选本的一个类别,同时也是一种独特的诗学批评样式。其编选实践与清代诗歌史的构建、诗学思潮的更迭等皆有较为密切的关系,故本文旨在梳理清人选清诗的发展脉络及其特征的基础上,重点研究清人选清诗与清代诗学之间的关联,深入发掘清人选清诗的批评功能,以期准确定位清人选清诗在清代诗学中的地位和价值。
2009Cambridge Poetics

Tan, C. L. (2010). Cambridge Poetics (PP. 80). Singapore: Firstfruits Publications.

剑桥诗选
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 A poetry collection of poems written in Cambridge University, UK, when he was doing a PhD course in Chinese poetry.
 本书是作者在英国剑桥大学攻读中国诗歌博士课程期间创作的诗歌。
2009Xian-ren-zhang(cactus) Prose series, TAN Chee Lay

陈志锐(2009)。《仙人掌散文系列-陈志锐卷》。新加坡:青年书局。 Chen, Z. R. (2009). Xian-ren-zhang (cactus) prose series - Tan Chee Lay. Youth Books.

仙人掌散文系列,陈志锐卷
Tan Chee LayOthers
 The authors of "Cactus Prose Series" belong to three age groups. They are from different times and each with different experience and living space. There is little intersection between their experiences and reactions to the world or life. In the volume of Tan Chee Lay (Chen Zhirui), "Between Singapore and Taiwan" collected a lot of works by the author who expressed his deep feelings. The works in “Teachers and Students” show the teacher’s expectations and aspirations for himself and for the students, as well as his classes with the students and reflections about them. “Inside the Urban and Rural Areas” collects some works of his travels and journeys, but also includes thoughts of life and his personal emotions. In the "Within the eyes of Books", it collects prefaces or post-reading thoughts written on some cultural relics.
 《仙人掌散文系列》的作者分属三个年龄层,来自不同的年代,各有不同的阅历与生活空间,对世事或人生体验与反应也少有交集点。陈志锐卷中“新台之间”收集了不少作者抒发旅台情怀感触的作品,情感发挥尽至。“师生之际”收集的作品展现了老师对于学生的盼望和与学生在一起的时光和思考。“城乡之内”收集了一些旅行感观的作品,也包括了一些生活点滴感慨之作。“眼纸之中”则收集了对一些文物所写的序文或读后感想等等。
2009The Unexpectedness of Literature: Critical Essays on Modern Chinese Literature and Culture

Tan, C. L. (2009). The Unexpectedness of Literature: Critical Essays on Modern Chinese Literature and Culture. Singapore: Global Publishing (in Chinese).

超越自我体系争议:郭宝崑戏剧独白中的政治策略与抗争
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The book is divided into three parts, the first part is the modern novel review, the second part is the modern prose review, and the third part is the cultural art review. From the perspective of literary extension, the author explores style, inspiration and literary phenomena with a strong sense of intuition and from an “alternative and special” angle. From the perspective of literary connotation, the special alternative content of alienation is also the main object of discussion; from the perspective of literary chronology, the anti-Japanese wars and Kuomintang-Communist co-operations and civil wars in the 1930s, to the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, to the mainlanders who retreated to Taiwan from the mainland between the 1940s to 1980s, to the Taipei movies of the 1990s, and to the "New Three People's Principles" of Singapore in the 21st century, the author picked stories of ordinary people that happened in such a time of dramatic changes, as his subjects of criticism, has its own "special alternative" vision. The author uses a large number of aesthetic theories to interpret life and death from Freud's subconscious mind, to aesthetic master Bock's "distance theory", to Kant's "completeness" and then to the existential master Heidegger's "boarder situation" . The author selects the alternatives in the masterpieces from a special perspective to interpret the mystery in the imagery, measures and construct the literary atmosphere. He combines aesthetics with morality, historical insights with worldly life, and presents his own literary life and philosophy of life. Review itself is poetics. The author's arguments are "unexpected", but the discussions are "expected". His Chinese experience and his time studying in Europe will all bring the readers to a live journey in understanding literary aesthetics.
 本书分为三个部分,第一部分是现代小说评论,第二部分是现代散文评论,第三部分是文化艺术评论。 从文学外延来看,作者带着强烈的直觉意识从“另类”的角度来探讨文体、启发与文学现象; 从文学内涵来看,异化的另类内容也是主要的探讨对象;从文学年表来看,从三十年代的抗日与国共背景,到六十年代的文革,以及从大陆退守台湾的外省人,到九十年代的台北电影,再到二十一世纪新加坡的“新三民主义”,作者从大时代中拣选小故事,作为评论对象,自有其“另类”的眼光。作者运用大量的美学理论,从弗洛伊德的潜意识,美学大师博克的“距离说”到康德的“完满”再到存在主义大师海德格的“极限境况”来诠释生与死。作者以独特的眼光选评大师级作品里的另类,意象里的玄机,并测量文学氛围的温度和营造手法。 他结合美学与道德观照,揉合历史识见、与世俗生命,呈显自己的文学生活与人生哲学,评论本身就是诗学。 作者的论点“出人意料”,论述却是“入人意中”, 他的中国经验与留学欧洲,都将成为一部部亲临现场的文艺美学。
2004Transcending the Self/System Controversy: The Politics and Resistance of Kuo Pao Kun's Monologue (MA Thesis for NUS English Studies)

Tan, C. L. (2004, December). Transcending the Self/System Controversy: The Politics and Resistance of Kuo Pao Kun's Monologue (MA Thesis for NUS English Studies), 101.

超越自我体系争议:郭宝崑戏剧独白中的政治策略与抗争
Tan Chee LayOthers
 This research dissertation hopes to investigate if Kuo Pao Kun has managed to overcome his “biggest problem”, which is the self/System controversy, by examining all three of his monodramas, The Coffin Is Too Big For The Hole, No Parking On Odd Days and The Eagle And The Cat. Two formulae are derived, namely the “Monologic Constant Formula” and the “Monologic Variable Formula”, to capture the similarities and differences within these monologues. While the “Monologic Constant Formula” only creates and demonstrates the current situation and predicament in the self/System dilemma, the spirit of evolution invoked by the “Monologic Variable Formula” actually provides avenues to challenge the System’s domination. Self-empowerment, evolution of a new language of discourse, greater degree of universality with domestic roots, and most importantly, persistence even in recurring failures, are some of these evolutionary changes that can threaten the dominance of the System. In addition, being the only power in his monologue writing, Kuo Pao Kun places himself in the shoes of the selves and the System so as to understand the mechanism of the self/System controversy from the inside out so as to overcome it. Although he may not overcome the controversy, he has provided plausible anti-discursive strategies to narrow the power gap between the self and System. Further enhanced by the “strength of the weak” and “singular-performer” characteristics of monologues, he, as the individual protagonist or the solitary playwright, does not oppose the System directly but transcend it. Therefore, his monodramas are not so much of passive resistance, but of active creation of a new humanity space. With such, the conclusion finally asserts that Kuo Pao Kun is the most representative cultural icon in Singapore.
 本文通过三篇戏剧独白,《棺材太大洞太小》、《单日不可停车》及《老鹰与猫》就郭宝崑是否已经克服其创作中的“最大问题”,即自我体系争议展开调查。由此推出两个公式,即“Monologic Constant Formula(独白常量公式)”和“Monologic Variable Formula(独白变量公式)”,以捕捉这些独白中的相似点和不同点。虽然“独白常量公式”只能创造和展示自我体系困境中的当下情境和困恼,但“独白变量公式”中引用的进化精神实际上为挑战自我体系统治的权威提供了途径。

自我赋权,新式话语演变,源于本土却深于本土普遍性,以及最重要的,屡败屡战的坚持,都是可能威胁到自身体系主导地位的进化性变革。此外,作为独白戏剧写作中唯一的力量,郭宝崑将自己置身于自我和自我所存在的体系之中,从内而外地了解自我/制度争议的机制,以期克服这种争议。

虽然他可能无法克服争议,但他提供了合理的反话语策略来缩小自我与体系之间的权力差距。由于独白中“弱者的力量”和“唯一表演者”的特征进一步增强,他作为个人主角或孤独的剧作家,并不直接反对这种体系,而是超越它,所以他的独白戏剧不是被动抵抗,而是积极创造新的人性空间。正因如此,郭宝崑是新加坡最具代表性的文化偶像。
1999Si Shu (The Four Books)

Tan, C. L., Pan, J. F., Ke, Y. B., & Zhou, D. C. (1999). Si Shu (The Four Books) (PP. 152). Singapore: Singapore Literature Society. 

四书,四人札记
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book is a collection of four modern local writers in Singapore who are hardworking and whose works are of high competence. There are two types of writing themes in this book: prose and short story but with different writing style and technique. This book is also to encourage young people who are interested in literature and writing to continue their pursuit and to bridge the gap between different generations of writers.
 本书集合了当代四位新加坡当地作家的文学作品,他们笔耕不辍,文学造诣较高。写作题材分为散文和短篇小说,但是有着各自不同的写作风格和表现技巧。本书也旨在鼓励青年作家在文学创作的道路上孜孜以求,并缩短老中青三代作家之间的隔阂与距离。
YearTitle
AuthorType
2021Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir Munshi- His Voyages, Legacies and Modernity (Volume 1) and His Voyages, Legacies and Colonial History (Volume 2)

Hadijah Rahmat (2021). Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir Munshi - His Voyages, Legacies and Modernity (Volume 1) and His Voyages, Legacies and Colonial History (Volume 2). Singapore: World Scientific Publication.

Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir Munshi - Pelayaran, Warisan dan Moderniti (Jilid 1), Pelayaran, Warisan dan Sejarah Penjajah (Jilid 2).
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 This book is covered in two volumes and is based on author’s research conducted using unexplored primary sources at several missionaries' archives at SOAS, London, Houghton Library, University Harvard, Library of Congress, Leiden University, KITVL, Holland, and the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta. The book consists of numerous academic papers presented at the regional and international seminars, and also published in international journals and as chapters of books. Besides academic papers, the excerpt of play titled Munsyi, sketches, poetry, and song, and interviews by the national media are also included. This book provides new insights into Abdullah's life, backgrounds, writings, his influences and legacies and the reactions and thought-provoking views of the western and eastern scholars on Abdullah. The book is indeed the key reference for studies on Munsyi Abdullah, Malay literature, and the history of Singapore, Malaysia, and colonialism in Southeast Asia.
 Buku ini meliputi dua jilid dan dihasilkan berdasarkan kajian penulis yang memanfaatkan sumber primer yang belum diselidiki dari beberapa arkib mubaligh di SOAS, London, Perpustakaan Houghton, Universiti Harvard, Library of Congress, Universiti Leiden, KITVL, Holland, dan Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta. Buku ini mengandungi beberapa kertas kerja akademik yang telah dibentangkan di seminar-seminar serantau dan antarabangsa, serta diterbitkan dalam jurnal-jurnal internasional dan bab-bab dalam buku. Selain daripada kertas kerja akademik, petikan skrip teater berjudul Munsyi, sketsa, puisi, lirik lagu dan beberapa wawancara bersama media nasional turut disertakan. Buku ini memberikan sorotan baharu terhadap riwayat Abdullah, latar belakang, karya-karya, pengaruh dan legasi, dan reaksi serta pandangan kritis oleh sarjana Barat dan Timur tentang Abdullah. Buku ini adalah rujukan penting dalam kajian tentang Munshi Abdullah, Kesusasteraan Melayu dan sejarah Singapura, Malaysia serta kolonialisme di Asia Tenggara.
2021Power and the Manifestations of Power in 'Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan YTM Riau Pergi ke Singapura' in Philosophy and Traditional Literary Works

Kuasa dan Manifestasi Kuasa: Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan YTM Riau Pergi ke Singapura dlm Falsafah dalam Karya Sastera Tradisional. Falsafah dalam Karya Sastera Tradisional, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Kuasa dan Manifestasi Kuasa: Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan YTM Riau Pergi ke Singapura dlm Falsafah dalam Karya Sastera Tradisional
Kartini bte Anwar Book Chapters
 This paper discusses an analysis of Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga and Yang DiPertuan Muda Riau Pergi ke Singapura dan Peri Keindahan Istana Sultan Johor yang Amat Elok, a poem written by Raja Khalid Hitam. Through the narrative voice and context of the poem's creation, this paper explores how the author of the poem, Raja Khalid Hitam, depicts power and power manifestations in his work.
 Makalah ini membicarakan suatu analisis terhadap Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan Yang DiPertuan Muda Riau Pergi ke Singapura dan Peri Keindahan Istana Sultan Johor yang Amat Elok, sebuah syair karangan Raja Khalid Hitam. Melalui suara naratif dan konteks penghasilan syair tersebut, makalah ini meneroka bagaimana pengarang syair ini, yakni Raja Khalid Hitam menggambarkan kuasa dan manifestasi kuasa dalam karyanya.
2020The Person I Know as Cikgu Ariff

Cikgu Ariff Yang Kukenal. National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Cikgu Ariff Yang Kukenal
Kartini bte Anwar Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 This book is a compilation of writings by the author, Mohd Raman Daud on a literary figure, Dr Muhammad Ariff Ahmad or Cikgu Ariff as he was affectionately known. The author shares his personal encounter with the esteemed educator, author and community leader who had dedicated a great part of his life to Malay language and Malay teacher's education.
 Buku ini merupkan sebuah tulisan Mohd Raman Daud mengenai pengalaman peribadi beliau terhadap tokoh dalam bidang pendidikan, bahasa, persuratan dan kebudayaan Melayu, Dr Muhammad Ariff Ahmad. Buku ini mengisahkan beberapa sumbangan besar Cikgu Ariff dan pengalaman menarik Mohd Raman Daud bersama-sama beliau.
2019Appreciating multiculturalism through literature, in Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation – re-envisioning Mother Tongue language education in Singapore

Sa'eda Buang (2019). Menghayati Gagasan Pelbagai Budaya melalui Kesusasteraan (Appreciating multiculturalism through literature). In Tan Chee Lay, Choong Kok Weng, A Ra Sivakumaran & Mohamed Aidil Subhan (Eds.), Innovative Practice, Practise Innovation: re-envisioning Mother Tongue Languages Education in Singapore (pp. 28-42). Singapore: Asian Languages and Cultures, National Institute of Education & SCCLL.

Menghayati Gagasan Pelbagai Budaya melalui Kesusasteraan, dlm. Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation – re-envisioning Mother Tongue language education in Singapore
Sa’eda Buang Book Chapters
 Multiculturalism as a pedagogical approach is an important educational tool in imparting 21st century skills that include respectful mind and ethical mind. Other than the two ‘minds’ advocated by Howard Gardner, multiculturalism may well equip learners with important qualities such as understanding, empathy and compassion. In many plural societies where the tendency for the dominant group to impose its norms and values onto others is very strong and real, multiculturalism has an important role to play and the capacity in thwarting such hegemonic act. Multiculturalism champions group parity and appreciation of differing cultural norms and values, rather than avoidance or tolerance. Acknowledging its potential to empowering students with respectful mind and ethical mind that foster multicultural understanding and appreciation, this paper discusses critical theories of multiculturalism and argues that despite its many challenges, it is still worthwhile to adapt and implement multiculturalism in the teaching and learning of literature at institutions of higher learning.
 Sebagai persiapan menghadapi abad ke-21 dan seterusnya yang penuh cabaran dan ketidaktentuan, gagasan pelbagai budaya (multiculturalism) semakin dirasakan penting sebagai pendekatan yang dapat melahirkan insan yang memahami, berempati dan ihsan. Ini sealiran dengan dua di antara lima kemahiran, yakni pemikiran menghormati (respectful mind) dan pemikiran beretika (ethical mind) tajaan Howard Gardner yang dimajukan oleh beliau sebagai kemahiran berfikir abad ke-21 yang sangat penting. Terutama dalam masyarakat majmuk yang terdedah dengan pelbagai budaya, nilai dan norma, dan keinginan menarik norma kelompok kecil ke dalam norma kelompok yang lebih besar merupakan satu kecenderungan, maka gagasan pelbagai budaya merupakan benteng yang dapat memurnikan keadaan. Gagasan pelbagai budaya menganjurkan agar semua kelainan budaya dilihat dengan rasa dan pemikiran menghormati, bukan dengan cara mengelak (avoidance), dan juga tidak cukup dengan sikap toleransi. Kertas kerja ini meneliti secara kritis kerangka teori gagasan pelbagai budaya dan cabaran penerapannya dalam konteks pengajaran dan pembelajaran sastera dalam bahasa ibunda di peringkat pengajian tinggi.
2018Malay Literature: Native Voices to Narrative

Hadijah Rahmat (2018). Malay Literature: Native Voices to Narrative. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies.

Sastera Melayu: Dari Suara Masyarakat ke Naratif Kebangsaan
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 This chapter of book focuses on the history of Malay literature in Singapore from the ancient Kingdom of Temasik in 13th and 14th centuries, the classical periods of 16th and 17th centuries, during the British empire and early Malay publishing (1819-1900), the modernization and Malay nationalism period, Japanese occupation period, Independence, Separation from Malaysia, Post-1965 until to date. The article provides an insight into its milestone developments, roles and functions of Malay literature as a forceful native voice and as narrative nationhood for Singapore and the Malay world.
 Bab ini memberikan tumpuan kepada sejarah sastera Melayu di Singapura yang bermula dari kerajaan Temasik pada abad ke-13 dan ke-14. Kemudian, ke zaman klasik pada abad ke-16 dan ke-17 sehingga ke zaman penjajahan British dan penerbitan teks-teks Melayu (1819-1900). Ini diikuti pula dengan era pemodenan dan nasionalisme Melayu, era penjajahan Jepun sehingga ke era kemerdekaan yang disusuli pula dengan perpisahan antara Malaysia dan Singapura, era pasca-1965 sehinggalah era kini. Artikel ini akan memberikan pemahaman yang mendalam tentang perkembangan, peranan dan fungsi sastera Melayu yang memberikan suara kepada masyarakat secara lantang dan juga bertindak sebagai sebuah naratif yang bersifat kebangsaan untuk Singapura dan juga dunia Melayu.
2018The Narrative of Abdullah, Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir

Hadijah Rahmat (2018). The Narrative of Abdullah, Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir. Singapore: National Library Board Singapore.

Hikayat Abdullah, Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir (1796-1854) widely known as Munsyi Abdullah, was a prominent literary figure and thinker in the Malay world in the 19th century. This article provides a succinct holistic introduction to Hikayat Abdullah, one of Abdullah bin Abdull Kadir’s masterpiece and his major literary work. This Hikayat was very popular and has been printed several times and been translated into various languages, and has been most read, studied, quoted, distributed and discussed in Southeast Asia and Europe.
 Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir (1796-1854) yang juga dikenali dengan nama Munshi Abdullah adalah seorang tokoh sastera dan pemikir di dalam dunia Melayu pada abad ke-19. Artikel ini akan memberikan pengenalan ringkas secara menyeluruh tentang Hikayat Abdullah iaitu salah satu karya agung Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir berserta karya-karya sastera utama yang dihasilkannya. Hikayat ini amat popular dan telah dicetak berulang kali. Selain itu, ianya juga telah diterjemahkan kepada pelbagai bahasa dan sering dibaca, dipelajari, dipetik, diedarkan dan dibincangkan di Asia Tenggara dan Eropah.
2018Hikayat Nakhoda Muda - A Precious Pearl from the Malay Literary Ocean

Hadijah Rahmat (2018). Hikayat Nakhoda Muda - A Precious Pearl from the Malay Literary Ocean. Paper presented at the Launch and Seminar on the Canon of Classical Malay Texts, Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

HIKAYAT NAKHODA MUDA -Sebutir Mutiara Bernilai Dari Lautan Sastera Melayu
Hadijah RahmatConference Presentations (with publication)
 If the Malay literature is like an ocean, Hikayat Nakhoda by La'uddin, is just like the invaluable precious pearl that one wishes to find in the ocean. The impact that he created through his literary contributions and work exalts him as a priceless pearl in the Malay literary world.
 Kalau sastera Melayu adalah seperti lautan, Hikayat Nakhoda Muda karya La'uddin, adalah sebagai mutiara berharga yang dicari-cari. Kesan daripada sumbangan terhadap sastera dan karya beliau, mengangkat nilai karya ini sebagai sebutir mutiara yang tidak ternilai di dunia sastera Melayu.
2018From Priest, Father of Modern Literature to Reformer: Societal Views on Abdullah

Hadijah Rahmat (2018). From Priest, Father of Modern Literature to Reformer: Societal Views on Abdullah. Paper presented at Munshi Abdullah Lecture 2018, Malay Studies Department, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Dari Paderi, Bapa Sastera Moden Ke Tokoh Reformasi - Pemikiran Masyarakat terhadap Abdullah
Hadijah RahmatConference Presentations (with publication)
 Paper presented for the inaugural Munshi Abdullah Lecture on 20 January 2018, held at The Arts House, Singapore. The paper entitled "From Priest, Father of Modern Literature to Reformer: Societal Views on Abdullah" highlights the life and contributions of Munshi Abdullah in Singapore and Melaka during the early colonial period and its impacts on Malay society.
 Kertas Kuliah sulung Siri Kuliah Munshi Abdullah pada 20 Januari 2028, berlangsung di The Arts House, Singapura. Kertas berjudul "Daripada Paderi, Bapa Sastera Moden ke Tokoh Reformasi: Pemikiran Masyarakat Terhadap Abdullah" memaparkan riwayat hidup dan sumbangan Munshi Abdullah di Singapura dan Melaka semasa zaman awal kolonial dan kesannya pada masyarakat Melayu.
2018Love, Faith, Religion and Colonialization: Cultural Insight in Soul of Archipelago Literature

Hadijah Rahmat (2018). Love, Faith, Religion and Colonialization: Cultural Insight in Soul of Archipelago Literature. Keynote Address. Proceedings of the International Conference on Language, Literature, and Education (ICLLE 2018), Padang, Sumatera, Indonesia.

Cinta, kepercayaan, agama dan penjajahan: Kilasan wawasan budaya dalam jiwa sastera nusantara
Hadijah RahmatKeynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 This paper discusses the role of literature in the development of culture, country, world and humanity of the people. The great literary work is not only beautiful artfully in terms of language and its shape, it can even give insights into thinking, science, values and soul, which can instill and develop the culture and civilization of a nation or country. In short, literature can function as an agent of cultural reconstruction and transformation. Traditional literature of the archipelago has revealed the vision and philosophy of exquisite Malay culture and serves as an institution or discourse of public education. These are all clearly revealed in pantun, proverbs, precept or poems of their peoples. The role of literature in the reconstruction and transformation of the culture was continued by new or modern literature as reflected by the works of Munsyi Abdullah (1796-1854), RA Kartini (1879-1904), Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana (1908-1994), HAMKA (1908- 1981), Amir Hamzah (1911-1946) and Chairil Anwar (1922-1949). Cultural insights that discusses love, cultural customs, religion and occupation occurred in the works of HAMKA and the impact of the writing will be discussed.
 Makalah ini membincangkan peranan kesusasteraan dalam perkembangan budaya, negara, dunia dan kemanusiaan rakyat. Karya sastera yang hebat bukan hanya bersifat artistik baik dari segi bahasa mahupun bentuknya, bahkan dapat memberikan pemahaman tentang pemikiran, sains, nilai dan jiwa, yang dapat menanamkan dan mengembangkan budaya dan tamadun suatu negara. Pendek kata, sastera boleh berfungsi sebagai pemangkin pembinaan semula dan transformasi budaya. Sastera tradisional nusantara telah mendedahkan visi dan falsafah budaya Melayu yang indah dan berfungsi sebagai institusi atau wacana pendidikan awam. Ini semua jelas diperlihatkan dalam pantun, peribahasa, ajaran atau puisi mereka. Peranan kesusasteraan dalam pembinaan semula dan transformasi budaya diteruskan oleh kesusasteraan baru atau moden seperti yang dipaparkan dalam karya-karya Munsyi Abdullah (1796-1854), RA Kartini (1879-1904), Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana (1908-1994) HAMKA (1908- 1981), Amir Hamzah (1911-1946) dan Chairil Anwar (1922-1949). Kilasan wawasan budaya yang membahaskan cinta, adat resam, agama dan kedudukan wujud dalam karya-karya HAMKA dan kesan penulisannya akan dibincangkan.
2018Reading Words, Utter Feelings: Emotional Literacy as an Approach to Teaching and Learning

Paper presented at Symposium on Innovative Teaching and Learning of Mother Tongue Languages (MTL), Singapore.

Baca Kata, Bicara Rasa: Pengajaran & Pembelajaran Berteraskan Pendekatan Celik Emosi
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (without publication)
 This paper examines some literary texts that can be used to support the teaching and learning of Malay Language based on the emotional literacy approach. It aims to produce a corpus of materials and pedagogical practices that can support social and emotional competencies apart from materials provided in the Malay Language curriculum.
 Makalah ini meninjau beberapa teks kesusasteraan yang boleh dijadikan bahan utnuk menyokong pengajaran dan pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu berteraskan pendekatan celik emosi. Tujuannya ialah untuk menghasilkan sebuah korpus bahan serta amalan pengajaran yang boleh menyokong pemerolehan kemahiran sosial dan emosi selain daripada bahan-bahan yang disediakan dlaam kurikulum pendidikan Bahasa Melayu.
2018The Tale of Badrul Muin

Sa'eda Buang (2018). Hikayat Badrul Muin. In Singapore, National Library Board (Ed.), Tales of the Malay world - manuscripts and early books (pp. 52-53). Singapore: National Library Board.

Hikayat Badrul Muin
Sa’eda Buang Book Chapters
 A critical brief study of a literature work by Raja Aisyah binti Raja Haji Sulaiman of Pulau Penyengat, Riau. Written in six volumes in Jawi, Hikayat Badrul Muin promulgates female autonomy and empowerment in the realms of state, family and gender politics.
 Satu kajian secara kritis ke atas karya sastera tulisan Raja Aisyah binti Raja Haji Sulaiman, Pulau Penyengat, Riau. Hikayat Badrul Muin yang ditulis dalam tulisan Jawi sepanjang 6 jilid ini memperjuangkan kuasa otonomi wanita dan pemerkasaan mereka dalam bidang kenegaraan, keluarga dan politik gender.
2017The Malay Manuscript collection and Early Printed materials in USA and Europe

Hadijah Rahmat (2017). The Malay Manuscript collection and Early Printed materials in USA and Europe. Paper presented at NLB Tales of Malay World, Singapore, on 25 November 2017.

Koleksi Manuskrip Melayu dan bahan yang cetakan awal di Amerika and Eropah.
Hadijah RahmatConference Presentations (with publication)
 The author discusses about the manuscripts and early Malay books found in the United States (US) and Europe, where there are precious collections on Malay literary culture. These were gathered by Christian missionaries, scholars as well as European and American colonial officers which are kept at institutions such as the Library of Congress (US), Leiden University (Netherlands) and the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom).
 Penulis membincangkan tentang manuskrip dan buku-buku Melayu terawal yang terdapat di Amerika Syarikat (US) dan Eropah, yang merupakan koleksi berharga warisan budaya persuratan Melayu. Simpanan ini dikumpulkan oleh para mubaligh Kristian, sarjana dan pegawai kolonial Eropah serta Amerika, yang masih disimpan di institusi-institusi seperti Library of Congress (US), Universiti Leiden (Belanda) dan Universiti Cambridge (United Kingdom).
2017History, Memory and Remembering: An Exploration of Cultural Memory in the Historiographical Tradition of Malay Poetry.

Malay Literature, 30(1), 1-22.

Sejarah, Memori dan Ingatan: Suatu Penerokaan terhadap Budaya Ingatan dalam Tradisi Syair Historiografi.
Kartini bte Anwar Journal-Refereed
 This article discusses two poems, Syair Engku Puteri and Syair Sultan Mahmud di Lingga. A glimpse of the two court figures ie Engku Puteri and Sultan Mahmud are also mentioned in a historiographical text, Tuhfat al Nafis. Using the concept of cultural memory, this article shows that the writers of both syair use their individual memories in their works. This is done in order to retain and store a private remembrance, and transform it to produce a collective remembrance while shaping the public view of a fragment of history not captured in Tuhfat al-Nafis.
 Makalah ini membicarakan tentang dua syair berunsur sejarah iaitu Syair Engku Puteri dan Syair Sultan Mahmud di Lingga. Kedua-dua syair memuatkan kisah dua tokoh penting iaitu; Engku Puteri Hamidah dan Sultan Mahmud yang juga terakam dalam teks hisotriografi, Tuhfat al-Nafis. Dengan menggunakan konsep budaya ingatan, makalah ini menunjukkan bahawa pengarang syair memuatkan ingatan pribadi mereka ke dalam syair agar ia menjadi suatu kenangan kolektif tentang bahagian sejarah yang tidak terungkap dalam Tuhfat Al-Nafis.
2017Thoughts and Authorship of Raja Ali Haji

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur

Pemikiran dan Gaya Mengarang Raja Ali Haji
Kartini bte Anwar Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 This book highlights the thought and authorship of Raja Ali Haji as a literary figure. The study of the five works of Raja Ali Haji has been done to trace his ideas. This book is useful for literary enthusiasts who want to know Raja Ali Haji's works more closely.
 Buku ini mengetengahkan pemikiran dan kepengarangan Raja Ali Haji sebagai seorang tokoh sasterawan. Kajian ke atas 5 karya Raja Ali Haji telah dilakukan untuk menelusuri jalur pemikiran beliau. Buku ini berguna kepada peminat sastera yang ingin mengenali karya-karya Raja Ali Haji dengan lebih dekat.
2017Literary Criticism Discourses in Singapore

Sa'eda Buang (2017). Wacana Kritikan Sastera di Singapura (Literary Criticism Discourses in Singapore). In Council of Southeast Asian Literature (Ed.) Southeast Asian Literature International Seminar (pp. 1-14). Jakarta, Indonesia: Majlis Sastera Asia Tenggara. Invited speaker.

Wacana Kritikan Sastera di Singapura
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper discusses the development of literary criticism discourses in Singapore from the separation with Malaysia in 1965 to the present. Prominent issues / criticisms raised by critics were also discussed.
 Kertas ini membincangkan perkembangan wacara kritikan sastera di Singapura semenjak era perpisahan dengan Malaysia pada 1965 sehingga kini. Isu-isu/kritikan penting yang diutarakan oleh para pengkritik turut dibincangkan. Kertas ini dibentangkan dari kacamata pakar mewakili Singapura.
2017Reinforcing Literature and Language Education to Face the Era of VUCA or Uncertainties

Sa'eda Buang (2017, July). Reinforcing Literature and Language Education to Face the Era of VUCA or Uncertainties. Paper presented at ISLLE International Conference 2017, Jakarta, Indonesia. Invited speaker.

Mengukuhkan Kembali Pendidikan Sastera dan Bahasa dalam Menghadapi Tantangan Era Ketidaktentuan VUCA
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (without publication)
 This paper invites teachers and teaching fraternity to reflect on the issue of VUCA and its impacts on education, and reseize the ‘strengths’ that are available in our language and literature curriculum, and/or to reimagine and rebuild our curriculum with our students’ interest and future first and foremost in our mind. The efforts by the education sector in Singapore to prepare the students in facing VUCA are highlighted in this paper as some of the examples.
 Kertas kerja ini mengajak para guru untuk merenung kembali dan merebut “kekuatan” yang sedia ada dalam pendidikan secara am, dan pelajaran bahasa dan kesusasteraan Melayu agar dapat membantu para pelajar berhadapan dengan ketidaktentuan dalam abad ke-21 dan seterusnya. Sekadar memberi contoh, usaha yang telah dan sedang berlaku di Singapura menjadi teras kertas kerja ini.
2017Poetry: Ethics and Hope, Simulacra and A Generation of Young Writers

Sa'eda Buang (2017). Poetry: Ethics and Hope, Simulacra and A Generation of Young Writers. Jurnal Melayu, Vol 16, No 2, 264-265.

Puisi: Etika dan Harapan, Simulakra dan Anak Muda Bukan Kepalang Tanggung
Sa’eda Buang Journal-Refereed
 This paper puts forth three poems that deal with issues of morality, ethics and challenges faced by young people, writers and Malay community in the contemporary era of uncertainty.
 Kertas ini mengemukakan tiga puisi yang menyentuh isu-isu moral, etika dan cabaran yang dihadapi anak muda, penulis dan masyarakat Melayu dalam zaman yang amat mencabar ini.
2017Regardless of Race’: Race Relations in Poetry

Sa'eda Buang (2017,). 'Regardless of Race’: Race Relations in Poetry. Keynote Address, National Poetry Festival 2017, Singapore.

Tidak kira apa bangsa': Hubungan silang kaum dalam puisi
Sa’eda Buang Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 This keynote address traces the polemics of race relations in Singapore as reflected in classical manuscripts of 19th century and how the issue has been negotiated by Malay writers since. Relevant poems and significant verses from the manuscripts were analysed.
 Kertas ucaptama ini meneliti polemik antara kaum yang tergambar dalam manuskrip klasik kurun ke-19 dan bagaimana isu tersebut diladeni oleh para penulis Melayu seterusnya. Beberapa puisi dan petikan-petikan yang relevan dianalisis dan dibincangkan.
2016In Search for the Canon of Singapore Malay Poetry: Reflection on Nature, Race, Religion and Love

Hadijah Rahmat (2016). In Search for the Canon of Singapore Malay Poetry: Reflection on Nature, Race, Religion and Love. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.Pte.Ltd.

Mencari Puisi Melayu Singapura Berkanun: Renungan bagi Alam, Kaum, Agama dan Cinta.
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 This paper discusses selected poems by three generations of Malay writers in Singapore from the first generation poets who received their vernacular education during British colonial period, before Malayan Independence in 1957; to second generation writers who received Malay education when Singapore was part of Malaysia (1957–1965) who established their poems in 1970s; and the third generation writers who received bilingual education after Singapore become a Republic in the 1980s. These iconic poems embody the aesthetic as well as the cultural and political values of Malay society. It is an early attempt to define and search for the canon of Singapore Malay poetry.
 Kertas ini membincangkan tentang puisi-puisi pilihan karya tiga generasi penulis Melayu di Singapura dari penyair generasi pertama yang telah menerima pendidikan vernakular pada zaman penjajahan British, sebelum Kemerdekaan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1957; kepada penulis generasi kedua yang telah menerima pendidikan Melayu semasa Singapura menjadi sebahagian daripada Malaya (1957-1965) yang popular pada tahun 1970an; dan juga generasi ketiga yang menerima pendidikan dwibahasa yang mula memberi impak bila Singapura menjadi negara Republik pada 1980-an. Puisi-puisi ikonik ini merangkumi estetika, budaya dan nilai politik masyarakat Melayu. Ianya merupakan pencubaan awal untuk mentakrifkan dan mencari puisi Melayu Singapura berkanun.
2016Philosophy of Malay Goodness, Courtesy and Manners - Literature as Educational Discourse

Hadijah Rahmat (2016). Philosophy of Malay Goodness, Courtesy and Manners - Literature as Educational Discourse. Paper presented at SAKAT - International Seminar of South East Asian Literature, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Falsafah Budi, Adab dan Kesantunan Melayu- Sastera Sebagai Wadah Pendidikan
Hadijah RahmatConference Presentations (with publication)
 The concept of Budi (Goodness), courtesy and manners are key elements of Malay culture and identity. This paper revisits and reflect on the concept and philosophy of Malay goodness as shown in the Malay literature such as traditional poetry. To what extent the values of Budi can be practised and preserved in our current and future life which are more diversified, complex and more challenging caused by the changes in ICT, digital culture and more open and fast changing global way of life ? What are the roles of writers and educators in Southeast Asia in the process of cultivating Malay values of goodness and courtesy? The paper discusses these issues.
 Budi, budi bahasa dan sopan santun adalah unsur-unsur penting dan menjadi teras dalam kebudayaan dan jatidiri Melayu. Falsafah budi yang luhur, adat berbudi bahasa yang murni dan bentuk kesantunan Melayu yang indah telah menjadi pegangan dan kebanggaan orang Melayu selama ini. Kertas ini merenung dan menilai semula konsep dan falsafah budi, adab dan kesantunan Melayu ini yang terungkap dalam sastera khususnya dalam puisi Melayu tradional. Sejauhmanakah nilai-nilai budi Melayu ini dapat dipertahankan dan dilestarikan dalam kehidupan masa kini dan akan datang yang lebih rencam, kompleks dan menggugat akibat perubahan teknologi komunikasi (ICT), budaya digital dan gaya hidup global yang lebih terbuka dan pantas? Apakah peranan para sasterawan dan pendidik Asia Tenggara dalam proses pembinaan nilai budi, adab dan kesantunan Melayu kini? Kertas ini juga berkongsi pengalaman pendidikan bahasa dan kebudayaan Melayu di Singapura yang cuba menangani persoalan-persoalan tersebut dan berusaha untuk mengisi keperluan, menyahut cabaran kehidupan baru dan mencapai cita unggul membina insan arif budiman Melayu pada abad ke-21.
2016The Role of Missionary Presses in 19th Century Malay Publishing Industry In relation to Anjung and Pustaka Gallery

Hadijah Rahmat (2016). The Role of Missionary Presses in 19th Century Malay Publishing Industry In relation to Anjung and Pustaka Gallery. Paper presented at The Friend of Museums (FOM) Docent Training Symposium 2016, Singapore at the Malay Heritage Centre.

Peranan Mubaligh Kristian dalam Industri Penerbitan Melayu berkaitqan dengan Anjung and Pustaka Galeri.
Hadijah RahmatConference Presentations (with publication)
 The Christian missionaries put in great efforts to promote their language and religion wherever they set foot. This work highlights how these missionaries created literary verandas and priceless library shelves for the Malay community through the Malay printing industry.
 Para mubaligh Kristian menggembleng tenaga yang banyak untuk mempromosikan bahasa dan agama mereka ke mana sahaja mereka bertapak. Kajian ini menyorot bagaimana para mubaligh ini membina bahan bacaan yang menghiasi beranda dan rak-rak perpustakaan untuk masyarakat Melayu melalui industri percetakan Melayu.
2016Dr Muhd Ariff Ahmad - Gem of Malay Wisdom

Hadijah Rahmat (2016). Dr Muhd Ariff Ahmad - Gem of Malay Wisdom. Melayu (Malay) - International Jurnal of Malay World, Vol 9, 2016(No.2), 300-306.

Pendeta Dr Muhammad Ariff Ahmad- Permata Nilam Melayu
Hadijah RahmatJournal-Refereed
 This article was wriiten as an honour and in memory of the late Dr Muhammad Ariff Ahmad, a literary giant and prominent educator in the Malay community, who died at the age of 91 years on Wednesday March 23 2016. His passing is a great loss to the community, country and the Malay world. He was awarded Singapore's highest literary honour, the Cultural Medallion, in 1987, and also helped the late composer Zubir Said craft the lyrics of Singapore's National Anthem. Dr Ariff had also made tremendous contributions to the Malay community as part of the pioneer generation of Singaporeans.
 Artikel ini memperingati tokoh persuratan tersohor nusantara, Pendeta Dr Haji Muhammad Ariff Ahmad atau nama penanya MAS, telah meninggal dunia di Singapura pada usia 91 tahun pada 23 Mac 2016. Pemergian tokoh yang disayangi masyarakat ini amat mendukacitakan bangsa dan negara dan dunia nusantara. Pendeta Dr Muhd Ariff Ahmad atau lebih dikenali sebagai Cikgu Ariff adalah nara sumber atau tokoh yang sering dirujuk untuk mendapatkan penjelasan mengenai berbagai perkara, khususnya dalam hal-hal berkaitan bahasa dan kebudayaan. Beliau adalah tokoh bahasa, sastera dan kebudayaan Melayu yang tidak asing lagi di Singapura dan di Nusantara. Artikel ini menyorot latar pendidikan, kerjaya, kegiatan , karya-karya, pengiktirafan dan kesan almarhum pada penulis dan mesej yang ditinggalkan.
2016In Memory of Dr Liaw Yock Fang (1936-2016)

Hadijah Rahmat (2016). In Memory of Dr Liaw Yock Fang (1936-2016). Malay Literature, Vol 29 (No 1), 126-129.

Kenangan Dr Liaw Yock Fang (1936-2016)
Hadijah RahmatJournal-Refereed
 Dr. Liaw Yock Fang, another scholar of Malay studies, passed away on 23 April 2016. Dr. Liaw wrote an article on Malay language and literature in Chinese which was published in series in the Nanyang Siang Pau newspaper. He had also written in English about Malay and Indonesian literature in the magazine, Kesusasteraan Nanyang. Dr. Liaw Yock Fang served as a lecturer at Nanyang University Singapore from 1966 till 1981. After his retirement, Dr. Liaw continued to be active in studying literature and writing and produced more than 20 books and hundreds of papers, articles, book reviews or academic and general writings in the field of Malay and Indonesian studies. His writings and contributions are most prominent in three fields: classical literature studies, grammar studies, and Malay language textbook compilation for schools and reference books on Malay and Indonesian language for adults. The late Dr. Liaw Yock Fang was admired and respected by society and has left a wealth of valuable Malay works and materials.
 Dr. Liaw Yock Fang, seorang lagi sarjana kajian Melayu, telah meninggal dunia pada 23 April 2016. Dr. Liaw telah menulis artikel dalam bahasa Cina mengenai bahasa dan sastera Melayu yang diterbitkan di dalam suratkhabar Nanyang Siang Pau. Beliau juga menulis dalam Bahasa Inggeris mengenai sastera Melayu dan Indonesia di majalah, Kesusasteraan Nanyang. Dr. Liaw Yock Fang bekerja sebagai pensyarah di Universiti Nanyang Singapura daripada tahun 1966 hingga 1981. Setelah bersara, Dr. Liaw terus aktif mengkaji sastera, menulis dan menghasilkan lebih daripada 20 buku, beratus-ratus kertas penyelidikan, artikel, ulasan buku, penulisan akademik dan artikel-artikel umum berkenaan kajian Melayu dan Indonesia. Sumbangan Dr Liaw adalah dalam tiga bidang: kajian sastera klasik, kajian tatabahasa dan kompilasi buku teks Melayu bagi sekolah dan buku rujukan untuk Bahasa Melayu dan Indonesia untuk orang dewasa. Arwah Dr Liaw, yang dihormati dan dikagumi oleh masyarakat, telah meninggalkan suatu legasi hasil dan karya Melayu yang berharga.
2016Historical Poems as a Medium to Conceive Memory: A Study on Selected Riau Syair

Paper presented at International Conference 'Studies in the Malay World 2016', London, United Kingdom

Syair Sejarah Sebagai Wadah Takungan Ingatan: Suatu Kajian Terhadap Syair-syair Riau
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper discusses the concept of Cultural Memory by presenting two poems: Syair Engku Puteri and Syair Sultan Mahmud di Lingga. The great figures featured in these poems, Engku Puteri Raja Hamidah and Sultan Mahmud, are also mentioned in a historiographical text, Tuhfat Al-Nafis. This paper advances the argument that the authors of both poems used their work initially as a personal memory record, but later used it as material that allowed for a collective memory not covered in prose text/form like Tuhfat al-Nafis.
 Makalah ini membincangkan konsep Memori Budaya dengan mengemukakan dua buah syair sejarah iaitu Syair Engku Puteri and Syair Sultan Mahmud di Lingga. Tokoh-tokoh besar yang ditampilkan dalam syair-syair ini iaitu Engku Puteri Raja Hamidah and Sultan Mahmud juga disebut dalam sebuah teks historiografi, Tuhfat al-Nafis. Makalah ini menganjurkan pandangan bahawa pengarang kedua-dua syair menggunakan karya mereka sebagai wadah takungan ingatan yang pada awalnya bersifat peribadi, tetapi kemudiannya menjadi bahan yang membolehkan sebuah ingatan kolektif yang tidak terungkap dalam teks prosa seperti Tuhfat al-Nafis.
2016Power and the Manifestations of Power in 'Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan YTM Riau Pergi ke Singapura'

Paper presented at International Conference on Southeast Asian Literature (SAKAT XII), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Kuasa dan Manifestasi Kuasa: Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan YTM Riau Pergi ke Singapura
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper discusses an analysis of Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga and Yang DiPertuan Muda Riau Pergi ke Singapura dan Peri Keindahan Istana Sultan Johor yang Amat Elok, a poem written by Raja Khalid Hitam. Through the narrative voice and context of the poem's creation, this paper explores how the author of the poem, Raja Khalid Hitam, depicts power and power manifestations in his work.
 Makalah ini membicarakan suatu analisis terhadap Syair Perjalanan Sultan Lingga dan Yang DiPertuan Muda Riau Pergi ke Singapura dan Peri Keindahan Istana Sultan Johor yang Amat Elok, sebuah syair karangan Raja Khalid Hitam. Melalui suara naratif dan konteks penghasilan syair tersebut, makalah ini meneroka bagaimana pengarang syair ini, yakni Raja Khalid Hitam menggambarkan kuasa dan manifestasi kuasa dalam karyanya.
2016A reflection on poetry: Is it meant for self or society?

Sa'eda Buang (2016). Merenung Kembali Puisi: Untuk Diri Atau Masyarakat?. In Mohamad Saleeh Rahamad (Ed.), Puisi Wadah Suara Kemanusiaan (pp. 160-175). Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan & Buku Malaysia.

Merenung Kembali Puisi: Untuk Diri Atau Masyarakat?
Sa’eda Buang Book Chapters
 The question whether a literary work is produced for the interest of self or society is attempted by venturing into the development of literature in the region and its polemics. In particular, this chapter critically discusses the ‘ambiguous’, ‘heretical’ poems and conflicting ideologies between Hamzah and ASAS’50 as cases in point.
 Persoalan sama ada penghasilan puisi itu untuk diri sendiri atau masyarakat dikaji dengan melihat sejarah perkembangan penulisan di Nusantara yang dipenuhi dengan polemik. Polemik puisi kabur dan puisi ‘sesat’ dan pertentangan ideologi antara Hamzah dan rakan-rakannya dengan ASAS ’50 dikaji secara kritis.
2015Image of Southeast Asians and Americans- In the Eyes of Alfred North and Munshi Abdullah

Hadijah Rahmat (2015). Image of Southeast Asians and Americans- In the Eyes of Alfred North and Munshi Abdullah. In Ding Choo Ming & Zalina Abdul Aziz (Eds.), Bridging the Past and the Present: A Festschrift Honouring Muhammad Haji Salleh (pp. 140-172). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Imej Orang-orang Asia Tenggara dan Amerika: Persepsi Alfred North dan Munshi Abdullah
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 The paper discusses the image of Southeast Asians and Americans perceived by Munshi Abdullah (1796-1854) and American missionary, Alfred North, as reflected by their writings. Abdullah’s close association with the British Colonial figures, such as Stamford Raffles and William Farquhar, is widely known. Less well known however, is American influence on his thinking and works. The paper is prepared based on an exploratory study on the American connection to the Malay literary development through the collaborative works of Abdullah and his American employer, Alfred North of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission (ABCFM), which took place in Singapore from 1836-1843. Their works are now part of the collection of Malay manuscripts and rare books of the Library of Congress, Washington DC, of Houghton Library, Harvard University and University of California, San Diego. The images of Southeast Asians, particularly Malays and the Americans in the 19th century are unveiled by revisiting Abdullah’s autobiography (Hikayat Abdullah) and his travel journal, Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah (The Tale of Abdullah’s Voyage), and by sharing recent findings of a newly discovered journal written by Alfred North in 1836. The writings of these two important figures in Malay literary history are indeed mirroring [reflecting] interesting images of the ‘colonized self’ (Malays and other Asians) and their ‘Other Colonial’ (Americans) and thus provides new insights to greater understanding of the dynamics of colonial history in South East Asia, its hegemony, discourse and impacts on Malay literary development in the 19th century.
 Kertas kajian ini membincangkan imej atau gambaran orang Asia Tenggara dan orang Amerika dari persepsi Munshi Abdullah (1796 – 1854) dan seorang mubaligh Amerika, Alfred North, sebagaimana dicerminkan dalam tulisan mereka. Hubungan rapat antara Abdullah dengan tokoh-tokoh kolonial British, seperti Stamford Raffles dan William Farquhar, merupakan sesuatu yang sudah diketahui orang ramai. Namun, perkara yang kurang diketahui adalah pengaruh Amerika terhadap pemikiran dan karya-karya beliau. Kertas ini dihasilkan berdasarkan kajian rintis mengenai hubungan Amerika dengan pembangunan sastera Melayu melalui kerjasama Abdullah dan majikan Amerika beliau, Alfred North dari Lembaga Pesuruhjaya Luar Negara Amerika (American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission, ABCFM), yang berlaku di Singapura dari 1836 hingga 1843. Hasil kerja mereka kini menjadi sebahagian daripada koleksi manuskrip Melayu dan buku-buku berharga di Perpustakaan Kogres, Washington DC, Perpustakaan Houghton, Universiti Harvard dan Universiti California, San Diego. Imej orang Asia Tenggara, khususnya orang Melayu dan orang Amerika pada abad ke-19 diperkenalkan dengan mengkaji semula autobiografi Abdullah (Hikayat Abdullah) dan jurnal perjalanan beliau, Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah), serta penemuan daripada jurnal yang ditulis oleh Alfred North pada tahun 1836. Penulisan kedua-dua tokoh penting dalam sejarah sastera Melayu ini sebenarnya mencerminkan gambaran yang menarik tentang ‘diri yang dijajah’ (colonized self) (Melayu dan orang-orang Asia lain) dan ‘Kolonial Lain’ (Orang Amerika) lantas memberikan pandangan baru kepada pemahaman yang dalam mengenai dinamik sejarah penjajahan di Asia Tenggara, hegemoni, wacana serta kesannya terhadap pembangunan sastera Melayu pada abad ke-19. 
2015Flow of pure water or drifting bubbles: Challenges, Beauty and Prominence in Southeast Asian Literature

Hadijah Rahmat (2015). Flow of pure water or drifting bubbles: Challenges, Beauty and Prominence in Southeast Asian Literature. Singapore: Research and Policy Department, Yayasan MENDAKI.

Bagai Air Murni Mengalir atau Buih hanyut:Cabaran, Keindahan dan Keunggulan Kesusasteraan Asia Tenggara
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 Literary communities in Southeast Asian countries face a huge wave of change in the 21st century. Transformations occur in the forms of writers’ background, styles, mode of publication, media, audience and literary surroundings. Prof. Hadijah Rahmat identifies five main challenges, namely in information and communication technology, mindset, transmedia creativity, identity and the threat of alternative lifestyle. Truth is symbolised by ‘the flow of pure water’ that fertilises life around it as compared to drifting bubbles that do not leave any value to life.
 Kertas ini merenung cabaran yang dihadapi oleh kesusasteraan Asia Tenggara dalam lanskap kehidupan baru pada abad ke-21. Asia Tenggara dan dunia umumnya memasuki abad ke-21 dengan penuh harapan dan kemungkinan. Lanskap kehidupan telah bertukar. Dunia terasa semakin mengecil dan rentak kehidupan semakin bergelora dan berputar pantas. Abad ke-21 ini menjanjikan pelbagai kemungkinan dalam semua bidang kehidupan. Negara-negara Asia Tenggara dan komuniti sasteranya sedang meniti arus perubahan yang besar. Latar penulis, corak, bentuk, wadah, media, khalayak dan sekitaran sastera sedang mengalami proses transformasi yang hebat. Berbagai cabaran sedang diharungi dan perlu ditangani dengan cekap lagi bijaksana untuk memastikan bahawa sastera dalam bahasa Melayu/Indonesia dapat terus berfungsi dengan baik dan berkesan; supaya pencapaian dan kedudukan sastera Nusantara mampu mencapai tahap mutu tinggi, serta dapat menyumbang secara aktif dan berpengaruh dalam pembinaan sastera dunia dan kesejahteraan kemanusian sejagat.
2015Like the flow of pure water or drifting of foam: Aesthetic challenge and uniqueness of South Esast Asian Literature

Hadijah Rahmat (2015). Like the flow of pure water or drifting of foam: Aesthetic challenge and uniqueness of South East Asian Literature. In Aaron Maniam et.al (Ed.), MENDAKI Policy Digest 2015 SG5) Special Edition (pp. 107-113). Singapore: Research and Policy Development, Yayasan MENDAKI, Wisma MENDAKI.

Bagai Air Murni Mengalir atau Buih Hanyut:Cabaran, Keindahan dan Keunggulan Kesusasteraan Asia Tenggara
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 This paper reflects on the challenges faced by Southeast Asian literature in the landscape of a new life in the 21st century. Generally, Southeast Asia and the world enters the 21st century with hope and possibilities. The landscape of life has changed. The world seems to be getting smaller and the pace of life is getting faster and more turbulent. The 21st century promises many possibilities in all areas of life. The Southeast Asian countries and its’ literary communities are riding the tide of great change. Writers’ backgrounds as well as literary patterns, forms, platforms, media, audiences and environments are undergoing a great transformation process. Various challenges are being experienced and it needs to addressed efficiently and wisely to ensure that literature in Malay and in Indonesian Language can continue to function properly and effectively; so that in terms of achievement and position, Nusantara literature is able to achieve a high level of quality, as well as to be influential and actively contributing to the construction of world literature and the well-being of global humanity.
 Kertas ini merenung cabaran yang dihadapi oleh kesusasteraan Asia Tenggara dalam lanskap kehidupan baru pada abad ke-21. Asia Tenggara dan dunia umumnya memasuki abad ke-21 dengan penuh harapan dan kemungkinan. Lanskap kehidupan telah bertukar. Dunia terasa semakin mengecil dan rentak kehidupan semakin bergelora dan berputar pantas. Abad ke-21 ini menjanjikan pelbagai kemungkinan dalam semua bidang kehidupan. Negara-negara Asia Tenggara dan komuniti sasteranya sedang meniti arus perubahan yang besar. Latar penulis, corak, bentuk, wadah, media, khalayak dan sekitaran sastera sedang mengalami proses transformasi yang hebat. Berbagai cabaran sedang diharungi dan perlu ditangani dengan cekap lagi bijaksana untuk memastikan bahawa sastera dalam bahasa Melayu/Indonesia dapat terus berfungsi dengan baik dan berkesan; supaya pencapaian dan kedudukan sastera Nusantara mampu mencapai tahap mutu tinggi, serta dapat menyumbang secara aktif dan berpengaruh dalam pembinaan sastera dunia dan kesejahteraan kemanusian sejagat.
2015Singapore: My City, My Country. Anthology of bilingual Chinese- Malay poetry

Leo Suryadinata & Hadijah Rahmat (Eds.). (2015). Singapora: My City, My Country. Anthology of bilingual Chinese-Malay poetry. Singapore: Confucius Institute, NTU. The book was launched by Minister of Education, Mr Heng Swee Keat at a special dinner celebrating 10 years of Confucious Institute, NTU and 50 years of Singapore.

Singapura: Kotaku, Kampung Halamanku. Antologi Dwibahasa Puisi Cina-Melayu
Hadijah Rahmat Book Chapters
 This is a collection of the representative works of 30 important Singaporean poets who write in Malay and Chinese. Professors Leo Suryadinata (former director of the Chinese Heritage Centre at NTU) and Hadijah Bte Rahmat (Head of the Malay Language & Culture Division at NIE), the editor and co-editor of the book, each identified 15 major poets of the respective Chinese and Malay literary circle, and selected a compendium of works dedicated to the theme of "home" and Singapore. Professor Leo then translated the Malay poems into Chinese and the Chinese poems into Malay.
 Antologi ini merakamkan puisi-puisi dalam bahasa Melayu dan Cina, yang memaparkan karya-karya yang mewakili suara 30 penyair Cina dan Melayu yang terkenal. Profesor Leo Suryadinata (Mantan Pengarah Pusat Warisan Cina NTU) dan Hadijah Bte Rahmat (Ketua Kumpulan Akademik Bahasa dan Budaya Asia, NIEt NIE), editor bersama buku, telah mengenal pasti 15 penyair penting Cina dan Melayu dan karya mereka yang merakamkan perubahan Singapura dan rasa cinta penyair terhadap tanahair.
2015Tributes to Tenas Effendy, Cultural Icon in the Malay World

Hadijah Rahmat (2015). Tributes to Tenas Effendy, Cultural Icon in the Malay World. Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu/International Journal of the Malay World, Dewan bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 8(2), 335-340.

Belasungkawa- Tenas Effendy (Tengku Nasaruddin Said Effendy)
Hadijah RahmatJournal-Refereed
 This article by Professor Hadijah Rahmat was published in the journal titled Malay:International Journal of the Malay World. It is a tribute to the writer and author Tenas Effendy (Tengku Nasaruddin Said Effendy), a cultural icon in the Malay World. The contribution of Tenas Effendy was not only in documenting the oral elements and values of Malay culture that are key reference for the Malays.More significantly he has given deep knowledge and philosophical perspective which are more holistic on Malay culture.
 Artikel ini oleh Profesor Hadijah Rahmat diterbitkan dalam jurnal berjudul Malay:International Journal of the Malay World. Penulisan ini adalah penghargaan kepada penulis dan pengarang Tenas Effendy (Tengku Nasaruddin Said Effendy), ikon kebudayaan di Dunia Melayu. Sumbangan Pak Tenas bukan sekedar mendokumentasikan unsur dan nilai budaya Melayu dari lisan ke tulisan sebagai khazanah budaya dan nara sumber bangsa. Malah yang lebih penting lagi, Allahyarham Pak Tenas telah memberi kita suatu perspektif falsafah dan ilmu yang mendalam, seimbang lagi saksama mengenai budaya Melayu.
2015Inscribed - Malay Language and Literature in Conjunction of 50 years of Singapore’s Independence (in both print and E-book). Singapore: Malay Language Councils Singapore.

Hadijah Rahmat, Azhar Ibrahim, Juffri Supaat, Mohd Raman Daud, Mukhlis Abu Bakar & Saeda Buang (Eds.). (2015). Inscribed - Malay Language and Literature in Conjunction of 50 years of Singapore’s Independence (in both print and E-book). Singapore: Malay Language Council Singapore.

Yang Terukir - Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu sempena 50 Tahun Kemerdekaan Singapura (E-book)
Hadijah Rahmat, Azhar Ibrahim, Juffri Supaat, Mohd Raman Daud, Mukhlis Abu Bakar & Saeda Buang (Eds.). University Textbooks or Professional Books
 A coffee table book published by the Singapore Malay Language Council (MBMS) under the National Heritage Board. The book, entitled Yang Terukir: Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu, Sempena 50 Tahun Kemerdekaan Singapura, covers a wide spectrum of Malay language and literary scene and development in Singapore since pre-Independence. It was launched by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during 2015 Malay Language Month.
 Sebuah buku yang mengandungi liputan perkembangan bahasa dan persuratan Melayu di Singapura dari zaman kemerdekaan sehingga kini secara terperinci. Buku ini diterbitkan oleh Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura sempena 50 tahun kemerdekaan Singapura dan dilancarkan oleh Perdana Menteri Lee Hsien Loong semasa Bulan Bahasa 2015.
2015The Johor-Riau Literary Tradition: Historical Poems as a Medium to Conceive Memorial History.

Paper presented at Literary Criticism Conference (LITCRI ’15), Istanbul, Turkey.

Tradisi Sastera Johor-Riau. Syair Sejarah Sebagai Medium Takungan Ingatan
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper analyzes selected historical syairs produced from the 1840s to the 1890s of the Johor-Riau literary tradition. By looking at literary features such as narrative voice, focalization, contexts of production and the significance of historical narrative in the historical syairs, this paper attempts to explore the way in which traditional Malay authors use personal, collective and cultural memory as their sites of remembrance.
 Makalah ini menganalisis syair sejarah terpilih yang dihasilkan dari tahun 1840-an hingga 1890-an tradisi sastra Johor-Riau. Dengan melihat ciri-ciri kesusasteraan seperti suara naratif, tumpuan, konteks penghasilan dan pentingnya naratif sejarah dalam syair sejarah, karya ini cuba meneliti cara pengarang Melayu tradisional menggunakan kenangan peribadi, kolektif dan budaya sebagai tapak kenangan mereka.
2015Singathology - 50 new works by celebrated Singaporean writers

Gwee, L.S., Tan C.L., Sa'eda Buang & Pandiyan A. (Eds.). (2015). Singathology - 50 new works by celebrated Singaporean writers (PP. 636). Singapore: National Arts Council & Marshall Cavendish.

Singathology - 50 karya baharu oleh penulis tersohor Singapura
Sa’eda Buang University Textbooks or Professional Books
 The first of its kind, this two-volume anthology comprises fifty specially-commissioned new works from past recipients of the prestigious Cultural Medallion or Young Artist Award. Commemorating the nation’s Golden Jubilee, this book celebrates the rich polyphony of Singapore’s literary creative voices. Traversing genres and generations, readers will encounter poetry, prose, comics and plays. Pieces written in Chinese, Malay and Tamil are accompanied by English translations, which ensure that important literary voices are heard in English for the first time. This book is a significant milestone in Singaporean literature.
 Secara julung-julung kalinya, antologi sepanjang 2 jilid ini mengemukakan karya baru dan lama para penerima hadiah ulung Pingat Budaya atau Hadiah Artis Muda sempena perayaan Jubili Emas. Buku ini merayakan kepelbagaian polifoni dalam karya kreatif para penulis Singapura ini. Merentas genre dan generasi, para pembaca akan menemui puisi, prosa, komik dan drama. Karya-karya bahasa Mandarin, Melayu dan Tamil diberikan terjemahan Inggeris untuk memastikan karya sastera yang penting ini dapat didengar dalam bahasa Inggeris buat pertama kalinya. Merupakan sebuah buku yang amat penting dalam perkembangan sastera Singapura.
2015Inscribed - Malay Language and Literature in Conjunction of 50 years of Singapore’s Independence (E-book)

Hadijah Rahmat, Azhar Ibrahim, Juffri Supaat, Mohd Raman Daud, Mukhlis Abu Bakar & Saeda Buang (Eds.). (2015). Yang Terukir - Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu sempena 50 Tahun Kemerdekaan Singapura - E-book (Inscribed - Malay Language and Literature in Conjunction of 50 years of Singapore’s Independence). (PP. 348). Singapore: Malay Language Councils Singapore.

Yang Terukir - Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu sempena 50 Tahun Kemerdekaan Singapura (E-book)
Sa’eda Buang University Textbooks or Professional Books
 A coffee table book for the Singapore Malay Language Council (MBMS) under the National Heritage Book. The book, entitled Yang Terukir: Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu, Sempena 50 Tahun Kemerdekaan Singapura, covers a wide spectrum of Malay literary scene and development in Singapore since pre-Independence. It was launched by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during 2015 Malay Language Month.
 Sebuah buku yang mengandungi liputan perkembangan bahasa dan persuratan Melayu di Singapura dari zaman kemerdekaan sehingga kini secara terperinci. Buku ini diterbitkan oleh Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura sempena 50 tahun kemerdekaan Singapura dan dilancarkan oleh Perdana Menteri Lee Hsien Loong semasa Bulan Bahasa 2015.
2015The Wanderer - Suratman Markasan cultural medallion winner

Sa'eda Buang (Ed.). (2015). The Wanderer - Suratman Markasan cultural medallion winner (PP. 86). Singapore: Pustaka Nasional.

Sang Kelana - pemenang anugerah Pingat Budaya Suratman Markasan
Sa’eda Buang University Textbooks or Professional Books
 The Wanderer is a collection of poems by Suratman Markasan that have been translated into English. Like the persona of the wanderer, the poetic words travel along human experiences, unravelling insights and reflection of a literati whose literary standing is one of humanistic commitment.
 The Wanderer merupakan sebuah koleksi sajak karangan Suratman Markasan yang telah dialih bahasa ke dalam bahasa Inggeris. Menggunakan persona sebagai pengembara, puisi-puisi ini menggambarkan pengalaman insan, pemerhatian dan renungan oleh seorang penulis terbilang yang terkenal dengan semangat kemanusiaannya.
2015Hear me! Malay female writers and cultural and personal memory negotiations in literature

Sa'eda Buang (2015, November). Hear me! Malay female writers and cultural and personal memory negotiations in literature. Paper presented at LITCRI '15 (Critical Literacy conference), Istanbul, Turkey.

Dengarkanlah! Penulis wanita Melayu dan negosiasi memori budaya serta peribadi dalam kesusasteraan
Sa’eda Buang University Textbooks or Professional Books
 The presence of female writers in the Malay literary tradition has been less significant due to their number, which is too few and too far in between. The emergence of Malay female writers, albeit paltry, particularly in the middle of 20th century, has given the Malay readership an opportunity to hear female voices as alternative narratives of and about their own world and how they read the world around them. By using selected literary work by Malay female writers (particularly in Singapore) from mid-20th century till today, this paper discusses how these writers negotiate the dominant cultural memory and instead portray their version of personal and cultural memory through literature.
 Kehadiran penulis wanita dalam tradisi persuratan Melayu dianggap kurang penting disebabkan bilangan mereka yang amat sedikit. Namun, kemunculan beberapa penulis wanita pada kurun ke-20 telah memberikan khalayak pembaca peluang mendengar suara mereka sebagai naratif alternatif tentang dunia mereka dan bagaimana mereka melihat persekitaran mereka. Dengan menggunakan beberapa karya pilihan penulis wanita di Singapura semenjak pertengahan kurun ke-20 sehingga kini, kertas ini membincangkan bagaimana para penulis ini meladeni memori budaya dominan dan kemudiannya mempersembahkan versi memori peribadi dan budaya melalui sastera.
2014Roar of the Lion in Malay Literature Jungles of Nusantara (English)

Hadijah Rahmat (2014). Roar of the Lion in Malay Literature Jungles of Nusantara (English) / Roar of the Lion in Literary Jungles of Nusantara. Malay Literature, 27(1), 18-52.

Ngauman Singa dalam Rimba Kesusasteraan di Nusantara
Hadijah RahmatJournal-Refereed
 This article highlights the connection between Malay literature in Singapore and the literature of Malaysia and other nations of Nusantara, the Malay world. It examines effects of the political separation of 9 August 1965 on Malay literature in Singapore. Has separation of almost 50 years truly severed ties between Malaysia and Singapore as far as Malay literature is concerned? Do Malay literary works reflect a divide between the cultures of Malaysia and Singapore? Is there still continuity in the spirit of a common origin? This article attempts to answer these questions through discussion on the developments in a shared literature before 1965, effects and themes of “separation” in the literary works, phases in the development of literature since 1965, as well as patterns of literary connection between Malaysia and Singapore.
 Artikel ini menyoroti hubungan antara sastera Melayu di Singapura dan sastera Malaysia serta negara-negara Nusantara yang lain dalam dunia Melayu. Ia mengkaji kesan perpisahan politik pada 9 Ogos 1965 ke atas kesusasteraan Melayu di Singapura. Adakah perpisahan selama hampir 50 tahun benar-benar memutuskan hubungan kesusasteraan Melayu antara Malaysia dan Singapura? Adakah karya-karya sastera Melayu mencerminkan perpecahan budaya antara budaya di Malaysia dan Singapura? Masih adakah kesinambungan berasaskan semangat serumpun yang asal? Artikel ini cuba menjawab soalan-soalan ini melalui perbincangan tentang perkembangan dalam sastera yang dikongsi sebelum tahun 1965, kesan dan tema "perpisahan" dalam karya-karya sastera, fasa pembangunan kesusasteraan sejak tahun 1965, serta pola-pola hubungan antara sastera Malaysia dan Singapura.
2014Preserving Singapore-Johor-Riau Literature

Malay Literature, 27(1), 86-103.

Jalinan Sastera Singapura-Johor-Riau
Kartini bte Anwar Journal-Refereed
 This article explores initiatives taken and challenges faced by Singapore, Johor and Riau in preserving their literary ties throughout the 1990s. It also introduces the efforts made to collect manuscripts and artefacts of Riau literature in Singapore, with the hope that it will open up ways for continued efforts towards the culture of research on materials in literature.
 Makalah ini membicarakan tentang initiatif dan cabaran yang berlaku dalam jalinan tiga nusa; Singapura, Johor dan Riau pada tahun-tahun 1990-an. Ia juga membicarakan membicarakan tentnag usaha pengumpulan manuskrip dan artifak sastera Riau yang dilakukan di Singapura dengan harapan ia dapat membuka ruang kepada usaha lanjut ke arah membudayakan pengkajian bahan-bahan sastera.
2013Return to Roots of Self: The Challenges of Traditions in Modern Literature of Singapore

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). Return to Roots of Self: The Challenges of Traditions in Modern Literature of Singapore. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.

Kembali Ke Akar Diri: Cabaran Tradisi dalam sastera Moden Singapura
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 This paper explains about the challenges and difficulties in keeping the traditions in Singapore's Malay Literary works. With the change of era and lifestyles, Malay literature is also facing different kinds of challenges in keeping traditions alive. This work discusses the issues involved. (SL).
 Kertas kerja ini menerangkan cabaran dan kepayahan dalam memelihara tradisi dalam karya Sastera Melayu Singapura. Peredaran zaman dan pengubahan gaya hidup menyebabkan sastera Melayu turut berdepan dengan pelbagai jenis cabaran dalam mempertahankan tradisi. Makalah ini membincangkan hal tersebut.
2013In search for Canon of Singapore Malay Poetry: Reflection On Nature, Race, Religion And Love (English)

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). In search for Canon of Singapore Malay Poetry: Reflection On Nature, Race, Religion And Love (English). Malay Literature, Vol No.26, (No.1 June 2013), 1-17.

Pencarian Kanun Puisi Melayu Singapura: Refleksi tentang Alam, Kaum, Agama dan Cinta.
Hadijah RahmatJournal-Refereed
 This paper discusses selected poems by three generations of Malay writers in Singapore from the first generation poets who received their vernacular education during British colonial period, before Malayan Independence in 1957; to second generation writers who received Malay education when Singapore was part of Malaysia (1957–1965) who established their poems in 1970s; and the third generation writers who received bilingual education after Singapore become a Republic in the 1980s. These iconic poems embody the aesthetic as well as the cultural and political values of Malay society. It is an early attempt to define and search for the canon of Singapore Malay poetry.
 Makalah ini membincangkan puisi terpilih oleh tiga generasi penulis Melayu di Singapura, dari penyair generasi pertama yang menerima pendidikan vernakular mereka semasa zaman kolonial British, sebelum Kemerdekaan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1957; kepada penulis generasi kedua, yang menerima pendidikan Melayu apabila Singapura masih lagi sebahagian daripada Malaysia (1957-1965), yang menghasilkan puisi mereka pada tahun 1970-an; dan penulis generasi ketiga yang menerima pendidikan dwibahasa selepas Singapura menjadi Republik pada tahun 1980-an. Puisi-puisi ikonik ini merangkumi estetika serta nilai budaya dan politik masyarakat Melayu. Ia merupakan percubaan awal untuk menentukan dan mencari kanon puisi Melayu Singapura.
2013GIFT OF LIFE- Words and Colours

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). GIFT OF LIFE - Words and Colours. Anthology of Poems. Singapore: TSLANANG PUBLISHING LLP.

KURNIA ALAM - Bingkisan kata dan Warna
Hadijah RahmatOthers
 This book is a second anthology of poetry by Hadijah after her first one, Di Tengah Alam(1998). It is a continuation of her journey and reflection of life for about 15 years until she reached 53 years old, from 1997 to 2011. The total of 71 of her fruits of reflection are arranged in five parts - Lagu di Tengah Alam (Songs of Nature), Kristal Kasih (Crystals of Love), Jejak Pesisir (Footprints along the Shores), Bahtera Seni (The Ship of Arts) and Kembara Alam (Journey of Life ). Hadijah loves art and photography. Some of her oil and batik paintings are included in this book as manifestation of her feelings and appreciation to those who contributed to her life. These paintings and photos are images of nature and life which have been carefully synthesized with her poems to be more wholesome expressions of her souls. These collections of her words and colours of life are now presented to readers to read and enjoy.
 Buku ini adalah antologi kedua Hadijah selepas antologi pertama Di Tengah Alam (1998). Ini adalah lanjutan perjalanan dan renungan hidup selama 15 tahun sehingga usia 53 tahun dari tahun 1997 hingga 2011. Sebanyak 71 buah renungan ini disusun dalam 5 bahagian - Lagu Di Tengah Alam, Kristal Kasih, Jejak Pesisir, Bahtera Seni dan Kembara Alam. Hadijah gemar seni lukis dan seni foto. Beberapa lukisan minyak dan batik beliau disertakan dalam buku sebagai penglahiran rasa dan penghargaan kepada mereka yang telah menyumbang dalam hidup beliau. Selain puisi atau bingkisan kata, buku ini disulami dengan beberapa lukisan dan foto menjadi citra warna alam yang diharapkan menjadi pengucapan jiwa yang menyeluruh dan lengkap.
2013Keledang: An analysis from Lacanian's Pschycoanalysis

In Siri Kajian Pemikiran Sasterawan Negara: Pemikiran Sasterawan Negara A. Samad Said (pp. 91-116). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Keledang: Analisis dari Sudut Psikoanalisis Lacan
Kartini bte Anwar Book Chapters
 This paper examines aspects of human psyche and human conflict by applying Lacanian psychoanalysis theory in the novel, Keledang by A. Samad Said. The study explores the author’s subconscious thoughts as he presents the anxiety and turmoil of the characters in the novel framed within the three orders of human psyche - the Imaginary, Real and Symbolic.
 Makalah ini meneliti aspek kejiwaan dan konflik batin manusia dengan mengaplikasikan Teori Psikoanalisis Lacan. Kajian ini meneroka pengalaman pengarang A. Samad Said dari aspek bawah sedar. Beliau menampilkan keresahan dan pergolakan jiwa watak-watak dalam novel Keledang yagn terbingkai dalam daerah kejiwaan manusia iaitu; Imejan, Sebenar (Real) dan Simbolik.
2013Singapore-Johor-Riau Literary Collaborations: An Overview of the Process of Exploration & Continuation

Paper presented at PERSIDANGAN SERANTAU KESUSASTERAAN MELAYU MALAYSIA-SINGAPURA DALAM DIMENSI PASCA '65, PENANG, Malaysia.

Jalinan Singapura-Johor-Riau Melalui Sastera: SIJORI, Sejoli & Lestari
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper highlighted the work, collaboration and collaboration of literature between Malaysia and Singapore through the Singapore-Johor-Riau (SIJORI) link in the 1990s. This paper also explores the challenges faced and the latest initiatives undertaken to collect Riau literature manuscripts and artefacts by Singapore researchers as an effort to preserve the study of culture and literature.
 Makalah ini mengetengahkan usaha, kerjasama dan kolaborasi kesusasteraan yang pernah berlangsung di antara Malaysia dengan Singapura menerusi jalinan Singapura-Johor-Riau (SIJORI) dalam tahun 1990-an. Makalah ini juga meneroka cabaran yang dihadapi serta inisiatif mutakhir yang dilakukan untuk mengumpulkan manuskrip dan artifak sastera Riau oleh pengkaji Singapura sebagai suatu usaha melestarikan budaya kajian dan kesusasteraan.
2013Assessing and appreciating literary work via Literary Awards (Anugerah Persuratan Singapura): a reflection

Sa'eda Buang (2013, December). Penilaian dan Penghargaan Karya Melalui Anugerah Persuratan Singapura: Satu Renungan. In Sohaimi Abd Aziz (Ed.), Persidangan Serantau Sastera Malaysia–Singapura Dalam Dimensi Pasca ’65 (Malaysia-Singapore regional conference on post-1965 era), First, 14.

Penilaian dan Penghargaan Karya Melalui Anugerah Persuratan Singapura: Satu Renungan
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper discusses the development and challenges of producing quality literary works through literary awards in Singapore. Polemics surrounding the awards and writers’ struggles to sustain the awards are critically discussed.
 Kertas ini membincangkan perkembangan dan cabaran menghasilkan karya-karya bermutu melalui penganugerahan sastera di Singapura. Polemik di sekitar penganugerahan dan usaha para penulis mengekalkan penganugerahan dibicarakan.
2013Bear These Words

Sa'eda Buang (Ed.). (2013). Begitulah Kata-kata (Bear These Words) (PP. 256). Singapore: National Arts Council; Marshall Cavendish.

Begitulah Kata-kata
Sa’eda Buang University Textbooks or Professional Books
 An anthology of short stories, plays and poetry written by 19 award-winning local authors. This book has been slated for the A-level Malay literature text in Singapore from 2014 onwards.
 Sebuah antologi yang mengandungi cerpen, drama dan puisi yang telah memenangi anugerah/hadiah sastera sumbangan 19 penulis tempatan. Buku ini dipilih sebagai teks untuk kursus sastera peringkat A di Singapura.
2012Light of Nusantara under Colonial Sky- Comparative Study between Munshi Abdullah and R.A.Kartini

Hadijah Rahmat (2012). Light of Nusantara under Colonial Sky - Comparative Study between Munshi Abdullah and R.A.Kartini. The talk was accompanied by the play by the author, for the CITA Literary Arts programme presented by The Arts House and the National University of Singapore's Department of Malay Studies, that was held on 13 November 2012 at The Arts House.

Cahaya Nusantara Dalam Gelap Langit Penjajah - Perbandingan antara Munshi Abdullah & Raden Adjeng Kartini
Hadijah RahmatConference Presentations (with publication)
 The talk discussed the life and contributions of two great writers and thinkers in Southeast Asia, Munshi Abdullah and Raden Adjeng Kartini, who lived during the dark British and Dutch colonial periods of the region. Abdullah and Kartini were born, educated, and lived under the colonial rules and system, which had influenced and shaped their thinking and writings. Their enlightened views on education, language, religion, and western colonial systems, which have been the lights of inspirations for generations, are highlighted.
 Ceramah ini membincangkan kehidupan dan sumbangan dua tokoh penulis dan pemikir Asia Tenggara, Munshi Abdullah dan Raden Adjeng Kartini, yang hidup semasa zaman gelap penjajah British dan Belanda di rantau ini. Abdullah dan Kartini dilahirkan, dididik dan hidup di bawah pemerintahan dan sistem penjajah, dan ini mempengaruhi dan membentuk pemiliran dan penulisan mereka. Pemikiran moden mereka tentang pendidikan, bahasa, agama dan sistem penjajahan barat, telah menjadi cahaya inspirasi kepada masyarakat telah dikupas dan bentangkan.
2012The American Journey in the Malay Literary Ocean

Hadijah Rahmat (2012). The American Journey in the Malay Literary Ocean. iJACH -The International Journal of Arts, Culture and Heritage, 1 (Special Edition), 17-47.

Pelayaran Amerika Syarikat di tengah Lautan Warisan Persuratan Nusantara
Hadijah RahmatJournal-Refereed
 Traditional Malay literary heritage is valuable and aplenty but is yet to be explored and fully utilised for the beneficial development of society, the nation and mankind at large. This article discusses the Malay literary heritage in America which was brought there in the early 19th centurry through two major American historical voyages to South East Asia; the Christian Missionary Movement from the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions or A.B.C.F.M. (1834-1843) and Wilkes Expedition, (the first American scientific expedition 1838-1842) which made a stopover in Singapore in 1842. Some early research findings under the Fullbright Visitors Masters Program from November 2002 until May 2003, from University Berkeley, Calfornia, the Houghton Library and Library of Congress, Washington as well as Harvard University will be presented.These American literary research findings are very important as it depicts the early historical ties between the United States and South East Asia, the development of the Malay language together with early Malay publications, and the involvement of Christian missionaries in the history of literature and education in Singapore and Southeast Asia in general.
 Khazanah persuratan Melayu tradisional adalah lautan luas yang amat besar nilainya tetapi belum diterokai dan diselami serta dimanfaatkan sepenuhnya untuk pembangunan masyarakat, negara dan manusia sejagat. Makalah ini membincangkan warisan persuratan Melayu di Amerika Syarikat, yang telah dibawa ke sana sejak awal abad ke-19 Masihi, melalui dua pelayaran sejarah yang utama Amerika di Asia Tenggara, iaitu pelayaran gerakan mubaligh Kristian dari Lembaga Suruhanjaya Misi Luar Negara Amerika atau ringkasnya A.B.C.F.M., (dari 1834-1843) dan Ekspedisi Wilkes, pelayaran sains Amerika yang pertama (1838-1842) yang telah singgah di Singapura pada tahun 1842. Beberapa hasil penelitian awal penulis di bawah Program Sarjana Pelawat Fulbright, dari November 2002 hingga Mei 2003, di Universiti California Berkeley, Houghton Library, Universiti Harvard dan di Library of Congress, Washington, akan dibentangkan. Hasil dapatan awal ini membuktikan bahawa pengkajian warisan persuratan Melayu di Amerika Syarikat ini amat penting untuk mengetahui jalinan sejarah antara Amerika Syarikat dengan Asia Tenggara, perkembangan bahasa dan percetakan awal Melayu, pergerakan mubaligh Kristian dalam sejarah persuratan, pendidikan Singapura dan Asia Tenggara umumnya. Kata kunci: Munshi Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, percetakan Melayu awal; ABCFM (American Board of Commisioners for Foreign Office); mubaligh Kristian; manuskrip Melayu.
2012Village in the Musical Soul and the Malay Mind - A Reflection Through the Script of Lorong Buangkok:The Musical.

Hadijah Rahmat (2012). Village in the Musical Soul and the Malay Mind - A Reflection Through the Script of Lorong Buangkok: The Musical. KOK (pp. vii-xxvii). Singapore: COKELAT.

Kampung Dalam lagu Jiwa dan Minda Melayu - Renungan Melalui Bacaan Skrip Muzika Lorong Buangkok
Hadijah RahmatUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book is the script of a mini musical play about Kampung Lorong Buangkok, the last village on the main island of Singapore, It was wriiten by Mr Nadiputra, a prominent Malay playright, who is Cultural Medallion winner of Singapore. The musical was performed at Black Box of Tampines Primary School on 7th and 8th July 2012. A/P Hadijah was invited to write the Introduction for the book. She has studied the literary, cultural and social values of the play in the context of urban history of Singapore, its meanings and relevance to multi-cultural communities in urban city of Singapore.
 Buku ini adalah skrip teater mini berunsur muzika tentang Kampung Lorong Buang Kok, kampung terakhir di Pulau besar Singapura. Drama ini adalah karya Nadiputra, seorang tokoh drama, penerima Pingat Budaya (Cultural Medalion), yang tidak asing lagi di persada drama Singapura. Drama ini dipersembahkan di Black Box Sekolah Rendah Tampines pada 7 dan 8 Julai 2012. Prof Madya Hadijah diundang untuk menulis Pengenalan untuk buku ini dan beliau telah membuat analisa mengenai kedudukan dan nilai drama dan hubungannya dengan sejarah perbandaran Singapura, makna dan kesesuaiannya dalam kehidupan masyarakat pelbagai kaum di kota Singapura kini.
2012Variations and Characterization: An analysis on the Johor-Riau Syair

Paper presented at International Conference on South-East Asian Literature - SAKAT, Jakarta, Indonesia

Kepelbagaian dalam Penokohan: Suatu Penelitian ke atas Syair Johor-Riau
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper features several types of poetry in order to show the significance of the characters contained in it. Among the characters presented in these verses include flowers, fruits, fish, cobra, frogs, birds and so forth. Human figures are like male and female royalty, foreign characters of Dutch, Arabic, Chinese origin. The appearance of such figures show how poetry is a genre that can be made an effort for cross-cultural understanding.
 Makalah ini menampilkan beberapa jenis syair dengan tujuan untuk memperlihatkan signifikasi tokoh-tokoh yang termuat dalamnya. Antara tokoh-tokoh yang dikemukakan dalam syair-syair ini ialah seperti bunga-bungaan, buah-buahan, ikan, ular tedung, katak, burung dan sebagainya. Tokoh-tokoh manusia pula ialah seperti tokoh bangsawan lelaki dan wanita, tokoh asing berbangsa Belanda, Arab, Cina. Penampilan tokoh-tokoh seperti ini menunjukkan bagaimana syair sebagai sebuah genre, boleh dijadikan suatu upaya pemahaman lintas budaya.
2012Trends in Malay Literature in Singapore and Malaysia

Paper presented at Asian Expression: Crossing Barriers in Literary Arts - Translation, Singapore

Trend Sastera Melayu di Singapura dan Malaysia
Kartini bte Anwar Conference Presentations (without publication)
 This paper discusses the development of Malay literary works in Singapore and Malaysia. It also touches on the trend to translate Malay works into English and other languages, and to what extent the effort has been supported and encouraged.
 Makalah ini membincangkan perkembangan penghasilan karya-karya sastera Melayu di Singapura dan Malaysia. Ia juga menyentuh trend untuk menterjemahkan karya-karya Melayu ke dalam bahasa Inggeris dan bahasa-bahasa lain dan sejauh manakah usaha tersebut mendapat sokongan dan dorongan.
2012Beyond the 2nd Link: Selected Fiction from Malaysia & Singapore.

Rahimdin Zahari, Kartini Anwar. Beyond the 2nd Link: Selected Fiction from Malaysia & Singapore.
Kuala Lumpur: ITBM

Melangkaui Jembatan Kedua: Cerpen Terpilih dari Malaysia & Singapura
Kartini bte Anwar Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 This book is a bilingual anthology featuring selected short stories by authors from two countries which are Malaysia and Singapore. The short stories contained in this book illustrate the social, economic, political and aspirations of the authors. This publication is a bridge between the art and culture of the two countries.
 Buku ini merupakan sebuah antologi dwi-bahasa yang menampilkan cerpen-cerpen terpilih oleh pengarang dari dua negara iaitu Malaysia dan Singapura. Karya-karya cerpen yang terkandung di dalam buku ini menggambarkan latar sosial, ekonomi, politik dan aspirasi para pengarangnya. Penerbitan ini menjadi jambatan penghubungan seni dan budaya antara dua negara.
2012Ode to Masuri S.N. (Singapore pioneer writers series)

Sa'eda Buang (Ed.). (2012). Ode to Masuri S.N. (Singapore pioneer writers series) (PP. 218). Singapore: Math Paper Press & National Arts Council.

Oda buat Masuri S.N. (siri penulis perintis Singapura)
Sa’eda Buang University Textbooks or Professional Books
 As part of the 2012 Singapore Writers Festival's annual Literary Pioneer series, this publication features the late Masuri S.N., a Malay poet and literary pioneer of Singapore. His poems, short stories and plays have made him an eminent writer in Singapore. The series aims to share the diversity and richness of Singapore's collective literary heritage and promote a deeper understanding of creative writing in our four official languages. This book is a limited commemorative edition published during the Singapore Writers Festival 2012.
 Merupakan salah satu siri Perintis Sastera terbitan Pesta Penulis Singapura 2012 yang mengetengahkan Masuri S.N, seorang penyair Melayu dan pelopor persuratan di Singapura. Puisi, cerpen dan drama Masuri telah menonjolkan beliau sebagai penulis ulung di Singapura. Siri bertujuan berkongsi kepelbagaian dan kekayaan koleksi warisan sastera Singapura dan menggalakkan pemahaman yang mendalam terhadap penulisan kreatif dalam setiap bahasa resmi. Buku ini merupakan edisi khas terbitan Pesta Penulis Singapura 2012.
2011American Missionary Journey Into the Malay Printing World.

Hadijah Rahmat (2011). American Missionary Journey Into the Malay Printing World. In Sinha, L. (Ed.), Rainbows of Malay Literature and Beyond - Fetstschrift for Professor Muhammad Salleh Yappar (pp. 103-123). Pulau Pinang: University Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang.

Pengembaraan Mubaligh Kristian Amerika ke dalam Dunia Penerbitan Melayu
Hadijah RahmatBook Chapters
 The traditional Malay literary heritage is valuable and aplenty but is yet to be explored and fully utilized for the beneficial development of society, the nation and mankind at large. This article discusses the Malay literary heritage in America which was brought there in the early 19th century through two major American historical voyages to South East Asia: the Christian Missionary Movement from the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions or A.B.C.F.M (1834-1843) and the Wilkes Expedition, (the first American Scientific Expedition 1838-1842) which made a stopover in Singapore in 1843. This is some early research findings by the author when she was there under the Fulbright Visiting Scholars Program from November 2002 until May 2003, to do research at the University Berkeley, California, the Houghton Library, University Harvard and the Library of Congress, Washington USA. These research findings are important as it depicts the early historical ties between the United States and Southeast Asia, the development of the Malay language together with early Malay publications, and the involvement of the Christian missionaries in the history of literature and education in Singapore and Southeast Asia in general.
 Warisan kesusasteraan tradisional Melayu amat banyak dan berharga, namun belum diterokai dan dimanfaatkan sepenuhnya untuk pembangunan masyarakat, negara dan manusia pada umumnya. Artikel ini membincangkan warisan sastera Melayu di Amerika yang dibawa ke sana pada awal abad ke-19 melalui dua pelayaran utama dalam sejarah Amerika ke Asia Tenggara: Gerakan Mubaligh Kristian dari Dewan Pesuruhjaya Luar Pesisir Amerika atau A.B.C.F.M (1834 – 1843) dan Ekspedisi Wilkes, (Ekspedisi Saintifik Amerika pertama 1838 – 1842) yang singgah di Singapura pada tahun 1843. Ini merupakan antara penemuan penyelidikan awal oleh pengarang ketika menyertai Program Fulbright Visiting Scholars antara November 2003 hingga Mei 2003, untuk membuat penyelidikan di Universiti Berkeley, California, Perpustakaan Houghton, Universiti Harvard dan Perpustakaan Kongres, Washington Amerika Syarikat. Penemuan penyelidikan ini penting kerana menggambarkan hubungan sejarah awal antara Amerika Syarikat dengan Asia Tenggara, perkembangan bahasa Melayu bersama penerbitan awal Melayu, dan penglibatan para mubaligh Kristian dalam sejarah kesusasteraan dan pendidikan di Singapura dan Asia Tenggara secara umumnya.
2011Masuri SN - A Malay Poet Laureate in the International Arena

Hadijah Rahmat, Mukhlis Abu Bakar, Roksana Abdullah (Ed.). (2011). Masuri SN - A Malay Poet Laureate in the International Arena. Singapore: ALC, NIE.

MASURI SN - Sasterawan Melayu di Persada Antarabangsa
Hadijah Rahmat, Mukhlis Abu Bakar, Roksana Abdullah (Ed.). (2011). University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book, edited by three editors, is a critical study and appreciation of literary works and contribution by Masuri S.N., a prominent Singaporean poet and writer.
 Buku yang diedit oleh tiga orang editor ini meneliti tulisan dan sumbangan Masuri S N, seorang penyair dan penulis Singapura.
2011"Bibliography of Malay Literature in Singapore (1965-2009) - Steps Towards Building Knowledge and Appreciation of Singapore Malay Literature".

Hadijah Rahmat (2011). "Bibliography of Malay Literature in Singapore (1965-2009) - Steps Towards Building Knowledge and Appreciation of Singapore Malay Literature". In Bibliography of Singapore Malay literature (1965-2009) by Juffri Supa'at, Saliyah Sapeon, Sukinah Suradi. Singapore: National Library Board, pp. 10-11.

Bibliografi Sastera Melayu Singapura (1965-2009): Langkah membina pengetahuan dan Penghargaan terhadap Sastera Melayu Singapura
Hadijah RahmatUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The Bibliography of Malay Literature (1965-2009) was published by NLB, it compiled works written in Malay language by writers in Singapore published in Singapore and outside Singapore from 1965-2009. This includes novel, poetry, short stories, plays, and essays. A/P Hadijah was invited to write the forward for the book in which she highlights the significant of the book to enable readers to have more comprehensive picture of the development of Malay literature and appreciate its unique attributes and values.
 Bibliografi Sastera Melayu Singapura (1965-2009) yang diterbitkan oleh NLB menghimpunkan bahan-bahan karya para penulis Singapura sama ada yang diterbitkan di dalam atau luar negara dan juga karya-karya yang diterbitkan di Singapura dari tahun 1965 – 2015. Ini termasuk novel, koleksi puisi, cerpen, drama dan esei dalam bentuk buku. A/P Hadijah telah diundang untuk menulis "Seulas Pinang" untuk buku, dimana beliau telah menekankan kepentingan buku ini yang membantu pembaca mendapat gambaran yang lebih lengkap mengenai perkembangan sastera Melayu di Singapura dan menghargai ciri-ciri dan keistimewaannya.
2011Rawsyanfikri: The Intellectual Who Knows His Audience

Rawsyanfikri: The Intellectual Who Knows His Audience. In Hadijah Rahmat, Mukhlis Abu Bakar & Roksana Abdullah (Eds.), Masuri S.N.: Sasterawan Melayu di Persada Dunia (pp. 235-253). Singapore: ALC, NIE.

Rawsyanfikri: Jauhari yang Mengenal Manikamnya
Kartini bte Anwar Book Chapters
 This study discusses the characteristics of rawsyanfikri as it is revealed in the work of Masuri S.N. The research was made from the perspective of his thoughts and authorship through works in the genre of poetry and prose, especially poems, short stories and essays based on the three stages of his work.
 Kajian ini membincangkan ciri-ciri rawsyanfikri sebagaimana ia terungkap dalam karya Masuri S.N. Penelitian dibuat dari sudut pemikiran dan kepengarangan beliau melalui karya-karya dalam genre puisi dan prosa, khususnya sajak, cerpen dan penulisan esei berdasarkan tiga peringkat pengkaryaan beliau.
2011Pursuing Language, Arts and Culture in Preserving Malay Studies

Mukhlis Abu Bakar, Sa’eda Buang, Kartini Anwar & Kamsiah Abdullah e-Utama, 3(1), 1-6.

Menekuni Pengkajian Bahasa, Sastera dan Budaya demi Pelestarian Pengajian Melayu
Kartini bte Anwar Journal-Refereed
 This online journal features several articles produced by academics and researchers from Malay Studies that deal with studies covering languages, literature and culture.
 Jurnal dalam talian ini menampilkan beberapa artikel yang dihasilkan oleh para akademik dan pengkaji dari Pengajian Melayu yang membicarakan kajian-kajian yang meliputi bidang bahasa, sastera dan budaya.
2011The Noble Portrait of Humanity in Educational World - A Festschrift in Honour of Dr Abbas Mohd Shariff

Hadijah Rahmat, Mana Sikana, Kartini Anwar Singapore: ALC, NIE.

Citra Murni Insan dalam Dunia Pendidikan - Feskrip untuk Dr Abbas Mohd Shariff
Kartini bte Anwar Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 This paper compiles written writings on an esteemed educator, Dr. Abbas Mohd Shariff in conjunction with his retirement. From the writings contributed in this book, readers can follow the experiences of several people who have worked with Dr. Abbas in education.
 Karya ini mengumpulkan tulisan-tulisan bercorak penghargaan terhadap seorang tokoh pendidikan, Dr. Abbas Mohd Shariff sempena oleh persaraan beliau. Daripada tulisan yang disumbangkan dalam buku ini, pembaca dapat ikuti pengalaman beberapa orang tokoh yang pernah bekerjasama dengan Dr. Abbas dalam dunia pendidikan.
2011Masuri SN - A Malay Poet Laureate in the International Arena

Book editorial: Hadijah Rahmat, Mukhlis Abu Bakar, Roksana Abdullah (Ed.). (2011). Singapore: ALC, NIE.

MASURI SN - Sasterawan Melayu di Persada Antarabangsa
Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah Editorships, Published Reviews
 This book, edited by three editors, is a critical study and appreciation of literary works and contribution by Masuri S.N., a prominent Singaporean poet and writer.
 Buku yang telah diedit oleh tiga orang penyunting inimerupakan satu kajian kritikal dalam menghargai hasil sumbangan Masuri SN,iaitu salah seorang sasterawan dan penulis agung Singapura.
2011Humanising parochialism: Masuri SN works from the perspective of humanity

Sa'eda Buang (2011). Memanusiawi parokial: Karya-karya Masuri SN dari sudut kemanusiaan. In Hadijah Rahmat, Mukhlis Abu Bakar & Roksana Abdullah (Eds.), Masuri SN Sasterawan Melayu Di Persada Dunia (pp. 120-145). Singapore: Malay Language and Culture Division, Asian Languages and Cultures Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University.

Memanusiawi parokial: Karya-karya Masuri SN dari sudut kemanusiaan
Sa’eda Buang Book Chapters
 How does Masuri perceive and deal with parochialism? Has Masuri even humanised parochialism? Based on his literary works in particular prose, the questions will be attempted by focussing on humanity and how Masuri defines, analyses and humanises parochialism that exists within and around him.
 Bagaimanakah Masuri memandang dan mengulit parokial? Adakah tugas memanusiawi parokial pernah dipikul oleh Masuri? Bersandarkan karya-karya Masuri, terutama prosanya, soalan-soalan ini akan dijawab dengan memberi focus pada sudut kemanusiaan untuk melihat bagaimana Masuri mentakrif, menaakul dan memanusiawi parokial yang berlaku di dalam diri dan di sekelilingnya.
YearTitle
AuthorType
2020Singapore Tamil Novels

Seetha Lakshmi (2020, July). Singapore Novels. Paper presented at The Zoom Conference organised by Ulaga Tamil Sangam, Madurai, a Tamil Nadu Government organisation in collaboration of Association of Singapore Tamil Writers. Madurai, India: Ulaga Tamil Sangam.

சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் நாவல்கள்
Seetha Lakshmi Conference Presentations (without publication)
  Literature can be classified under various genres such as poetry, essay, short story, novel and drama. They can be further divided into sub-genres. Under fiction short stories, novels and novellas are similar in some ways but differ in many ways. This essay examines Tamil novels and novellas that emerged in Singapore, focusing on their themes and contexts. Due to space limitations, this work provides a broad overview of Singapore Tamil novels.
 இலக்கியங்களில் கவிதை, கட்டுரை, சிறுகதை, புதினம் அல்லது நாவல், தொடர்கதை, நாடகம் எனப் பலவகைகள் உள்ளன. அவற்றில் பல துணைப்பிரிவுகளும் உள்ளன. இங்கு, புனைகதை எனப்படும் வகையில் சிறுகதையும் புதினமும் குறுநாவல்களும் சில கூறுகளில் ஒன்றிணைந்தும் பலவற்றில் வேறுபட்டும் அமையும் தன்மையன. இங்கு, புதினம் என்ற கருத்தமைவில் சிங்கப்பூரில் தோன்றிய தமிழ் நாவல்களையும் குறுநாவல்களையும் அதாவது அவற்றின் கருக்களையும் பின்னணியையும் பற்றி இக்கட்டுரை நோக்குகிறது. கட்டுரையின் அளவு கருதிச் சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் நாவல்களைப் பற்றிய ஒரு பருந்துப் பார்வையாகப் படைப்பு அமைகிறது.
2017Postmodernism and Literature

Invited Special Guest to Deliver the Keynote address at the One day International Conference on Universality in Contemporary Reality: Envisioning / (Re)visioning Postmodern Literature. Trichi, India: Post Graduate & Research Department of English, Jamal Mohamed College.

பின்நவீனத்துவமும் இலக்கியமும்
Seetha Lakshmi Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
  This presentation is on postmodern literature, Tamil culture and life in today’s context. Postmodernism began in the 1930s and has a strong impact on people’s lives even today. Its impact is evident in education, student-teacher relationship, curriculum development, research and analysis (Kretchmar, 2017). In our globalized lives, there are many cultural features, places and identities of a ‘woman’ in under privileged communities. The lives of Tamils in today’s world are some of the commonly used examples for the critical themes of postmodern literature. At the same time, there are many new thoughts about culture, Mother Tongue language preservation, interactions of cultures, hybrid identities of humans etc.; selected novels from Tamil Language have exposed many features of post modernism and the youth’s preferences in today’s postmodern literature. Following Modernism, Post modernism has its peak in many western countries and its wings have been strong in Tamil Nadu for the past two decades. The State could witness a significant change in lifestyle, way of communication, thought process and the day-to-day transactions. An increasing number of stories have dichotomies of old and new ethics, women then and now, family relationship and individual relationship, etc. This presentation will analyse postmodern literature and the Tamil community’s changing landscapes in India and overseas.
 இந்தப் படைப்பு, இன்றைய சூழலில் பின்நவீனத்துவ இலக்கியம், தமிழ்ப்பண்பாடு, வாழ்க்கை ஆகியன குறித்துப் பேசுகிறது. 1930களில் அறிமுகமான பின்நவீனத்துவம், இன்றும் கூட மக்களின் வாழ்வில் தாக்கத்தைப் பதித்து வருகிறது. கல்வித்துறை, ஆசிரியர் - மாணவர் உறவு, பாடத்திட்ட மேம்பாடு, ஆய்வு மற்றும் பகுப்பாய்வு (Kretchmar, 2017) ஆகியவற்றில் அதன் தாக்கம் தெளிவாகத் தெரிகிறது. இன்றைய நமது உலகளாவிய வாழ்வில், அதிக அளவிலான பண்பாட்டுக்கூறுகள், இடங்கள், அடையாளங்கள் ஆகியவற்றைப் பின்தங்கிய சமூகங்களில் பெண் என்பவள் குறித்து அமைந்திருப்பதை வைத்து அறியலாம். அதே நேரம், பண்பாடு, தாய்மொழியைக் காத்தல், பண்பாடுகளின் இடைவினையாடல்கள், பலவகை அடையாளங்களை மனிதர்கள் பெற்றிருத்தல் போன்றன இருக்கின்றன. நவீனத்துவத்தைத் தொடர்ந்து பல மேற்கத்திய நாடுகளில் பின் நவீனத்துவம் தனது உச்சத்தைத் தொட்டுள்ளது. அதே நேரம் கடந்த இரு நூற்றாண்டுகளாகத் தமிழகத்தில் அதன் வீச்சு வேகமாக உள்ளது. மக்களின் வாழ்க்கைமுறை, தொடர்புப்பாணி, சிந்தனைப்படிநிலை, தினசரிப் பரிவர்த்தனைகள் ஆகியவற்றில் தமிழகம் பெரும் மாற்றங்களைக் கண்டு வருகிறது. பழைய, புதிய மரபுகள், அன்றும் இன்றும் பெண், குடும்ப உறவு, தனிமனித உறவுகள் எனப் பலவற்றைப்பற்றிப் பல கதைகள் வருகின்றன. இந்தப் படைப்பு, பின்நவீனத்துவ இலக்கியம், இந்தியாவிலும் பிற நாடுகளிலும் மாறிவரும் தமிழ்ச்சமூகத்தின் பின்னணி ஆகியன குறித்து எடுத்துரைக்கிறது.
2015Vazhinadaicinthu’s (A kind of poetry sing when people travelling from one village to another village) contribution to Singapore Literature’s categories.

Vazhinadaicinthu’s (A kind of poetry sing when people travelling from one village to another village) contribution to Singapore Literature’s categories In N. Kanthasamy, Mohana Dass Ramasamy & S. Kumaran. (Eds.) Nurturing Tamil studies in the Era of Globalization (pp. 63-66). 9th International Conference - Seminar on Tamil Studies. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Association for Tamil Research (IATR) Malaysia, c/o Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya.

சிங்கப்பூர் இலக்கிய வகைமைக்கு வழிநடைச்சிந்து இலக்கியத்தின் கொடை.
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (with publication)
  Vazhinadaicinthu was sung to praise the deity at the Singapore Buddha Racecourse Road, Bramman temple. This piece serves as a rare work, which brings more glory to Singapore’s history of Tamil literature. Although the book was released in 1937, it has not gained popularity. As such, this paper aims to change this situation and share insights to how this book contributes greatly to Singapore’s history of Tamil literature. The book was composed by Jilla Muthu Pattanam V. S Muthu Nadar. In Atrupadai literature, the lead character’s hometown and places concerning him would be addresed. Following that, this trend was evident in epic literatures by describing the significance and characteristics of the country and city. This component is also present in Folklore literature as seen in Vazhinadaicinthu. This paper explains how the book portrays Singapore in the olden days and as well as how dialogues are present in between songs all while having a religious basis. This paper re-examines many of the olden words that are no longer used by the Tamil community in Singapore today and also sheds light on facts about Singapore that the Tamil community many not have been aware of.
 சிங்கை நாட்டுத் தமிழ் இலக்கிய வரலாற்றுக்கு மேலும் சிறப்புச் சேர்த்திட அரிய படைப்பாகக் கிடைத்திருப்பது "சிங்கை புத்தர் ரேசுக்கோர்சு றோட்டு, பிரமன் ஆலயம் சுவாமி தெரிசனைக்காகப் பாடிய வழிநடைச் சிந்து". இந்நூல் 1937இல் வெளிவந்திருந்தாலும் இன்னும் பரவலாக்கம் பெறாமல் இருக்கின்ற நிலையை மாற்றி இந்நூலைப் பற்றிய செய்திகளை எடுத்துக்கூறிச் சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கிய வரலாற்றுக்கு மேலும் அணி சேர்ப்பதே இக்கட்டுரையின் நோக்கமாகும். இந்நூல் புதுக்கோட்டை ஜில்லா முத்துப்பட்டணம் வி ச முத்து நாடாரால் இயற்றப்பட்டது. ஆற்றுப்படை இலக்கியத்தில் பாட்டுடைத் தலைவனின் ஊரும் அவன் சார்ந்த இடங்களும் பற்றிப் பேசப்படுவதுண்டு, இதுவே பின்னாளில் காப்பியங்களில் நாட்டு நகரச் சிறப்புப் படலங்களாக வெளிப்பட்டது. நாட்டுப்புற இலக்கியங்களில் இக்கூறு வழிநடைச்சிந்தில் வெளிப்படுவதையும் இக்கட்டுரை சுட்டுகிறது. சமயச் சார்புடையதாகவும் அதே வேளையில் அன்றைய சிங்கப்பூரைக் காட்டிடும் நூலாகவும் இந்நூல் எவ்வாறு அமைகிறது என்பதையும் பாடல்களுக்கு இடையே வசனம் இடம்பெறும் விதத்தினையும் இக்கட்டுரை எடுத்தியம்புகிறது. சிங்கப்பூரில் அன்றைய தினம் வழக்கிலிருந்து இன்று இல்லாமல் போன பல சொற்களையும் மக்களின் பழக்க வழக்கங்களையும் கூறுவதோடு தமிழுலகம் அறியாத பல சிங்கப்பூர்ச் செய்திகளையும் இக்கட்டுரை கூறுகிறது.
2013The influence of Classical Literature in Singapore and Malaysian Poems

International Conference. Madurai, India: Lady Doak College

சிங்கப்பூர் மலேசியக் கவிதைகளில் செவ்வியல் பண்புகள்
Sasikumar Ponnalagu Conference Presentations (without publication)
  Nannoolaar has mentioned that language should be praised. Although the Tamil diaspora has been living on different land, they have maintained their culture, tradition and language with great care. This paper serves to show the influence of classic literature on Tamil diaspora literature using Singapore and Malaysian poems as a case-study. The two broad aspects of classical literature, namely Agam and Puram are present in the varied forms of today’s poems. Many themes of the past, on which our predecessor based their works on, such as chastity, worship, valor have branched out and become apparent in other forms in today's works. The impact of classical literature is not limited just to today’s literature, it will spread beyond and influence future works as well. The classical literary aspects found in Singapore and Malaysian poems are presented under the following classifications: the joy children bring, country, viewing everyone as a relation, family life, education, love, hard work, state of deprivation, poem structure, imagination.
 செவ்வியல் இலக்கியங்கள் பிற்கால இலக்கியங்களுக்கு வேராகவும் நீராகவும் இருப்பதைக் கூர்ந்து நோக்குவர் நன்கு அறிவர். நன்னூலார் மொழியைப் பொன்னேபோல் போற்ற வேண்டும் என்றார். புலம்பெயர்ந்த தமிழர்கள் இடம் பெயர்ந்து வாழ்ந்தாலும் தங்கள் பண்பாட்டையும் நாகரிகத்தையும் மொழியையும் புறந்தள்ளாது பேணிக்காத்து வருகின்றனர். எனவே, நன்னூலாரின் கூற்றின்படி எங்கும் பரவியிருக்கும் செவ்வியல் இலக்கியப் பாடுபொருளும் மொழியும் புலம்பெயர்ந்தார் இலக்கியங்களில் எத்தகு தாக்கத்தை உண்டாக்கியுள்ளன என்பதைச் சிங்கப்பூர், மலேசியா ஆகிய நாடுகளின் கவிதைகளில் உள்ள சிற்சில கூறுகளில் அமைந்துள்ள தாக்கத்தின் வாயிலாக இத்தாள் எடுத்தியம்பும். அகம், புறம் எனும் இரு பிரிவுகளில் பாடப்பட்ட பல கூறுகளே இன்றைய மரபுக்கவிதை, புதுக்கவிதை, ஹைக்கூ என்பவற்றில் இடம்பெற்றுள்ளன. முன்னோரின் பாடுபொருளாக அமைந்த களவு, கற்பு, வீரம், கொடை, இறை போன்ற பலதரப்பட்ட பண்புகள் பல்கிக் கிளைத்துப் பெருகி இன்றைய படைப்புகளில் பாடுபொருளாய் அமைகின்றன. செவ்வியல் இலக்கியங்களின் தாக்கம் இக்காலத்து இலக்கியங்களில் மட்டுமன்று வருங்காலத்து இலக்கியங்களிலும் கட்டாயம் இருக்கும். மக்கட்பேறு, நாடு, ஓரினச் சிந்தனை, இல்லறம், கல்வி, காதல், உழைப்பு, கையறுநிலை, பாடலமைப்பு, கற்பனை முதலிய கூறுகளின் அடைப்படையில் இக்கருத்துகள் முன்வைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன.
2012The content and trend of Singapore Tamil Poetry (1965-2010)

The content and trend of Singapore Tamil Poetry (1965-2010). In R. Mathivanan (Ed.) World Tamil Education Conference - Special Proceeding (pp. 50-54). Toronto, Canada: International Movement for Tamil Culture.

சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ்க் கவிதையின் பாடுபொருளும் செல்நெறியும் (1965-2010)
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (with publication)
  The history of Singapore's poetry can be split into two categories, before and after Singapore became a republic. This paper examines the content and path of Singapore poetry after it became a republic. Based on 1795 titles found in books published in the period of 25 years from 1965 to 1990, divine and love-based poems were widely written on. Following them, poems about social issues and songs sung based on titles given by radio stations took place. After independence, the immigrants who came here for their livelihood started contributing intensely to the growth of poetry in Singapore. They wrote poems to shed light on their lives and living conditions in those days. After 1990s, Singapore Tamil immigrants have greatly contributed to the growth of Singapore Tamil poetry. Singapore writer’s association, community centres, the national library board have organised numerous events to encourage people to write poems. Prizes were also awarded. However, it is worrying that people come forward to take part in these events for their personal gain and not for the interest in the development of poetry. It is the duty of Singapore born Tamils to uphold Tamil Language for the future. Not doing so, makes us believe that its fate is left open to be decided by future Tamil immigrants.
 சிங்கப்பூரின் கவிதை இலக்கித்தின் வரலாற்றைச் சிங்கப்பூர்க் குடியரசானதற்கு முன்னர், பின்னர் என இரு வகைகளாகப் பிரிக்கலாம். இக்கட்டுரை குடியரசானதற்குப் பின்னர் சிங்கப்பூர்க் கவிதைகளின் பாடுபொருள், செல்நெறி ஆகியவற்றை ஆராய்கிறது. பிழைப்புக்காக வந்தவர்கள் தீவிரமாகக் கவிதை படைத்தனர். அன்றைய சூழ்நிலையில் தங்களை அடையாளம் காட்டிக்கொள்ளவும் தங்கள் கருத்துகளைக் கூறித் தங்கள் உணர்வை வெளிப்படுத்தவுமே தங்கள் கவிதைகளை யாத்தனர். சிங்கப்பூரின் தமிழ்க் கவிதையின் ஒட்டுமொத்தச் செல்நெறியைப் பார்க்கும்போது 1990களுக்குப் பின்னர்ச் சிங்கப்பூர்க் குடியேறிகள் சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ்க்கவிதை வளர்ச்சிக்குப் பெரிதும் துணையாக இருக்கின்றனர் என்பதே உண்மை. 1965 முதல் 1990 வரையுள்ள சுமார் 25 ஆண்டுக் காலத்தில் வெளிவந்துள்ள நூல்களில் இடம்பெற்ற 1795 தலைப்புகளின் அடிப்படையில் பார்க்கும்போது இறையுணர்வு, காதல் ஆகிய இரு பாடுபொருள்களும் முன்னனியில் உள்ளன. அடுத்த நிலையில், சமுதாயச் சிக்கல்களைப் பற்றிய பாடல்கள், வானொலி நிலையத்தார் கொடுத்த தலைப்புகளுக்குப் பாடிய பாடல்கள் ஆகியன உள்ளன. சிங்கப்பூர் எழுத்தாளர் சங்கம், சமூக மன்றங்கள், தேசிய நூலக வாரியம் போன்ற அமைப்புகள் பல நிகழ்ச்சிகளை ஏற்பாடு செய்துள்ளன; ஊக்கத் தொகைகளும் பரிசுகளும் வழங்கப்பட்டன. இருப்பினும், இந்த நிகழ்ச்சிகளில் பரிசுக்காகவே பலரும் பங்கேற்க முன்வந்தனர். கவிதை வளர்ச்சியில் உள்ள ஆர்வத்தில் அல்ல. சிங்கப்பூரின் தமிழ்க் கவிதை வளர்ச்சியில் சிங்கப்பூரில் பிறந்த குடிமக்கள் ஆர்வம் காட்டவில்லை என்றால் எதிர்காலத்தில் குடியேறிகளாலேயே அதன் தலைவிதி உறுதி செய்யப்படுமோ எனச் சிந்திக்க வாய்ப்பு உள்ளது.
2012The Significant Role of Singapore Radio in the Development of Children Literature in Tamil Language

The Significant Role of Singapore Radio in the Development of Children Literature in Tamil Language. In Dwi Widayati, Thyrhaya Zein, Lokman Abd.Wahid., Sumarsih, Mahriyuni Marice (Eds.) Proceedings - International Seminar on Language, Literature, Culture and Education in South East Asia II (pp. 750-754). Bangkok, Thailand: Graduate School of Linguistics, USU.

சிங்கப்பூர்க் குழந்தை இலக்கிய வளர்ச்சியில் வானொலியின் பங்கு
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (with publication)
  The aim of this paper is to look at how the Singapore Tamil Radio has contributed to Singapore Children’s Tamil Literature and how it has helped the growth of Tamil Language and Tamil writers in Singapore.
The Singapore Tamil Radio has broadcasted programs for all ages of children since 1950s. From young kindergarten students to older secondary students, the producers have put time and effort in making connections to each age group. The producers enthusiastically went out into the community and allowed for children to participate live in the telecasts. Not only has the producer of programme written songs for children, but has given the opportunity for children to sing the songs themselves. Later on, these songs have become books that now can be shared by all children. This radio has brought many benefits to Tamil literature and children.
This paper will further examine the positive effects of the Singapore Tamil radio on children.
 குழந்தை இலக்கியம் என்பது குழந்தைகளுக்காகக் குழந்தைகளின் மகிழ்ச்சியை மையமாகக் கொண்டு பெரியோர்களால் இயற்றப்படும் படைப்பாகும். இவ்விலக்கியப் படைப்பு சிங்கப்பூரில் வளர்வதற்கு வானொலி பெரும் பங்காற்றியுள்ளது. செய்தித்தாள் ஆதரவு கொடுத்து ஊக்கிவித்தது என்றால் வானொலி படைப்பாளிகளுக்குப் பொருள் கொடுத்து ஊக்குவித்தது என்று சொல்ல வேண்டும். இனிச் சிங்கப்பூரில் ‘வானொலி நிலையம்’ குழந்தை இலக்கிய வளர்ச்சியில் எவ்வாறு பங்காற்றியுள்ளது என்பதைக் காணலாம்.
2011History and Trend of the Growing Singapore Tamil Literature

History and Trend of the Growing Singapore Tamil Literature. Presented at the Malaysia Singapore Tamil Literature Collaboration Seminar. Desaru, Malaysia.
மலேசியா சிங்கப்பூர் தமிழ் இலக்கிய உறவுப்பால மாநாடு. திசாரு, மலேசியா.

வளர்ந்துவரும் சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தின் வரலாற்றுச் சுவடுகளும் செல்நெறிகளும்
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (without publication)
  Tamil Literature, perceived to be a representation of culture and a reflection of time was written in Singapore by Tamil diasporas amidst various difficulties, due to their fuelling interest in creative writing. History of Singapore Tamil literature started before 1887 where writers faced immense struggles. For example, in the 1960s the number of people writing literary works was very minimal because people who came to Singapore for a living found writing literature burdensome. Moreover, those who had the interest to write literature did not have any proper guidance to write quality literature pieces. Added to that, even when people successfully wrote literature works, there were not enough opportunities granted to publish them. Singapore Tamil literature, which thrived amidst these problems, started off producing literary works about Holy Gods and life of the diasporas. After that, more literary works were created which emphasised on reformation of society, World War II incidents, religious beliefs after the separation of Singapore from Malaysia, Singapore Tamil society, love and more. Initial stages in the history of Singapore Tamil literature saw it growing into different dimensions such as into poems, novels, short stories, and drama. Hence, this paper would like to enlighten about the path Tamil people journeyed and challenges they faced in the history of Singapore Tamil literature. Singapore is growing in a fast-paced manner. Thus, if Tamil people do not document their history in an appropriate way, they may not have the opportunity to know their history completely. This concern becomes the underlying basis and cause for this paper.
 உலக மக்களின் பண்பாட்டுப் பிரதிபலிப்பாகவும் காலக் கண்ணாடியாகவும் விளங்கும் இலக்கியங்களைச் சிங்கப்பூருக்குப் பிழைப்புத் தேடி வந்த தமிழ் மக்கள் பல்வேறு அல்லல்களுக்கிடையே அரும்பாடுபட்டுத் தம் சொந்த ஆர்வத்தின் காரணமாகப் படைத்துள்ளனர். 1887ஆம் ஆண்டின் முன்பிருந்தே தொடங்கிய சிங்கப்பூர் இலக்கிய வரலாற்றில் இலக்கியவாதிகள் பல சவால்களை எதிர்நோக்கியுள்ளனர். எடுத்துக்காட்டிற்கு, 1960களில் இலக்கியம் படைத்தோரின் எண்ணிக்கை மிகக் குறைவாக இருந்தது. வேலை தேடி வந்த தமிழர்கள் இலக்கியம் எழுதுவதைப் பெரும் சுமையாகக் கருதினர். இலக்கியம் படைக்கச் சிலருக்கு ஆர்வம் இருந்தபோதிலும் அதனை முறையாகக் கற்பிக்க யாரும் இல்லாமல் இருந்த சூழ்நிலையும் இருந்தது. மேலும், இலக்கியத்தைப் படைத்தாலும் அதனை வெளியிடுவதற்குப் போதுமான வாய்ப்புகள் வழங்கப்படாமல் இருந்தன. இத்தகு பல்வேறு சவால்களுக்கிடையே வளர்ந்துவந்த சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கியப் போக்கு தொடக்கக்காலத்தில் இறைவனையும் குடியேறிகளின் வாழ்க்கை முறையையும் பற்றியனவாக அமைந்திருந்தது. பின்னர்ச் சீர்த்திருத்தக் கருத்துகள், இரண்டாம் உலகப் போரின் நிகழ்வுகள், சிங்கப்பூர் மலேசியாவிலிருந்து பிரிந்த பின்னர் இறையுணர்வு, சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ்ச் சமுதாயம், காதல் முதலிய கருப்பொருள்களை மையமாகக் கொண்டு இலக்கியங்கள் படைக்கப்பட்டன. கவிதை, நாவல், சிறுகதை, நாடகம் எனப் பல பரிமாணங்களில் சிங்கப்பூரின் தொடக்கக் கால இலக்கிய வளர்ச்சி அமைந்தது. இவ்வாறு சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கிய வரலாற்றில் தமிழர்கள் கடந்து வந்த பாதையையும் எதிர்நோக்கிய சிக்கல்களையும் குறிப்பிடுவதே இக்கட்டுரையின் நோக்கமாகும். தமிழர்களான நாம் நமது வரலாற்றினைச் சரியான முறையில் பதிவுசெய்து வைக்கவில்லை என்றால் துரித வளர்ச்சி கண்டுவரும் சிங்கப்பூரில் நம் வரலாற்றினை முழுமையாக அறிந்துகொள்ள முடியாமல் போக வாய்ப்பு உள்ளது என்னும் சிந்தனை இக்கட்டுரைக்கு அடித்தளமாக அமைகின்றது.
2006Developing efforts pertaining to Singapore's Tamil Literature; The role played by the Tamil Murasu Daily

Developing efforts pertaining to Singapore's Tamil Literature; The role played by the Tamil Murasu Daily. In P. Padmanabhan & S. Thillaivanam (Eds.) The first National Seminar on Journalism and Mass Communication (pp. 89-100). Pondicherry, India: Thol Ila Murugu Pathipagam.

சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கிய வளர்ச்சியில் ஆக்கப்பூர்வமான ஈடுபாடுகள் - தமிழ்முரசு நாளேட்டின் பங்கு
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (with publication)
  There is an only one Tamil newspaper in Singapore now is Tamil Murasu. The paper deals with how the Tamil Murasu helps to develop Singapore Tamil Literature. Mr Sarangapany the founder of Tamil Murasu helps many ways to the writers to produce good literary articles in Tamil. He conducted many workshops to the writers through newspaper and publish poems, short stories, Novels in Tamil Murasu. The paper explains what are the many other things Mr Sarangapany did foe the development of Tamil Literature in Singapore.
 சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழ்முரசு என்னும் நாளேட்டினைத் தோற்றுவித்தவர் தமிழவேள் கோ.சாரங்கபாணி. இவரது தொலைநோக்காலும் தமிழ் படைப்பிலக்கியத்தின்பால் இவருக்குள்ள ஈடுபாட்டினாலும் சிங்கைத் தமிழ்ப் படைப்பிலக்கியம் பலநிலைகளில் வளர்ச்சி கண்டது. சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கிய வளர்ச்சியில் தம்மை முன்னிலைப்படுத்திக் கொள்ளாமல் தமிழ் முரசு நாளேட்டை முன்னிருத்தி இவர் ஆற்றி இருக்கும் தொண்டு அளப்பரியது. பூமாலையில் மணம் வீசுவது என்னவோ பூக்கள்தாம் ஆனால் அந்தப் பூக்களை இணைத்துப் பிடித்து வைத்திருப்பது மாலையின் நடுநாயகமாக ஊடுருவிச் செல்லும் நார்தான். நார் இல்லையெனில் மாலை இல்லை. அதுபோலத்தான் தமிழ் முரசு நாளேடு இல்லையெனில் சிங்கையில் தமிழ் இலக்கிய வளர்ச்சி இல்லை. தமிழ் முரசு நாளேடு தமிழ்ப் படைப்பிலக்கிய வளர்ச்சிக்கு ஆற்றிய பங்கினை இக்கட்டுரை ஆராய்கிறது.
YearTitle
AuthorType
2019An Exploration of Teachers’ Curriculum Transformation from the Perspective of Classroom Observation: A Case Study of Chinese Lesson Observations in Singapore Primary School

Hu, Y. B., & Tong, Q. Y. (2020). An exploration of teachers’ curriculum transformation from the perspective of classroom observation: A case study of Chinese lesson observations in Singapore primary school. Overseas Chinese Education 2, 42-53

教师课程转化现象初探——新加坡小学华文课堂教学观察分析
胡月宝与童琪颖(2020)。〈教师课程转化现象初探——新加坡小学华文课堂教学观察分析〉。《海外华文教育》,2,42-53。
Aw Guat PohJournal-Refereed
 Instructional materials, teachers and students are the three key components in education reforms. Among them, teachers play an instrumental role in interpreting the instructional materials and translating the learning content into students’ learning experiences. Curricular adaptation by teachers and the ways in which they utilise instructional materials have thus been key issues of focus in education reforms. This study, premised on the “top-down” implementation of the 2015 Chinese language textbooks in Singapore primary schools by the Ministry of Education, seeks to analyse teachers’ curriculum transformation. Using qualitative and quantitative data gathered from classroom discourse with a two-dimensional coding scheme, the preliminary findings indicate the presence of curriculum deduction at the levels of formal curriculum, perceived curriculum, operational curriculum and experienced curriculum, mainly in the aspects of language skills learning and self-directed learning.
 在教育改革中,课程教材、教师、学生乃三大关键。其中,教师在课程教材与学生学习之间的衔接传递作用最大,教师课程转化与教材应用因此成为教育改革中引人关注的课题。本研究基于新加坡教育部对2015年小学华文教材“自上而下”的推行,通过对课堂观察的话语分析与教学设计两方面进行分析,检查教师课程转化现象。初步研究结果显示,正式课程与教师知觉课程、运作课程、学生经验课程之间因为教师中心教学习惯的影响而存在课程递减现象,主要反映在言语技能学习与自主学习这两方面。
2020CL2 Classroom Language: A Beginner’s Perspective (In Chinese)

汉语作为二语教学的课堂语言:初学者视角
Goh Yeng Seng Journal-Refereed
 Classroom language is most often the first exposure to the target language for a beginner learner in a Chinese as a second language (CL2) class. Learners listen to the teacher using the target language to give instructions, to explain classroom activities, and to encourage them to complete learning tasks, while on the other hand, use the target language to communicate with the teacher. Classroom language thus plays a significant role in facilitating the process of teaching and learning. Effective communication between teachers and learners has a direct impact on the implementation of classroom activities and the completion of teaching and learning tasks. It is also a key to establishing a positive relationship between teachers and learners in the classroom and to enhancing the quality of classroom experience. At present, most of, if not all, Chinese textbooks for beginner learners provide a list of classroom expressions, without any classification based on its communicative function. Taking into account the needs and the base language of the second language beginners, this paper proposes a framework for classroom language use in CL2 teaching.
 课堂语言是二语初学者在课堂最先接触的目标语口语材料。学习者一方面聆听教师通过目标语交代事项、进行课堂活动说明、鼓励完成学习任务等;学习者另一方面使用目标语和教师进行交流,课堂语言在教学环节的重要性也就不言而喻。教师与学生的沟通是否有效将直接影响课堂活动的进行和教学任务的完成,对建立良好师生互动关系及保持学生学习动力和兴趣也起着关键作用。目前坊间的初级汉语教材大多采取大量列举课堂语言材料的方式,却未依据其交际功能进行分类。本文将从初学者实际需求出发,提出汉语作为二语教学课堂语言的交际功能与设计框架,为未来教材编写提供指引。
2020A Study of the Literary Language of the short stories collection- ‘The sights of Singapore’ written by Xie Ke.
Journal of South Seas Society, VOL 74(74), 91-112

谢克短篇小说集——<新加坡小景>的语言特色研究
Tan Kar Chun Professional Publications
 Xie Ke was once a famous editor who worked in 'Nanyang Shang Bao' and "Ming Bao'. He was also well known for his short stories, which highlighted the life of Singaporean in the 50s and 60s. This article aims at investigating the significance of the language used in one of his short stories collection - 'The sights of Singapore'.
 谢克(1931——),新加坡著名前辈作家。他曾当过中学华文老师,也当过《明报》及《南洋商报》的副刊编辑;虽然著作不丰,但成绩斐然。可惜的是,有关谢克的作品研究,无论是内容,或是语言特色等方面的探讨,稍嫌匮乏,让人扼腕。或许是受到“南洋色彩”和“本地意识”创作论的影响,谢克在内容上,努力展现南洋的社会风情,无论是故事的发生地点,或是人物的塑造,让人读来,倍感熟悉、亲切。在语言的运用上,谢克也特意突显本地的用语特色。当然,好的作品,作者独特的用语特点,如语言的变异等现象,也应予以重视。本文拟从谢克短篇小说集——《新加坡小景》,在词语、短语、句子上如何巧妙运用,作一番梳理。
2019A study on the Values of the Singapore Chinese Multi-modal learning recources Based on the Analysis of Theme Coding--taking Video recources for speaking as an example
Aw, G.P, Tong,Q (2017) Journal of Chinese Language Education, 15(1), 74-88.
Hu, Y. B. (2019). A study on the Values of the Singapore Chinese multi-modal learning resources based on the analysis of theme coding--taking video resources for speaking as an example [Paper presentation]. 7th Chinese National Conference of Cognitive. Beijing, China


基于主题编码分析的多模态教材价值观研究以新加坡录像说话教材为例
胡月宝 (2019年11月) 。〈基于主题编码分析的多模态教材价值观研究 以新加坡录像说话教材为例〉。论文发表于「第七届海峡两岸暨港澳地区教科书学术论坛」,首都师范大学。
Aw Guat PohBook Chapters
 Since the introduction of 21cc skills education at the beginning of the new century, values have attracted the attention of countries all over the world and are regarded as the core of the 21cc literacy. Many countries have put forward clear and definite values as the primary connotation in the implementation of the education system. There are many strategies for effectively imparting values, and integration into courses and textbooks is the most common approach, especially to reflect values through Chinese textbooks. In Singapore Chinese teaching, in addition to static cardboard textbooks, humanistic literacy and values have also penetrated into the multi-modal teaching material-video as a catalyst for speaking tasks. Video speaking has become an important examination mode in the assessment of Chinese in primary and secondary schools. The video is the closest real life and most vivid language teaching material in the multi-modal form, and its influence on students' thinking is obvious. This research takes modern multi-modal learning rescources as the research scope,and had collected 40 videos used for primary and secondary school students,Thematic coding analysis method was applied as the research strategy, and deeply analyzes how the multi-modal textbook presents the content of values education. The results of the research show that Singapore has formed a "VSK value-oriented" curriculum design model, and the goal of listening, speaking and speaking in Singapore’s mother tongue teaching can be positioned as language interaction guided by value culture. The themes of values education coding are values content (220), practical skills (191), belief and awareness building (140) and learning outcomes (235), a total of 969 codes. The analysis results have five major findings: 1. Compared with personal value literacy, values education pays more attention to the cultivation of interpersonal relationships and social awareness; 2. Harmonious social awareness is the top priority in Singapore’s core values education; respect, care, and responsibility Ethical-oriented relationship management, emotional management and interpersonal communication skills such as integrity and integrity are the methods to achieve a harmonious society. 3. "Perseverance" is the neglected gap in the six core values. Fourth, the primary school stage is the key foundation-laying stage for the instillation of values education; Fifth, the presentation form of the multi-modal teaching materials of the video is mainly based on animation and visual, and the complementary strategy of narration and hearing is done.
 自21世纪素养教育提出以来,价值观就备受世界各国的关注,被视为是核心素养之核心,各国纷纷提出清晰、 明确取向的价值理念,以作为落实核心素养培养系统中的首要内涵。有效传授价值观的策略很多,融入课程与教材则是最普遍的做法,尤其是通过语文教材来体现价值观。在新加坡华文教学中,除了静态的纸板教材之外,人文素养与价值观内涵也渗透入以多模态教材-录像为触媒的说话任务中,录像说话已成中小学华文评估里的重要考查模式。录像为多模态形式里最接近真实生活、最生动的语言教材,对学生思想的影响力显而易见。本研究以现代多模态说话教材为研究范围,收集40个中小学录像说话教材,以主题编码分析法为探究策略,深入分析多模态教材如何呈现价值观教育内容。研究结果显示,新加坡已形成“VSK价值观导向”的课程设计模式,而新加坡母语教学下的听说口语目标可定位为价值文化导向下的语言互动。价值观教育编码主题为价值观内容(220)、实践技能(191)、信念意识建设(140)与学习成果(235),一共969条编码。分析结果有五大发现:一、与个人价值素养相比,价值观教育更重视人际关系与社会意识培养;二、和谐的社会意识是新加坡核心价值观教育中的重中之重;尊重、关爱、负责任、正直等的伦理导向的关系管理、情绪管理与人际沟通技巧则是达成和谐社会的方法。三、“坚毅”是六大核心价值观中被忽略的缺口。四、小学阶段是价值观教育灌输的重点奠基阶段;五、录像的多模态教材呈现形式以动画视觉为主,旁白听觉点睛的互补策略进行。
2019A discussion of the new TELLS Second Language learning space
Aw, G.P, Tong,Q (2017) Journal of Chinese Language Education, 15(1), 74-88.
Lu, H. Y., Hu, Y. B., Huang, L. X., & Shi, H. Y. (2019). A discussion of the new TELLS second language learning space. International Journal of Chinese Language Education 3, 109-132.

 
TELLS科技+优语言空间概念下的第二语言学习环境检测:以新加坡“语飞行云”与“语用连群”无缝实验研究计划为例
陆汇颖、胡月宝、黄龙翔与施海燕(2019)。〈TELLS 科技 + 優語言空間概念下的第 二語言學習環境檢測:以新加坡“語飛 行雲”與“語用連群”無縫實驗研究計 劃為例〉。 《國際中文學報》。 3,109-132。
Aw Guat PohJournal-Refereed
 The proliferation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers the opportunities for the construction of a potentially effective technological environment for language learning. We refer to such an environment as “Technology-Enhanced Optimal Language Learning Space”. Such a learning space extends the language learners’ conventional classroom-bound learning trajectory to their open-ended authentic daily living spaces. Furthermore, it facilitates the bridging of formal and informal learning, and individual and social learning, and makes the learning experience cross-contextual, more contextualised and interactive, as well as privileges learners’ self-directed-ness in identifying emerging learning opportunities to carry out linguistic tasks in their daily lives. This paper reports on two case studies of such learning spaces, code-named MyCLOUD and LI-nterChange respectively. The intentions were to investigate the significance of technology-mediated extension of language learning space in learning Chinese as a second language. The studies are rooted in Bernard Spolsky’s Conditions for Second Language Learning. Our findings indicate that the “Technology-Enhanced Optimal Language Learning Spaces” were effective in improving the learners’ communicative skills. However, given the diversified backgrounds of the learners, what contextual learning opportunities that the learners have encountered and how they leverage on such opportunities also varied.
 资讯科技迅速发展为学习架设起一个新科技空间,并成为语言学习的优空间,笔者称之为“TELLS科技+优语言空间”(Technology Enhanced Optimal Language Learning Space)。它让封闭于课堂内的传统学习空间延伸至开放的生活,并把课堂与生活、正式与非正式、个人与社群相互联系的桥嫁接起来,成为寻求及利用生活中的学习机遇的真实语言学习环境。此空间出现以来,有关研究犹如雨后春笋,但论述主要聚焦与技术层的讨论。本文聚焦技术科技增强后的学习环境创设,以“语飞行云”与“语用连群”无缝学习研究案例为例,检测使用技术增强扩大语言的学习空间对华文作为第二语言学习的意义。检测立论于伯纳德·斯波尔斯基的第二语言学习条件(Conditions for Second Language Learning)。研究发现,“TELLS科技+优语言空间”对学习成效有正面促进作用,但会因为学习对象背景不同而调动不同的语言学习条件。
2016The Use of Differentiated Instruction Strategies in the Teaching of Speaking and Listening Skills
Paper presented at The 9th International Forum on Chinese Language Education, Kaoshiung, Taiwan (2019, Nov)

量体裁衣 有效学习——差异教学策略在小学听说技能教学中的实践
Chau Sook Kuan Conference Presentations (without publication)
 Bilingual policy has always been the cornerstone of Singapore’s education system. With the intergenerational change of home language environment in Singapore homes, Chinese language (CL) students’ profile is becoming more diverse; CL teachers are facing challenges in meeting the different needs of the students within their classrooms. Ministry of Education (MOE) introduced the new Chinese Language Syllabus in 2015 and placed a greater emphasis on “recognizing students’ different starting points”. With the aim to facilitate teachers to adopt student-centric and customized approaches, differentiated lesson activities were suggested and stated in the teacher’s guide. The success of innovative reforms lies with the teachers, who are the most crucial agents of change (Harwood, Hanson and Lotter, 2006; Godlad, 1979). As “one size fits all” approach no longer works, teachers need take a differentiated approach to instruction and recognize that a range of tactics must be utilized in order to reach every student.
As such, this study aims to find out how classroom teachers can effectively implement a variety of differentiated instruction strategies in the teaching of speaking and listening skills in heterogeneous (mixed-ability) classes, to help students of different performace-level to meet their instructional goals. Following the framework of Differentiated Instruction (DI) (Tomlinson, 2017) the design of the lesson is differentiated in terms of process (lesson activities) and product (lesson objectives), with the use of ICT and cooperative grouping. This study adopts the lesson study approach, research lessons are conducted in 4 primary schools, modifications and evaluation are based on data collect during each classroom observation. The findings and discussions in this study will be relevant to all classroom teachers. This study proposes that students can learn effectively if teachers are mindful of their differing learning needs and incorporate differentiated instruction strategies which are thoughtfully crafted.
 双语政策一直是新加坡教育的基石。近年来,随着家庭语言环境的变化,母语(特别是华文)教学面临着越来越大的挑战。 新加坡教育部在2015年发布的小学华文课程标准中,提出了“照顾学生的个别差异”的课程理念,课程设计也针对不同语言背景和能力的学生,分为不同的层次,在教学建议中,也特别指出了对不同能力的学生应采用不同的教学要求。因此,在实际的教学过程中,教师不得不考虑在教学策略上做出改变,设计出不同于传统教学的新架构。 本研究主要目的是探讨在小学华文听说技能教学中,如何有效应用差异教学的策略,以达到量体裁衣、帮助学生有效学习的目标。本研究将采用课例研究的方法,在四间不同背景的小学进行一系列的教学实验,探讨的层面包括教学目标、教学内容、教学活动设计、教学评估及教学成果等。本研究希望针对差异教学,从教学设计到实施、评量等环节给教师提供新的教学思路,同时在课室管理、弹性分组、ICT技术、教学氛围等方面,给教师提供一些有效的教学建议。
2019Research on Teachers' Learning Style and Teaching Style

教师的学习风格与教学风格研究
Choong Kok WengBook Chapters
 A teacher’s learning style can have an impact on the student’s learning styles. (Zhang, 2004) There is a strong close correlation between teachers teaching style and his own learning style. Studying a teachers’ teaching style will enable us to understand how teachers' beliefs affects their teaching behaviour and help teachers improve their teaching quality. (Heimlich & Norland, 2002) Studies have shown that a teacher’s teaching style is closely related to their personality type. Therefore, we must address the impact of a teacher’s personality towards their learning styles and teaching styles. (Cooper, 2001) This paper uses Oxford’s (1993) Style Analysis Survey and Cooper’s (2001) Teaching Activity Preference to study on twenty-two international Chinese language trainee teachers in my faculty to understand their personality, learning styles and teaching styles, in order to help these teachers fully understand their teaching strengths and their teaching potential, and thus enhancing their teaching quality and efficiency.
 教师的学习风格对学生的学习风格起着互动的关系,并对学生的学习产生影响。(Zhang, 2004)而教师的教学风格,则与他本身的学习风格有着密切的关系。研究教师的教学风格,可使我们了解教师的教学信念如何影响教学行为,帮助教师本身提升其教学品质。(Heimlich & Norland, 2002)研究结果显示,教师的教学与其自身的人格型态关系密切。因此,我们必须正视教师的人格型态对其学习风格和教学风格的影响。(Cooper, 2001)本篇论文使用Oxford (1993) 设置的Style Analysis Survey 量表和Cooper (2001) 设置的Teaching Activity Preference量表,对我系22名国际汉语培训教师进行研究,了解他们在人格型态、学习风格和教学风格方面的相互关系,以帮助这群教师更全面地了解自己的教学优势和有待开发的教学潜能,进而提升他们的教学质量和教学效益。
2019Technology Integration in Teaching: Online Basic Sayable Mandarin Instruction (in Chinese)
Goh Yeng Seng & Qiu Lijun (2019). Technology Integration in Teaching: Online Basic Sayable Mandarin Instruction (in Chinese). Journal of International Chinese Teaching, -(2), 31-38.

教学与科技整合:在线成人汉语口语入门课程设计
Goh Yeng Seng Journal-Refereed
 Harnessing the flexibility of the internet and associated technology, online learning resources can be made accessible on smart phones anytime and anywhere, thus creating an ideal setting for self-directed, self-paced learning. It is against this backdrop that our paper advocates, as a way forward, the creation of an online platform that can serve as a classroom for global Mandarin instruction. Elaborating this notion, we provides a fresh perspective on the organization of a curriculum and on the design of teaching materials.
 随着移动互联网的兴起和智能手机的普及,在线课程通过再中介化、分散化、非物质化三股数字化驱动力遍布世界各地。国际汉语教学界应顺势而为,打造在线平台作为全球汉语教室,利用前沿信息与通信技术和教育产业开展深度结合,让汉语学习者随时随地进行自我管理的自主学习,开启数字化教育新篇章。在课程理念方面,以口语为主位;以语音、语法、词汇、文化为四大核心构件;以外语教学作为培养双语人才的模式;以5C目标及其11项标准作为与汉语世界接轨的语言学习目标;以语言知行兼容作为教学指南;以个人化按需学习模块配套作为个人学习规划总蓝图;以实时在线专业咨询与技能指导作为后台支援。在教材设计方面,以口语发展、发音基础、汉语导读三个既独立自主又相互联系的元件作为在线汉语口语入门课程的学习路径;以超量学习策略让零起点外语成人学习者通过精熟学习七步法掌握听力说话技巧;以替换、转换、回应、扩展、组合五大操练法提升语言流利度和实现语言自动化;以听力理解、口语表达两大应用练习完成指定语言学习任务。在课程研发方面,以产学合作模式设立内部课程发展处,培养在线课程数字化市场人才;成立众包课程发展处,广邀世界各地国际汉语教学同行共创本土化汉语教材并提供后台学习支援。
2019Teaching of “Classical Chinese Prose” in Universities under a Unique Bilingual Environment
Sinologia Hispanica: China Studies Review, 8(null), 121-138.

新加坡特殊二语环境下“古文”教学的对策探讨
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 The teaching of classical Chinese prose in Singapore involves challenges peculiar to the bilingual environment, which suggest a need for new strategies based on a crucial recognition of the difference between teaching literature and teaching language. The paper argues for a key pedagogical approach based on the teaching of literary aspects in ancient prose with the help of problem-based learning. This would also involve systematic classification in order to consolidate different strategies suited for different types of Classical Chinese Prose. These strategies include mind mapping, five thinking hats and so on. Through an approach of problem-based learning, one may motivate students to explore ancient ar­ticles more enthusiastically, foster their critical thinking and creative ability, thereby enhancing their cognitive ability, and increasing their interest in learning ancient articles. Through the reading, understanding and analysis of subtle words, one may improve the students’ ability in literary ap­preciation, and prompt them to explore more sophisticated interpretation, thereby enhancing their cultivation in the humanities.
 在新加坡这个特殊的二语环境下,古文教学主要面对诸多困难。本文首先辨析“文言文”“古代散文”“古文”几个名称的区别,既而从古文的文体特征出发,确立该文体教学的基点;以古文的文学性教学为目标,以问题导向学习为主要教学方法,总结出适用于不同类别古文的教学策略,包括结构图和魔法帽等。通过问题导向学习,激发学生主动探究古文的热情、培养学生对于古文“知趣”的思考能力、以及批判性和创造性思考的能力;强化学生后认知的能力。透过对古文的深入理解,提升鉴赏能力,真正提高学生的人文修养。
2019A study of the language of ‘Xuan Wo' written by Li Ru Lin
Tan,K.C. (2019). A study of the literary language of Li Rulin's book titled 'Xuan Wo'. Journal of South Seas Society, VOL 73(SEPT 2019), 65-82.

李汝琳<漩涡>语言研究
Tan Kar Chun Professional Publications
 Mr Li Ru Lin was one the pioneer writers in Singapore, who migrated from China in 1947.He first started as a Chinese Language teacher who taught in Chinese high school and was later being employed to teach in the teachers college , which has later become the National Institute of Singapore. Besides being a famous Chinese language teacher, Mr Li was also well known for his literature works. This article aims at investigating the significance of the language used in one of his great works 'Xuan Wo'.
 李汝琳1947年来到新加坡,便到新加坡华侨中学执教鞭;后移砚至新加坡国立教育学院的前身——教师中心,任讲师一职,最后荣升为中文系主任。1970年退休后,李汝琳受邀到南洋大学中文系执教 。在中学任教期间,李汝琳也参与筹组中学华文教学会的工作,致力推动新加坡的华文教育事业 。其实,李汝林的作家身份,更广为人知。在当时,李汝琳便是极富盛名的马华作家。他从事创作多年,著作甚丰,诗歌、散文、小说皆有所涉足;其中较受瞩目的,其实是他的小说创作。本文爬梳其小说《漩涡》,一探其中的语言特色。
2019The Design and Writing of New Chinese Exercise Book of Primary School in Singapore: A Cognitive Strategy Perspective
Tan Chee Lay (Chief Editor), Choong kok Weng, A Ra Sivakumaran, Mohamamed Aidil Subhan (Ed.), Innovative Practice Practice Innovation (pp. 116-126). Singapore: NTU-SCCL PRESS.

从认知策略看新版新加坡小学华文教材练习的编写——以《欢乐伙伴》四年级华文活动本(上册)为例
Xu FengBook Chapters
 Language learning is inseparable from language training. Effective practice design is an important prerequisite and guarantee of the quality and effectiveness of language teaching. The exercise book is not only an important part of textbook, but also a key part of teaching. Compared with researches on the exercise books of Chinese teaching and Teaching Chinese as a foreign language, the research on exercise books of Oversea Chinese teaching is very few. In CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure) database system of China, there are only two journal papers and two master’s theses on exercise book of Oversea Chinese, and none of these studies involve the exercise books used in Singapore.
This paper aims to conduct a preliminary analysis and research on the exercise books of the new version of Chinese textbook in Singapore primary school based on Chinese language for primary schools: Activity Book 4A). From the perspective of cognitive strategies of language teaching, the article summarizes the general characteristics of the exercises books and points out its merits and further improvements. This study helps to deepen the understanding of Chinese exercise, but also provide reference for teachers to use activity books effectively.
 语言学习离不开语言训练,有效的练习设计是语言教学质量和效力的重要前提和保证。练习既是教材的重要组成部分,也是教学实施的关键环节。相对语文与对外汉语教材练习的研究,华文教材练习的研究成果并不多。在中国大陆CNKI文献系统中,有关“华文”练习的研究只有期刊两篇与硕士论文两篇,且这些研究都未涉及新加坡华文教材练习。本文以新加坡小学华文教材《欢乐伙伴》四年级华文活动本(上册)为样本,对新加坡小学新版华文教材的练习进行初步分析与研究。本文从语言教学的认知策略视角切入,总结新加坡小学新编华文教材练习设计的总体特征,指出其优点和可进一步改进之处。本研究有助于加深对华文练习的认识,也能为教师高效运用课本练习提供相关参考意见。
2018Between Adherence and Autonomy: The Evolution of Chinese Education in Singapore
Li, J. (2018). Between Adherence and Autonomy: The Evolution of Chinese Literary Textbooks in Singapore. The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies, 10(2), 61-80.

追随与自主:新加坡华文文学教材嬗变
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Chinese literature education in Singapore could be traced back to the secondary Chinese textbooks used by early Chinese schools and its developmental path had been fraught with complications and difficulties. This essay will use the 1959 Chinese Syllabus for Primary and Secondary Schools, 2006 Chinese Literature Syllabus for Secondary Schools, the 2013 and 2018 Chinese Literature Syllabus for Secondary Schools as the main threads in exploring the various major changes made towards Chinese literature education in Singapore. This essay will also examine the continuous exploration and efforts made in Singapore’s creation of its own literature education during this process.
 新加坡的华文文学教育可追溯至早期华校的中学华文课本,发展至今经历了曲折历程。本文以1959年颁布的《华文中小学华文课程标准》、2006年颁布的《中学华文文学课程标准》以及2013以及2018年颁布了《中学华文文学课程标准》为主要线索,探讨在这些框架指导下,新加坡华文文学教材发生的几次重要嬗变,并探讨在此过程中新加坡对于建构自身文学教育的不断探索与努力。
2018Facilitating Creative Writing Instruction Using iPads in Secondary Schools: A School-Based Research
Tan, C. L., Puah, L. D., Teoh, H. S. (2018). Facilitating Creative Writing Instruction Using iPads in Secondary Schools: A School-Based Research. In Soh, K. C. (Ed.), Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore: Efforts and Possibilities (pp. 135-158). Singapore: Springer.

在中学使用苹果平板电脑促使创意写作:一项校本研究
Tan Chee Lay Book Chapters
 Chinese Language creative writing instruction in Singapore has been unable to shake off traditional teaching routines because teachers fear that over-emphasis will cause students to go off-topic in examinations. The Singapore Centre for Chinese Language and Nanyang Girls’ High School launched a year-long school-based research project in 2012, using iPads to supplement creative writing. Results indicate that the iPad strengthens the connectivity of knowledge and obtains seamless learning results, beneficial to the teaching of creative writing in the Chinese Language and students’ creative thinking abilities.
 在新加坡,指导华文创意写作始终无法摆脱传统教学方法,因为老师过于担心学生会在考试时偏题。2012年,新加坡华文教研中心和南洋女子中学展开了一年之久的校本研究项目,采用苹果平板电脑来补充创意写作。研究成果显示苹果平板电脑加强了知识连接并获得无缝学习成果,有利于华文创意写作的教导和学生发展创造性思维能力。
2018Scaffolding Instruction of Chinese Essay Writing with Assessment as Learning
Gong, C., Tan, C. L., Chin, C. K. (2018). Scaffolding Instruction of Chinese Essay Writing with Assessment as Learning. In Soh, K. C. (Ed.), Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore: Efforts and Possibilities (pp. 121-134). Singapore: Springer.

在学习华文写作与测试上使用支架式教学模式
Tan Chee Lay Book Chapters
 This article shares ideas of how to teach writing through activities based on constructivism and scaffolding. The findings suggested that there is little relation between teacher’s feedback and students’ writing improvement. Instead, the relation is found between the numbers of communication seeking feedback the students send out.
 这篇文章分享如何通过构成主义和支架式活动教导写作。研究建议老师的反馈和学生的写作进步并没有多大的关系。反而,对于学生的写作进步有直接关系的是学生投出多少分寻求意见的问卷。
2018Research - Validation - Train: An In-service Professional Development Strategy for Singapore Chinese Teachers
Tan, C. L. (2018). Research - Validation - Train: An In-service Professional Development Strategy for Singapore Chinese Teachers. In Tan, C.L. (Ed.) 2018 International Forum: Secondary Teacher Education and Instructional Practice of Native Language (pp. 70-75). Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan Normal University.

“一带一路”视野下的汉语师资培训策略——从新加坡“先研—后证—再教”培训模式谈起
Tan Chee Lay Conference Presentations (with publication)
 In the educational vision of “the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road” ("One Belt, One Road" for short) construction, countries can work together, learn from each other, seek common interests in research and training, and build a "One Belt, One Road" Chinese education community. The educational concept is bound to be constantly changing in this new era of open cooperation. We have evolved from a teacher-centered classroom to a student-centered teaching and learning approach. A variety of new teaching methods that teach students in accordance with their aptitude and adapt to the times have also emerged. Contemporary Chinese teachers must keep abreast of the times and constantly input new concepts of education and teaching to better export teaching strategies and methods for students and classrooms. Under the background of such training, the National Institute of Education, which is responsible for the on-the-job training of all Chinese teachers from pre-school to high school in Singapore, and the Singapore Chinese Teaching and Research Center, have upheld the original training concept and strategy of "Research - Validation - Train" in Chinese teacher training. The article focuses on the strategy and model of "integrating research and teaching", and is based on other related research and education and teaching units under the "One Belt, One Road" perspective.
 在"一带一路"建设的教育愿景中,各国可携手合作,互学互鉴,在研究和培训方面谋求共同的利益,构建"一带一路"华文教育共同体。教育理念在这个共商共建,开放合作的新时代肯定也不断地在改变。我们已经从过去以教师为主的"一言堂",进化为以学生为中心的教与学。各种因材施教、因时制宜的新教学法也大量涌现。当代的华文教师必须与时并进,不断地输入教育新知和教学新概念,方能更好地为学生和课堂输出教学策略和方法。在这样的培训大背景底下,负责新加坡从学前到高中所有华文教师在职培训的国立教育学院以及新加坡华文教研中心,秉持了独创的"先研—后证—再教"的培训理念与策略,展开汉语师资培训。文章重点介绍"研证教合一"的策略和模式,以资其他"一带一路"视域下的相关专题研究及教育教学单位参考。
2018Come, Let’s Celebrate! Preschool Teaching Activities and Evaluation for Festivals of Singapore
Cheng W-N, Tan C.L., Zheng Y.J. (2018). Come, Let’s Celebrate! Preschool Teaching Activities and Evaluation for Festivals of Singapore. Singapore: NTU-SCCL Press. 

来! 来过节: 新加坡学前节庆教案与评量
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 Taking Taylor's model as a starting point, we will provide a brief introduction to the festivals teaching in Singapore, which is widely known to cover multiple races, and frame the direction and context of the festivals’ teaching activities. The introduction of the festival is written in the context of general knowledge and the values represented in early childhood education. The simple and emotional readings provided to kindergarten teachers and the number of simple teaching activities that can be operated in kindergartens vary. We hope that the content of this book can give kindergarten teachers the inspiration, so that teachers can extend and modify the teaching plans provided in the book according to the age and degree of the children in the class, and the teaching plans can also be transferred to and improved with each other. Each lesson plan also suggests a lesson plan to provide teachers with a reference for teaching assessment.
 以泰勒工学模式作为思考出发,提供新加坡广为人知涵盖多个种族的节庆教学案例介绍,并框架出节庆教学活动进行的方向与脉络。节日的介绍以普遍化的知识以及在幼儿教育中所代表的价值作为背景书写,提供给幼儿园教师简洁却有情感的阅读文字,以及可在幼儿园运作的简单教学活动数则不等。我们期待本书内容可以给予幼儿园教师灵感,让教师可以根据任教班级幼儿的年龄及程度,将书中提供的教案加以延伸、修改,在班级中进行,而各节庆教案之间也可以互相流转、改进。每一个教案也建议教案评量面向,以提供教师作为教学评量的参考。
2018Lexical Characteristics of News Headings on ‘Lianhe Wanbao’.
Tan,K.C. (2018). Lexical Characteristics of News Headings on Lianhe Wanbao. Journal of the South Seas Society, VOL 72(DEC 2018), 15-28.

新加坡《晚报》标题词语运用特点研究
Tan Kar Chun Professional Publications
 News Heading is equally important to a piece of good write up of a news article. The reasons behind are essential as the headings may be a good reason for a reader to choose to continue reading the full articles. Sometimes, a good heading is also a determined factor for a reader to buy the newspapers. This is exceptionally important for the two Chinese evening newspapers found locally. In order to attract more readers, a lot of efforts have been put in to create a good news heading, which always revolves around a good choice of lexical items to be used.

This paper aims at further discussion on the significance of the use of words, figures of speech as well as how to make adjustment or alteration of the above mentioned twos, to create a different reading experience, which can be found in Wan Bao. The news headings collected are from July to November 2017.
 翻阅报章,首先映入眼帘的便是标题。标题写得生动与否,与字词的使用,有密切的关系。新加坡的晚间报纸有两份:《晚报》、《新明》。两份晚间报纸的竞争,较之独树一帜的《早报》,更为激烈。夜间报纸要如何脱颖而出,争取读者,标题文字上的苦心经营,必不可少。而文字要如何使用,才能让所要表达的事物,如立纸上,正有待进一步探究。本文便是根据收集自2017年7月至12月间,出现在《晚报》上的标题,一探其用语特点。这些特点,从词语到辞格的运用,一一论及。

关键词: 段落语块 作文教学 段落教学 段落内容
2018The Teaching and Learning of Paragraph Chunkings for the Chinese Essay at the Primary Level
K.C.Tan (2018). An introduction of making use of the concept of Chunking for the Teaching and Learning of Paragraph writing at the Primary school Level. International Journal of the Chinese Language Education, No.4(2018), 95-109.

语块概念对小学记叙文段落教学的启示
Tan Kar Chun Professional Publications
 While talking on how to write an essay, people tend to emphasize more on the methodologies then on analyzing what are the components that a good essay has, and on how to ensure the students know how to write well. Many a time, teachers tend to focus more on how to make the writing lessons more lively and enjoyable, and make sure the students will write more and hope that they can pick up the skills along the way. This is not totally wrong as students write well when they enjoy writing, and, the interest will serve as a motivational factor. However, if we take a closer look at the components of an essay, we may be able to discover a better way to help the students to master the skills.

Essay, is in fact, composed of many paragraphs and by mastering the skills of writing good paragraphs, which are usually shorter and more concise that an essay, will actually help the students to understand the writing technique better. In this article, a discussion on how ‘chunking’ can be used to help us in our teaching of writing is discussed in the following twos:(1) the contents and functions of different paragraphs, and (2) the effective ways of teaching the students how to write paragraphs.

Keywords: paragraph chunking, essay writing, teaching of paragraphs, contents and functions of paragraphs.
 作文教学的讨论,多围绕在如何教才会有趣、才能引起学生的学习兴趣。大体来说,大家都在强调的,是要如何完成一篇完整的文章。我们似乎忽略了文章本身,是由不同的“段落”所组成。学生若能把握不同段落的写法,并巧妙地加以组合,应能写出好文章。也因此,“段落”的教学,应予以重视。“段落”的教学,正符合西方学者所提倡的“语块”(chunking)的概念。 “语块”的概念本是用在词语的教学上,但这一概念,其实也能借用来教导语篇的段落。不同的“段落语块”,功能及内容各异,却又因其短小精悍,相对于一篇完整的文章而言,写法更易掌握;简言之,段落写作,应纳入作文教学的一环。

本文主要探讨的内容有二:一、分析不同“段落语块”的内容及功能、二、 讨论 并建议“段落语块”的有效教学法,借以剖析“段落写作”的奥妙。

关键词: 段落语块 作文教学 段落教学 段落内容
2017A Phenomenographic Case Study of the Perceived Drama Education in Singapore
Aw, G.P, Tong,Q (2017) Journal of Chinese Language Education, 15(1), 74-88.

新加坡华文戏剧教学现象描述分析
Aw Guat PohJournal-Refereed
 Drama Education was introduced into the school system to improve and refine Chinese teaching and learning after the prevailing of “Teach Less, Learn More” and “Active Learner, Proficient User” policies implemented by the Ministry of Education in 2004 and 2011. However, the implementation and current situation of Drama Education have hardly been studied thoroughly. Adopting phenomenography as the research methodology, this paper aims to analyze the experiences and conceptions on Drama Education among teachers who have participated in Drama Education experiments. The ultimate goal is to comprehend the proceeding of Drama Education in Chinese education, form a Gestalt conceptualized structure on teachers’ perception of Chinese Education in Singapore, and to propose suggestions on the future of Chinese Education.
 在2004年的“少教多学”教育革新与2011年“乐学善用”华文教学改革浪潮下,戏剧教学法为精进教育、改善教学进入新加坡华文教学体系,形成一时蓬勃的热闹景象,但相关现象却甚少人深入研究。本论文立足现象描述分析理论,以直接参与戏剧教学与研究的培训人员、特级教师、一线教师为主体,整理分析他们对戏剧教学的体验与看法,从中获得一个戏剧教学与新加坡华文教学的格式塔意识结构模型,并对新加坡华文教育前景提出建议。
2017A Pilot Study of Singapore’s Young Chinese Parent’s Perceptions, Attitude and Behaviours towards Bilingual Learning in Singapore’s Bilingual Social Context
Aw, G.P, Lum C, Peng, X ,Xu.W.Tong T (2017). A Pilot Study of Singapore’s Young Chinese Parent’s Perceptions, Attitude and Behaviours towards Bilingual Learning in Singapore’s Bilingual Social Context. In Chiang,H (Ed.), A Special 10th Year Anniversary Edition(Ming Chuan University) For The Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language as a Second Language(PP. 115-136). Taipei: The Department of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language of Ming Chuan University,Taiwan.

双语环境里的母语习得:新加坡年轻华人家长双语习得态度、认知与行为调查先导研究
Aw Guat PohJournal-Refereed
 This study is an informal pilot study conducted in Singapore, a small multi-racial society adopting the English-and-mother-tongue Bilingual education policy for the sake of economic development and social harmony, aiming to study parents’ attitude, perceptions and behaviours towards bilingual education. The study involves 78 young Singapore’s Chinese parents, using four methodologies, namely, multiple choice questionnaire, one to one interview, check list, and focus group discussion to collect data. Qualitative and quantitative researches have shown four important findings. First, growing up in a bilingual education environment, where young parents are competent in both languages. These families have great potential in raising bilingual children. These parents acknowledge the importance of learning mother tongue to maintain cultural heritage, and they also realize that Chinese could become their next generation’s crucial social capital in the future. Second, it is necessary to see the fact that the dominance of English has hindered the determination and attitude of young parents who at first tried to build a balanced bilingual learning environment for their children but later compromised or even gave up due to the challenges their children have met in acquiring English language. More attention should be placed on the gap between young parents’ positive attitude and passive behaviour in supporting children’s bilingual learning. Third, there are some misunderstandings about bilingual learning. Some parents’ doubt or deny the possibilities of fostering bilingual children, and simply assumed that the learning of Chinese language would impede their children’s English competencies. Moreover, they regard tuition centres as the best way to solve children’s learning problems or improve their Chinese language proficiency. Fourth, parents’ focus more on children’s primary school studies rather than kindergarten period, including learning interest, reading and writing of written language abilities. More in depth researches are needed to examine the relevance of those four findings as well as proposing a more comprehensive perspective for researches on Singapore’s future bilingual education reform and development.
 本研究乃一次非正式的小型先导研究,在本属于多元种族社会,为国家经济发展与社会和谐需要而采取英文优先、母语跟上的双语教育政策的小国里探究家长对双语学习的态度、认知与行为。本研究通过多项选择问卷调查、清单检查、一对一访谈、焦点小组讨论、四种方法,邀请78位新加坡年轻华人家长参与研究。量化和质化的数据分析结果有四点重要发现:第一、在双语教育体系下成长的年轻家长双语能力兼具、这些家庭其实存在培养双语能力的优势与潜能;他们也认同母语学习对保留族群文化认同的意义,并意识到华语很可能成为孩子未来的重要的社会资本。其次,由于社会上普遍存在英语优先的务实心态,年轻家长在创设有利于双语习得,尤其是母语习得的家庭环境时,虽然一开始都怀抱平衡输入双语的理想,但在面对影响孩子掌握英语时的各种挑战时,就开始妥协,甚至于放弃。这种态度积极但行为消极的矛盾值得关注。第三,家长面对双语习得时存在一些认知上的误区,包括:家长以自己华语程度不够好而质疑甚至否定自己培养双语儿童的可能、简单地认为孩子的双语习得是遵循此消彼长的递减法则和以把孩子送往华文补习班为解决学习困难、提升华文水平的最便利方法。第四,家长关注的华文学习问题不在学前阶段,而是小学阶段,其中包括学习兴趣和书面语的读写能力。以上四种发现是否具备普遍意义,有必要深入调查;为新加坡未来的双语教育改革与发展提供更全面的思考角度。
2017International Chinese Language Teachers' Beliefs about the Language Learning Inventory: A Research of the International Chinese Language Teachers of National Institute of Education of Singapore

国际汉语教师的语言学习观——以南洋理工大学国立教育学院中文系为例
Choong Kok WengJournal-Refereed
 Language learning beliefs play a profound effect on learning behavior and learning outcomes. This paper uses Horwitz's (1988) The Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) for the 33 MATCIL students, in order to help them understand their own foreign language learning beliefs. When the MATCIL students have a better understanding of their own foreign language learning beliefs, in the future, they will become a language teacher who teaches Chinese as a foreign language, since they will have a better understanding of how their students feel about learning Chinese as a foreign language. They can be a role model and will also be able to provide proper guidance to students to establish the correct beliefs about language learning in Chinese, and enhance students' interest and confidence, so that students will be successful in learning Chinese as a foreign language.
 语言学习观念对学习行为及学习成果起着深刻的影响。本篇论文使用Horwitz (1988) 设置的The Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory,简称BALLI(语言学习观念量表),对我系三十三名国际汉语培训教师进行研究,帮助他们了解自己的外语学习观念。当这群国际汉语培训教师有了自身的体认后,往后在国际汉语教学中,更能了解学生的语言学习观念和体会学生学习国际汉语的感受。并且能够正确地引导学生建立正确的国际汉语学习观念,培养学生学习国际汉语的兴趣和信心,使学生的学习有所成效。
2017Teaching and Learning Chinese Language Series, Volume 9
Tan, C. L. Puah, L. D., Teoh, H. S., Ting, P. (2017). Teaching Creative Writing with iPad: A reflection on a school-based research.. In Aw, G. P. (Ed.), Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language Series, Volume 9 (pp. 1-21). Singapore: Chinese Language Society (Singapore).

新加坡华文教学论文九集
Tan Chee Lay Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 Taking collection of excellent teaching and academic research findings for local Chinese teaching and learning as our main responsibility, the editorial committee selects following representative papers. According to the author's background, four is about classroom praxis from front-line teachers; three is school-oriented researches cooperated by the Teaching and Research Center, National Institute of Education and schools, and four individual studies from experts and scholars in related fields. According to the content, there are six classroom teaching praxis: two studies on information technology teaching, two is about teaching reading comprehensions, two is of teaching evaluations, one is on vocabulary learning, one is on writing, one is about teaching literary works; and three teacher competence researches: an article on teachers’ knowledge structure and ability, an article on teacher learning styles; and an analysis of textbook language knowledge.

The research papers from the frontline teachers are based on the current students' learning needs and the classroom. However, starting from the theory, they propose a new strategy for learning Chinese, and are committed to fulfilling the educational reform mission of joy in learning and competence in using the language. The school-based researches included in the Volume 9 are aimed at cultivating research-oriented teachers, so that they have the research consciousness and master the research methods in order to find a solution to the daily teaching problems. The researchers also look into the new spaces and new roles of Chinese teaching from a macro perspective or a post-study perspective, such as exploring how information technology breaks through the time and space constraints of the classroom, implementing a seamless learning concept, and providing more opportunities for language applications; teachers have also become a new research focus in education in recent years. There is also a study in this volume uses text analysis as a research method to explore the application of language ontology and guide teachers to pay attention to the deep problem of “what to learn”.
 本着为本地华文教学收集优秀的教学与学术研究成果的责任,编委精选出以下代表性论文。按作者背景归纳,四篇来自一线教师的课堂实践、三篇来自由教研中心、国立教育学院与学校合作的校本研究、四篇来自相关领域专家学者的个人研究。按内容归纳,课堂教学实践六篇:资讯科技教学两篇、阅读教学两篇、教学评量两篇、词汇学习一篇、作文教学一篇、文学教学一篇;教师能力研究三篇:教师知识结构与能力一篇、教师学习风格一篇;以及教材语言知识分析一篇。

来自一线教师的研究成果针对当前学生学习需要,立足课堂,但从理论出发,提出华文学习新策略,并致力于完成乐学善用的教改使命。本论文集收录的校本研究成果目的在于培养研究型教师,让教师具备研究意识、掌握研究方法、以便寻找日常教学问题的解决之道。研究者也从宏观角度或后设研究角度展望华文教学的新空间和新角色,比如探讨资讯科技如何突破课堂时空限制,落实无缝学习理念,提供更多语言应用机会;教师近年来也成为教育研究的新领域。本集还有以文本分析为研究方法,探究语言知识本体的应用,引导教师关注”学什么”的深层问题。
2017Critical Reading on Drama for Pre-University H2/H3 Chinese Language and Literature: Kuo Pao Kun's Kopitiam
Tan, C.L. (2017). Critical Reading on Drama for Pre-University H2/H3 Chinese Language and Literature: Kuo Pao Kun’s Kopitiam. Singapore: Lingzi Media (in Chinese, Commissioned by MOE for all Pre-U schools).

大学预科H2 / H3汉语语言文学戏剧评论的思辨阅读:郭宝崑的《㗝呸店》
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This is a critical analysis in reading Kuo Pao Kun's Kopitiam for pre-university students to learn Chinese language and Literature.
 本文是针对郭宝崑的《㗝呸店》的思辨性阅读,旨在帮助大学预科生领略汉语语言和文学
2017Preschool Teaching Activities and Evaluation for Festivals of Singapore
Cheng, W.-N., Tan, C. L., Zheng, Y. J. (2017). Preschool Teaching Activities and Evaluation for Festivals of Singapore. Singapore: NTU-SCCL Press.

针对新加坡节日设计的学前教育活动与评价
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This is stemmed from Tyler’s objective-centered model to provide lesson examples related to festivals of Singapore’s diverse ethnicities and cultures. It aims to propose a framework and approach to teaching activities related to such festivals. General knowledge and guiding values in early childhood education are embedded in the introductions of these festivals, which include accessible background reading and several suggested teaching activities. Early childhood teachers can modify and extend the activities of a specific festival for other festivals as well. To provide teachers with evaluation tools, each teaching activity also contains a suggested assessment based on different learning areas.
 本项研究源于泰勒以目标为中心的教学评价模式,为新加坡不同种族和文化中与节日相关的课程提供教学示例。 它旨在提出针对此类节日的教学活动的设计框架和评价方法。 儿童早期教育的普遍化的知识和指导价值体现在对于这些节日的介绍中,其中包括无障碍背景阅读并推荐了一些其他的教学活动。 幼儿教师也可以修改和扩展一个特定节日的活动以用于其他节日。 为了向教师提供评估工具,每个教学活动还建议了基于不同学习领域的评估手段。
2017Let's Celebrate! Preschool Interactive Art Book A and B
Cheng, W.-N., Tan, C. L. (2017). Come, Let's Celebrate! Preschool Interactive Art Book A and B (PP. 40). Singapore: NTU-SCCL Press.

来过节!幼儿互动艺术书A和B
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book provides children the experience of Singapore’s festival and cultures. It contains reusable stickers to reenact scenes of festivals, like donning traditional costumes, eating festive food, visiting the homes of other ethnic groups, as well as travelling in Singapore. This book includes 3D art materials for children, which can be a handy teaching tool for teachers and parents. The ready-made art work will ease the adults' burden of preparing art work materials. Parents and children can make use of the book together to enhance parent-child relationship.
 这本书为孩子们提供了新加坡节日和文化的体验活动。 它包含可重复使用的贴纸,用于重现节日场景,如穿着传统服饰,品尝节日美食,拜访其他民族小朋友的家园,以及在新加坡旅行。 本书包括儿童3D艺术材料,可以为教师和家长提供方便的教学工具。 现成的艺术作品将减轻成年人准备艺术作品所需材料的负担。 家长和孩子还可以一起利用这本书来增强亲子关系。
2017Come, Let's Celebrate: Preschool Teaching Activities for Festivals of Singapore
Zheng, W. N., Chen, Z. R., & Zheng, Y. J. (2016). Come, let's celebrate: Preschool teaching activities for festivals of Singapore. Singapore Centre for Chinese Language.

来!来过节,新加坡学前节庆教案与测量
郑婉妮、陈志锐与郑迎江(2017)。《来!来过节:新加坡学前节庆教案与评量》。新加坡:南大-新加坡华文教研中心出版社。
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 Festivals are important occasions for the people and are accumulated through life experience in a long term. These important days usually have a close relationship with the local natural and social environment. As the seasons change, different seasons reflect different seasonal meanings, which also reflect people's living habits and local cultural characteristics. Traditional festivals are important cultural assets in Chinese culture, reflecting the rules of people's lives and their cultural values, as well as connecting generations, individuals and families, and individuals and society.

Since festivals are often highly correlated with local cultural characteristics, these local cultures are important life experiences for young children. The teacher should start from the life experience of the children, follow their natural curiosity and exploration and help them observe and feel the things around them. In the process of personally participating in social and cultural activities and festivals, experience the meaning of these activities, and proactively interpret the information in real life situations and establish the interaction between individuals and the environment. By providing children with diverse social and cultural activities, the teacher guides them to connect with previous experience and integrate new experiences to learn the meaning of festivals and life.
 节庆是百姓在长远的生活经验中所积累保留的重要日子,这些重要的日子通常会与当地的自然、社会环境有着密切的关系。 随着四季变换,不同的时节反映出不同的节令意义,而这当中也体现了人们的生活习惯与当地的文化特色。传统节庆是华人文化中的重要文化资产,反映了人们生活的经验法则与蕴含的文化价值,同时连结各世代之间,个人与家庭,以及个人与社会。

由于节庆通常与当地文化特色具有相当高度的关联,这些当地文化对于幼儿来说就是重要的生活经验。老师应根据幼儿天生好奇、探索的特质,从其生活经验出发,帮助幼儿从中观察、感受周遭的人事物。在亲身参与社会文化活动、节庆活动的过程中,体验这些活动的意义,并能主动解读生活情境中的讯息,建立个人与环境互动关系。老师藉由提供幼儿多样的社会文化活动经验,引导他们连结旧经验、整合新经验,以体验节庆与生活的意义。
2017Speaking Strange Chinese: A Children's Picture Book
Chen, Z. R. (2017). Speaking strange Chinese: A children’s picture book. Marshall Cavendish Education. 

小云讲华语
陈志锐(2017)。《小云讲华语》。新加坡:名创教育。
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 Xiao Yun decides to speak Mandarin for the entire day and makes a series of blunders when she translates her sentences literally from English to Mandarin.
 小云很会讲英语,但是爸爸妈妈说小云讲华语怪怪的,所以小云决定一整天只讲华语,结果... “要迟到了,你还走慢慢!“ “我换我的头脑了” “明天没有学校” 你们说,小云的华语是不是怪怪的?
2017New Perception of Redesigning the Curriculum of the Teaching of Chinese Literature
Tan, K. C. New Perception of Redesigning the Curriculum of the Teaching of Chinese Literature. In Singapore Teachers' union (Ed.), Collections of Writings of 70 years of Chinese Education in Singapore (pp. 100-120). Singapore: Singapore Teachers' union.

中国文学教学课程设计新探
Tan Kar Chun Book Chapters
 Though Chinese literature is not the main core subject in Singapore, each year this subject attracts quite a number of students to register for the course. However, compared to Chinese literacy, there is a huge gap regarding the student number who register for Chinese literature. This is probably the reason why there are not many studies done in this area. From the perspective of aesthetic education to address issues of literature, we should attach more importance to appreciating literature works. When some of the new teachers in Singapore are teaching Chinese literature, the first problem they encounter is how to design the curriculum. However, Chinese literature and Chinese literacy are essentially different in teaching and learning. Therefore, regarding the teaching of Chinese Literature, we need to apply a pedagogy of “from knowing to appreciating” the literature works to the students. How new teachers teach Chinese literature and guide students from knowing to appreciating literature is the focus of the present study. This paper will discuss curriculum designing as well as pedagogy to enhance the teaching and learning of Chinese literature.
 文学教学,在新加坡虽不是学校主要的教学科目,但每一年都能吸引若干学生修读。不过,若与学习语文的学生相比,人数仍有极大的差距;或因如此,新加坡有关文学教学的问题及成果的研究,不免稍嫌匮乏。若从“美学”教育这一角度来看文学教学,属于“美学”教育的文学其实应受重视。新加坡一些新晋教师在教导文学时,遇到的第一个问题往往是如何设计教学课程。文学与语文教学在本质上有所不同,所以在教学上,应采用由认识到欣赏的教学方法,老师方能一步步带领学生走入文学鉴赏的殿堂。新晋教师要如何教导文学,引领学生从认识到喜爱文学,自然成为关注的问题。本文便是从这两处探析新加坡文学教学及其课程设计。
2017A study of the literature works by the local Pioneer Writer Zeng Sheng Ti
Tan, K.C. (2017). A study of the literature works by the local Pioneer Writer Zeng Sheng Ti. In Aw, G.P., Choong K.W., Tan K.C. (Eds.), Collections of the Selected Writings on Chinese Language Teaching in Singapore, ninth volume. (pp. 93-120). Singapore: Chinese Language Society.

新加坡本地先驱作家曾圣提的文学作品研究
Tan Kar Chun Book Chapters
 The literature works of pioneer writers in Singapore are usually studied in terms of the writing background and content. Very few scholarly attentions have been paid to investigate the linguistic features of the works. This paper aims at discussing the significance of the choice of lexical terms and short phrases used in Zeng Sheng Ti’s collections of his proses, Zai Gandi Xian Sheng Zuo You (By the Side of Bapu) to summarize the linguistic features of Zeng’s proses.
 本地先驱作家的作品,研究者多着墨在写作背景和内容,鲜少从作品语言的特色方面加以探究。本文从曾圣提的散文作品《在甘地先生左右》这一本书的词语、短语、短句的运用,做出梳理,一窥其用语特点。
2017Current Status and Strategy of Information Literacy of Chinese Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools in Southwestern China
International Journal of Information and Education Technology Journal 1st author

中国西南地区中小学教师信息素养现状及对策
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Information literacy for teachers is the ability of retrieval, analysis, storage, using, disseminating and creating information in the teaching process. From questionnaire and data analysis on hundreds of Chinese teachers in primary and secondary schools in southwestern China, we can draw the following overall conclusions,namely their information literacy and awareness are relatively weak. Therefore, we suggest that improving information literacy of this group needs concerted effort from three aspects: 1) foster Chinese teachers’ information awareness; 2) strengthen the training of Chinese teachers; 3) strengthen the ability of integrating information technology and Chinese course of teachers.
 教师的信息素养是指在教学过程中检索,分析,存储,使用,传播和创建信息的能力。 从中国西南地区中小学数百名中文老师的问卷调查和数据分析,我们可以得出信息素养和意识相对较弱的总体结论。 因此,我们建议提高这一群体的信息素养需要从三个方面共同努力:1)培养中文教师的信息意识; 2)加强对中文教师的信息技术培训; 3)加强信息技术与汉语教师整合能力。
2017On Teaching of Chinese Character Culture in Chinese Education
Overseas Chinese Education, No.6, 768-776.

华文教育中的汉字文化教育
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 It has been a long time that the form, pronunciation and the meaning of the Chinese Character as well as the Chinese character writing skills are regarded as a whole Chinese character teaching, and it has a unique historical background. The Chinese character attributes are not receiving considerable attention is the reason to explain the weakening education of Chinese character culture in the Chinese character learning and teaching education. It is the trinity of the form, pronunciation and the meaning of the Chinese Character and a long-term accumulation of cultural elements in the Chinese character system that make the cultural education to be a non-separable component of Chinese character learning and teaching. We should enforce the teaching of the Chinese Character Culture, and tap on the potentials of elements of Chinese character culture on different teaching levels actively. At the same time, the design of the teaching of Chinese character need to take into consideration of the diversified learner’s background and their needs.
 长久以来,汉字形音义以及汉字的书写技能被看作汉字教学的重点甚至是全部,汉字文化教育的淡化有其深刻的历史原因。作为一种表意性质文字,汉字字形与汉字音义的关联以及汉字中所积淀下来的各种文化要素决定了汉字教学无法脱离汉字文化教育。华文教育应主动积极发掘汉字的文化因素,在各个不同层面强化汉字文化教育。同时,汉字文化的教学应充分重视不同背景学习者的差异性需求。
2016The Effects of First Language in the Learning of Target Language Knowledge: A Survey on the First Language Monitoring Awareness of Singapore B-Chinese Students
Aw, G.P, Han Y.F (2016). The Effects of First Language in the Learning of Target Language Knowledge: A Survey on the First Language Monitoring Awareness of Singapore B-Chinese Students. Researching and Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, 1.2, 158-173.

从“知识-认知-元认知”理论看生词英译对华语知识学习的监控作用 ——新加坡华文B课程学生英语监控意识问卷调查
Aw Guat PohJournal-Refereed
 Scholars have been showing great interest in the Thinking Mode, Cognition Mechanism and Information Processing during the process of second language learning. Efforts have been exerted on the figuring out of the relationship between mother tongue and target language, and the major role mother tongue plays in the whole process of cognition operation. This paper, on the basis of ‘Knowledge-Cognition-Meta cognition’ theory, conducts an investigation of 130 junior high students from four middle schools in Singapore on how mother tongue thinking monitors Chinese (L2) learning through the stimulus of textbook English notes. This survey, consisting of three parts including vocabulary, sentence and discourse learning, aims to explore the deep operation mechanism of mother tongue thinking monitoring, and they are autonomous learning intention monitoring, independent understanding monitoring, quick understanding monitoring, rapid memorizing monitoring, and quick application of learned knowledge monitoring. The result indicates: (1) the way English thinking monitoring Chinese learning appears to be obvious and apparent; (2) the students have strong intention of autonomous learning; (3) the learning effects of target language have been largely improved.
 一直以来,学者对二语学习的思维认知机制以及信息加工过程较为感兴趣,尤其关注母语与目标语的双元关系如何,母语在整个思维运作过程中究竟充当何种角色?本文以“知识-认知-元认知”理论为基础,以新加坡四所中学130名学生为研究对象,通过问卷的方式,从词汇、句型、语篇学习三个维度来调查华文 (L2) 学习过程中以“课本英文注释”为刺激物的母语思维的监控作用。其中包括:1)自主学习意愿监控;2)独立理解过程监控;3)迅速理解过程监控;4)迅速记忆过程监控;5)迅速理解用法并迅速应用语言知识过程监控。初步的调查结果表明,华文学习过程中英文思维的监控作用较为显著,学生的自主学习意愿较为强烈,并且目标语知识的自主学习效果得到明显的提升。
2016Lesson Study on Primary 1 Students’ Oral Communication Skills
Paper presented at the World Association of Lesson Studies (WALS) International Conference, Exeter, UK (2016, Sep)

一年级口语互动课程的课例研究
Chau Sook Kuan Conference Presentations (without publication)
 The Ministry of Education implemented the “Interaction Resource Package for Primary Schools” in 2012 in all primary schools with the aim to enhance the students’ communication skills in Mother Tongue Languages. The Primary 1 resource package focused on teaching the students to use short phrases and proper sentence structures for simple oral conversations. While using the resource package during classroom teaching, teachers observed that the content did not meet the needs of the Primary 1 students who wanted to express their thoughts further. As such, a group of Chinese Language teachers conducted a lesson study to find out how teachers could help the P1 students to carry out oral conversation more effectively.

The research team modified the lesson content of one of the units in the resource package, “My Family”, based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development (1953) and Mercer’s findings on attachment (2006), “open-ended” questions were added into the conversation. The research team hypothesized that the Primary 1 students were able to describe their interactions with their family members and have the reasoning ability to explain “why they especially like one of them”.

The first research lesson provided scaffolding with audio visual aids to help the students to grasp the vocabulary and proper sentence structures in asking and answering questions. The research team observed that the students were able to construct proper sentences when guided, but were not able to carry out conversation effectively with peers without looking at the handouts. Lesson plan was fine-tuned for the second research lesson; cooperative learning strategies and peer evaluation were added on to the lesson procedure. The research team observed that the students were able to engage in conversation with peers and expressed their thoughts confidently and fluently. Quantitative data were collected through pre- and post-tests, the data analysis showed that there was a significant increase in the student’s oral communication test scores after the research lessons.
 教育部于2012年在所有小学实施了“小学互动资源包”,旨在提高学生的母语沟通能力。小一资源包的重点在教学生使用简短的短语和正确的句子结构进行简单的口头对话。教师在课堂教学中使用资源包时,发现内容不足以引导小一学生进一步表达个人想法。为此,一群华文教师进行了课例研究,以了解教师如何帮助小一学生更有效地进行口语互动。 研究团队根据皮亚杰的认知发展理论(1953)和默瑟对依恋的研究(2006)修改了资源包中的一个单元“我的家庭”的课程内容,并在话轮中添加了“开放式”问题。研究小组假定小一学生能够描述他们与家人的互动,并具有解释“为什么他们特别喜欢其中一个人”的推理能力。 第一节课以视听辅助工具为鹰架,帮助学生在提问和回答问题时掌握词汇和正确的句子结构。研究小组观察到,学生在引导下能够构建正确的句子,但不看讲义就无法有效地与同龄人进行对话。研究小组对第二节课的教案进行了微调;在课程中加入了协作学习策略和同侪评估。研究小组观察到,学生能够与同龄人进行对话,并自信而流畅地表达自己的想法。通过前测和后测收集定量数据,数据分析表明,课例后学生的口语互动测试成绩有显着的提高。
2016Singapore Pie in Global Chinese Education: Inheritance and Innovation in Chinese Literature Education in Singapore

国际汉语教学中的“新加坡派”——新加坡华语文学教育的守成与新变
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Singapore’s Chinese literature education has continuously evolved and advanced over the years, forming a unique style in global Chinese education, which can be described as “Singapore pie”. Through its bilingual policy, the Singapore government has been committed to creating a pool of bicultural talents, by supplementing the teaching of Chinese language with classes on Chinese literature and culture. This thesis seeks to understand the pros and cons of Chinese literature education in Singapore by analysing its development over the years. The teaching of Chinese literature began with the first wave of Chinese migration to Nanyang in the 19th century, and from there, it went through three phases of development: relocation, adjustment, and burgeoning.
 在国际汉语教学中,新加坡的文学教育一直在不断的探索和前进,是颇具自身特色的“新加坡派”。 新加坡政府一直坚持实行“双语教育”的政策,致力于培养“双文化精英”,故而在华语的语言教学之外,还包括着文学文化教育。 本文即围绕新加坡华文文学教育的曲折历程,探讨其中的得失。
2016Teaching Chinese to English-speaking Bilinguals
Goh Yeng Seng & Lim Seok Lai (2016). Teaching Chinese to English-Speaking Bilinguals. In Silver, R. E. & Bokhorst-Heng, W. D. (Eds.), Quadrilingual Education in Singapore: Pedagogical Innovation in Language Education (pp. 291-304). Singapore: Springer.

面向英语背景双语者的华语文教学
Lim Seok LaiBook Chapters
 This chapter offers an in-depth discussion on the pedagogical challenges of, and solutions to teaching Chinese to English-speaking bilinguals in Singapore in response to an evolving sociolinguistic profile of primary school students studying Chinese. An analysis of the positioning of Singapore within the paradigm of three concentric circles of global Chinese and the emergence of a gradual shift in learner profile from the Outer Circle to the Expanding Circle is offered, laying the ground for the need to develop a new pedagogical model, the bilingual approach to the teaching of Chinese (BA), for teaching Chinese to a new generation of young beginning learners. The main features of BA are discussed, highlighting the important scaffolding role that the learners’ dominant language plays at the elementary stage of learning an additional language.
 上个世纪八十年代以来,新加坡讲英语华族人口稳步上升。根据全球汉语三圈理论,随着华族人口主导语言的变迁,新加坡华语出现由全球汉语中圈逐步向外圈发展的趋势。由于英语背景学习者逐年增加,新加坡主流华语文教学面对的挑战日多,现行的教学模式已无法满足新一代华语文学习者的学习需要。本文从英语背景双语者学习特点的视角出发,讨论双语并用华语文教学法(BA)的可行性。文章重点介绍了该教学法的特点,重点突出学习者的主导语在华语文学习初始阶段的支架作用。
2016Chinese Character Recognition and Writing as emphasized in new Singapore primary Chinese textbook: Philosophy, Strategies and Pedagogy
Wang, Y.Y. & Luo, Q.M. (2016). Chinese Character Recognition and Writing as emphasized in new Singapore primary Chinese textbook: Philosophy, strategies and Pedagogy. Chinese Teacher, 60, 28-35

2015新版小学华文教材中的识字与写字:理念、策略与教学
Luo QingmingJournal-Refereed
 Textbooks are the most important teaching materials for Chinese language teaching in Singapore. Literacy and teaching writing, is one of the focus of textbook writers, which is determined by the font characteristics of Chinese characters, the law of acquisition and the particularity of teaching Chinese characters. As the second language of the teaching of Chinese characters and mother tongue teaching because of different teaching objects, teaching content, process and methods are different. After the independence of Singapore, the implementation of the English-led bilingual education policy, which objectively changed the children in the family, school, social learning Chinese natural language environment. Literacy and teaching writing, has become a bottleneck restricting Chinese teaching. The new version of the Chinese textbook "Happy companions" in the "language" "text" relationship, literacy, writing difficulties, the initial stage of reading words, literacy selection and other aspects of a number of attempts, through the effective teaching materials to reduce the study of Chinese characters Difficulty, at the same time according to the acquisition of Chinese characters to teach the law, to cultivate students' sense of the word, to improve the efficiency of Chinese characters for the preparation of Chinese textbooks in the future to provide a new perspective.
 识与字教学是新加坡小学华文教材编写者关注的重点之一。第二语言汉字教学与母语汉字教学因对象不同,内容、过程和方法都有差异。新加坡独立后推行的双语教育政策,改变了儿童在家庭、学校、社会学习华语的天然语言环境。识字、写字教学已成为瓶颈。新版教材《欢乐伙伴》希望通过有效编排降低汉字的学习难度,同时根据汉字习得规律组织教学,培养字感,提高学习效率,为今后华语教材编写提供新视角。
2016The Present: An Overview of Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore
Tan, C. L. (2016). The Present: An Overview of Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore. In Soh, K. C. (Ed.), Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore: Retrospect and Challenges (pp. 11-26). Singapore: Springer Singapore.

目前:在新加坡教导华文的概述
Tan Chee Lay Book Chapters
 The sociolinguistic landscape of Singapore has in recent years been a prominent and unique case for language and social study that bestows the nation with a new title of ‘language laboratory’, besides acclaims like ‘Asia’s four little dragons’ or ‘Garden City’ (Yang. Walking the talk in the ‘Singapore’s language laboratory. In: Tan CL (ed) Teaching of Chinese and literature in Singapore. Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou, pp 270–272, 2011). Indeed, the swiftness and scale of language change in Singapore in the last 30 years may be unprecedented amongst nation states. In multi-ethnic, multicultural and multilingual Singapore, English has now become not only the most important lingua franca but also the dominant language in daily usage amongst the majority of Singaporeans, especially the young. There are two sets of important statistics reflecting the changing linguistic background of Chinese in Singapore: Firstly, the Census of Population 2010 (Singapore Department of Statistic. Census of population 2010. http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/data/pdfdoc/20110119004/c2010_r1_press_release.pdf. Accessed 1 Apr 2015, 2011) highlighted that the use of English as the home language has become more prevalent which is in line with the rise of English literacy especially amongst the younger age groups. Secondly, in 2009, 59 % of Primary 1 Chinese students’ parents reported that they spoke mainly English at home. This was a large increase from 28 % in 1991 (Ministry of Education. 2010 mother tongue languages review committee report. Ministry of Education, Singapore, 2011; see Fig. 2.1).
 在这几年里,新加坡社会语言学的形势是语言和社会学科一个重要和独特的个案。除了“亚洲四小龙”和 “花园城市 ”,新加坡也被冠上 “语言实验室 ” 这个新头衔。在过去30年里,新加坡语言发展的速度和尺度是前所未有的。在这多元种族,多种文化,语言的国家,英语不但是通用语,也是大多数新加坡人, 尤其是青少年,最普遍使用的语言。这里有两组重要的数据反映新加坡华人语言背景的改变:首先,2010年的新加坡人口调查突出随着英语知识水平的提升,尤其是在更小的年龄层当中,英语已成为家庭语言。第二,教育部的数据显示华族小一学生的家庭用语为英语的比例从1999年的28% 增加到2009年的59%。
2016Using ICT in Teaching the Chinese Language: Practices and Reflections from Singapore
Tan C., & Liu, M. (2016). Using ICT in teaching the Chinese language: Practices and reflections from Singapore. In K. C. Soh (Ed.), Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore (pp. 45-63). Springer. 

资讯科技在新加坡的中文教学中的应用:实践与反思
Tan Chee Lay Book Chapters
 The twenty-first century is the era of communication and knowledge construction, so information communications technology (ICT) literacy has become a critical twenty-first-century skill that enables students to engage in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). This chapter discusses current ICT practices in the teaching of the Chinese language in Singapore. These practices include integrating ICT into Chinese language curriculum goals and assessments, classroom teaching and student learning. Localised ICT platforms used in teaching and learning, such as iMTL and 10C, will be briefly introduced. We will then reflect on the use of ICT in Chinese language teaching in Singapore and suggest its possible future direction. Finally, this paper proposes a new term, authentic learning with ICT (ALICT), that refers to the use of real-life situations and contexts for immersive learning in an ICT-assisted environment.
 二十一世纪是沟通和知识建构的时代,因此信息通信技术(ICT)已成为二十一世纪需要掌握的一项关键技能。这项技能使学生能够参与由计算机辅助的语言学习(CALL)。 本章讨论了目前新加坡汉语教学中的信息通信技术实践。 这些实践包括将ICT融入中文课程目标和评估,课堂教学和学生学习。 将本地化ICT平台用于教学和学习的,如简要介绍iMTL和10C。 然后,我们将反思ICT在新加坡汉语教学中的应用,并提出未来可能的发展方向。 最后,本文提出了一个新术语,即ICT真实学习(ALICT),它指的是在信息通信技术辅助环境中使用现实生活情境和背景进行沉浸式学习。
2016An Error Analysis of the Usage of Chinese Personal Pronouns by English-Chinese Bilingual CSL Students in Singapore and its Pedagogical Application
Wu, X-R, Tan, C. L. (2016). An Error Analysis of the Usage of Chinese Personal Pronouns by English-Chinese Bilingual CSL Students in Singapore and its Pedagogical Application. Journal of Chinese Language Teaching (Taiwan THCI Core, TSSCI), 13(1), 111-150.

新加坡英華雙語學生的華語人稱代詞偏誤研究與教學應用
Tan Chee Lay Journal-Refereed
 This paper examines the Singaporean English-Chinese bilingual students’ use of Chinese personal pronoun, the frequency of error occurrence, and the distribution of errors in expository, narrative and practical genres of writings. Results show that most errors are redundant errors, which occur mainly at the discourse and pragmatic levels, indicating that these students tend to overlook both the functions of discourse cohesion and discourse coherence of zero personal pronoun. These students have not grasped the pragmatic functions of zero personal pronoun, which is to lessen the speaker’s involvement, and to keep narration concise. Furthermore, redundant errors at the discourse level occur most frequently in expository and narrative genres, while redundant errors at the pragmatic level occur most frequently in practical genre. Such a difference reveals a relationship between error types and genres. We further confirm that specific differences exist in the use of personal pronouns between Singaporean bilingual CSL students and Chinese native speakers, and the nature of the genre affects the Singaporean students’ choice of personal pronouns. Therefore, training bilingual CSL students in the discourse and pragmatic functions of Chinese zero personal pronoun is critical to enhance discourse communication. Lastly, pedagogical paradigms are introduced based on our findings.
 本文考察新加坡英華雙語學生的華語人稱代詞偏誤及其出現頻率,並探究各類偏誤於說明文、記敘文與應用文的分布趨向。結果指出,學生作文出現最多的「多餘」偏誤,其中又以「語篇層次的多餘」與「語用層次的多餘」為主,顯示雙語學生未能很好地掌握零代詞可銜接語篇、達成連貫的語篇功能,以及可弱化發話者參與及精簡敘述的語用功能,因此在語篇和語用層面均構成表達失誤。而從文體來看,說明文與記敘文出現最多「語篇層次的多餘」,應用文則是「語用層次的多餘」,此差異透露文體特徵與人稱代詞的偏誤類型存在關聯,可見文體的溝通慣例影響學生選用代詞。本文論證雙語者運用代詞與華語母語者仍有差異,因此人稱指稱是雙語學生的華語學習必須注重的內容。最後參照結論提出教學實作範例。
2016Home language Shift and Its Implications for Chinese Language Teaching in Singapore
Li, L., Tan, C. L., Goh, H. H. (2016). Home language Shift and Its Implications for Chinese Language Teaching in Singapore. Cogent Education

家庭中语言转换和其对于新加坡中文教学的启示
Tan Chee Lay Journal-Refereed
 In a bilingual society like Singapore, home language environment (HLE) of Singaporean children is becoming increasingly concerned, especially for those who are yet to have formal education in schools. The reported rapid shift of family language has increased the tensions among families, schools and communities. This study examined some of the many facets of Singaporean Chinese preschoolers’ HLE, and further discussed how these facets are related to children’s Chinese language proficiency in oral and written forms. Three hundred and seventy-six Singaporean Chinese six-year-olds completed Chinese oral and written language proficiency screening. Their parents completed a HLE survey. The findings revealed the possible trend of home language shift from Mandarin Chinese to English in the younger generation. Aside from home language use factors, the importance of other facets that form a rich language environment is also highlighted for children's language development.
 摘要:在像新加坡这样的双语社会中,新加坡儿童的家庭语言环境(HLE)受到越来越多的关注,特别是那些尚未在学校接受过正规教育的人。据报道,家庭语言的快速转变加剧了家庭,学校和社区之间的紧张关系。这项研究考察了新加坡华人学龄前儿童家庭语言环境诸多方面中的一些因素,并进一步讨论了这些因素如何与儿童的汉语口语和书面语水平相关联。376名新加坡华裔六岁儿童完成了中文口语和书面语言能力筛选。他们的父母完成了家庭语言环境调查。研究结果揭示了年轻一代家庭语言从普通话转向英语的可能趋势。除了家庭语言使用的一些因素,儿童语言发展还需强调形成丰富语言环境的其他方面的重要性。
2016An Analysis of Teachers' Scaffolding Awareness and Skills in the Scaffolding Teaching Model
Zhou, H., & Tan, C. L. (2016). An Analysis of Teachers' Scaffolding Awareness and Skills in the Scaffolding Teaching Model. Journal of Chinese Language Education (in Chinese, CSSCI), 14(2), 72-87.

鹰架教学模式中教师鹰架搭建意识及技能的分析
Tan Chee Lay Journal-Refereed
 In Singapore, where Chinese is learned as a second language, how to provide useful guidance of writing composition to primary school students has become an important topic. On the basis of Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and Bruner's (1983) concept of scaffolding, the research team has developed a five-step scaffolding teaching model incorporated with some effective strategies of writing instruction. The model has been put into practice in two government schools for one year. Based on the authentic classroom discourses, classroom observations and teachers' interviews gained from the project, this paper intends to analyse the participant teachers' scaffolding awareness and capability development in building classroom interaction, diagnosing students' difficulties and providing scaffolding. The results show that teachers' awareness and skills of scaffolding are essential to the successful implementation of the scaffolding teaching model.
 在新加坡华文作为第二语言教学的基本国情下,如何在华文启蒙写作教学中给学生提供有益的帮助,是一个值得深入探讨的课题。笔者以Vygotsky(1978)的“最近发展区”和Bruner(1983)的“鹰架教学”概念为理论依据,以写作教学实践中公认的有效教学策略为参考,设计出一个由五个教学步骤组成的鹰架写作教学模式,并在两所小学进行了为期一年的实验。本文以项目实践中产生的课堂语料为主要数据,参照课堂观察记录以及教师访谈资料,重点分析实验教师在建构课堂互动、诊断学习困难、提供鹰架帮助这三个方面的鹰架搭建意识及技能的应用。分析结果表明,培养教师鹰架搭建的意识及实施技能是成功推行本鹰架教学模式的重要基础。
2016From guowen, zhongwen to huawen: The Localization Process of Chinese Textbooks in Singaporean Secondary School
Theoretical Studies in Literature and Art Journal

文艺理论研究
从国文, 中文到华文: 新加坡中学华文教科书的本土化建构
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Due to the impact of political and cultural context, Chinese textbooks in Singaporean secondary schools experienced a long and tortuous process of localization. In the early British colonial era and the Japanese occupation of Singapore, Chinese textbooks in Singapore almost all imported from China and entitled guowen. From the end of World War II to 1979, with the huge changes of the situation in China and Malaya, their textbooks focused to promote the consciousness of localization under the concept of Malayalization. Correspondingly, Chinese textbooks’ publishing tends to be autonomous and their titles changed to "Zhongwen", "yuwen" or "huawen." From 1979 to date, in response to the impact and challenges of the new education system, the Singaporean Ministry of Education compiled several sets of Chinese textbooks according to language proficiency. Meanwhile, literary textbooks highlighted the localization and globalization. In Singapore where ethnic Chinese occupied the dominant, combing the process of Chinese textbooks not only can examine the localization of Singaporean Chinese education, but also can find the spread and change of Chinese in Southeast Asia.
 由于受到社会政治与历史文化的影响,新加坡的中学华文教科书经历了一个漫长而曲折的本土化过程。早期殖民地时期和日治时期,新加坡的华文教科书几乎都从中国引进,径以“国文”名之;战后至1979年,伴随着中国局势和新马政局的巨大改变,中学华文教科书在“马来亚化”理念倡导下加强本土意识的宣扬,教科书的出版格局也随之改变,趋于自主。教科书的命名更易为“中文”、“语文”或“华文”;1979年至今,新加坡教育部为了因应新教育体制带来的冲击与挑战,按照能力等级编写若干套华文教科书,文学教科书则在凸显本地化的同时,向更为包容的全球化发展。在华人占据主体的新加坡,梳理中学华文教科书的演进不仅可以透视其华文教育的本土化倾向,亦可窥见汉语或中文在东南亚地区的传播与新变。
2015MyCLOUD: A Seamless Chinese Vocabulary Learning Experience Mediated by Cloud and Mobile Technologies
Chapter in a Scholarly Book (Refereed): Aw, G. P., Wong, L.-H., Zhang, X., Li, Y., & Quek, G. H. (2015). MyCLOUD: A seamless Chinese vocabulary learning experience mediated by cloud and mobile technologies (in English). In Chai, C. S., Lim, C. P., & Tan, C. M. (Eds.), Future Learning in Primary Schools - A Singapore Perspective (pp. 65-78). Singapore: Springer.

云技术与移动结合无缝学习模式下的词汇学习—以新加坡“语飞行云”计划为例
Aw Guat PohBook Chapters
 Studies on current Chinese language classroom instructions in Singapore’s primary and secondary schools have shown that most of the curriculum time are spent on the learning of vocabulary, with teacher-centric delivery as the dominant form of pedagogy. This study aims to explore how young students’ learning of Chinese vocabulary can be carried out in a student-centric manner. Ninety-four Primary three (nine-year-old) students participated in this study. They learned vocabulary through an innovative seamless learning environment known as MyCLOUD (My Chinese Language ubiquitOUs learning Days), mediated by cloud and mobile technologies. The MyCLOUD learning experience encompasses reading of digitised textbook passages, maintaining personalised “Mictionary” (Mobile dictionary), contextualised (authentic) photo taking and sentence-making with mobile devices, sharing of student artefacts on the MyCLOUD learning platform, and online peer interactions/evaluations. Our analysis indicates that MyCLOUD can help to increase the fluency of vocabulary use among high- and medium-level academic performers (in Chinese Language). The model led to greater opportunities for meaningful learning particularly through the learning-application-evaluation trajectory. This had resulted in a positive impact on students’ abilities to appropriately apply their learned vocabularies in greater varieties of contexts. Notwithstanding, the results also show that such a self-directed model had minimal impact on low performers, as they require greater support and more guided practice in sentence-making and peer evaluation in order to achieve significant improvement in their learning.
 调查数据显示,新加坡中小学词汇学习占据课堂主要教学时间,教学方式以教师讲授为主。如何将教师主导的词语教学转向学生中心模式乃本论文所要探讨的课题。本研究以94名来自高、中、低三种表现的小三学生为对象,以云技术与移动结合无缝学习模式来学习词语,过程包括电子课文阅读、电子词典查找、情境造句、手机拍照、平台展示、同侪互评。研究数据显示,结合现代资讯科技的学生自主学习模式能有效促进高、中两种表现学生流利应用词语的能力。新学习模式提高学生在课室内外更多情境造句与互评交流的机会,这对学生变化词语语境的能力有帮助。数据也显示此模式对较低表现的学生没有帮助,主要原因是低表现学生需要更多协助,通过提高在平时的造句、互评量,进而达至量变促进质变的效果。
2015Towards a new temporal-spatial view of second language acquisition: seamless language learning framework.
Chapter in a Scholarly Book (Refereed) Aw, G. P., Wong, L.-H., Chai, C. S., & Liu, M. (2015). Towards a new temporal-spatial view of second language acquisition: seamless language learning framework. In Cui, J. (Ed.), Constructing a New Perspective for Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language in the 21st Century: From Teaching Materials to the Web (pp. 119-139). Singapore: SCCL Press.

创造第二语言习得的新时空观:无缝语言学习框架
Aw Guat PohBook Chapters
 Despite the long-espoused need for language acquisition in authentic environments to support second language classrooms, the dearth of time and spaces for language acquisition hinders the transfer of the learnt language knowledge to genuine communicative skills. In this paper, we delineate a “seamless language learning” framework with the aim of expanding the time and spaces for second language acquisition so as to promote language learners’ self-directed learning and to provide opportunities for language applications. This framework is theoretically underpinned by the notions of socio-constructivism and ubiquitous learning. A salient characteristic is the interweaving or bridging of the multifaceted activities of “learning” and “acquisition” across a variety of learning spaces (e.g., formal and informal learning, individual and social learning, learning in physical reality and the cyberspace). Thus, the language learning process becomes continual, with cycles of linguistic input and output activities, the trajectory of learn-apply-reflect, the holistic application and development of multiple linguistic skills, the promotion of autonomous learning and knowledge co-construction through social interactions. We will present the pedagogical model of a learning platform entitled MyCLOUD (My Chinese Language UbiquitOUs learning Days) and illustrate how to exploit the seamless language learning framework to construct a new space-time conception for second language learning and acquisition.
 众所周知,第二语言的课堂学习需要自然习得的支持,但是,第二语言学习也因习得时间与空间受限,所学知识无法获得转化而影响学习效率。本文透过由流动学习(mobile learning)研究分支出来的“无缝学习”理念的沿革,提出“无缝语言学习”的框架,希望通过拓展第二语言习得的时间与空间,提高语言学习的自主意识与应用机会。此框架建立于社会建构主义学习理论和泛在学习理论这两种基础上,结合“学习”与“习得”两种语言学习范式,创设出一种崭新的学习时空观,它跨越多种学习空间(如正式与非正式学习空间、个人与社群学习空间、现实与虚拟学习空间);让语言学习方式和历程持续不辍:语言输入与输出活动交互循环;语言学习、应用和反思;多种语言技能的组合使用;鼓励学习者自主学习、通过社交互动进行语言知识的构建。我们将以“语飞行云”研究项目为例子,具体说明无缝语言学习框架如何创设第二语言习得的时空观。
2015A Research on Chinese Creative Writing in Secondary School: A case of Singapore Nanyang Girls' High School Secondary One Students
Puah,L. D., & Tan, C. L. (2015). A research on Chinese creative writing in secondary school: A case of Singapore Nanyang Girls' High School secondary one students.. In Lam, J. W. I. (Ed.), Teaching Chinese to Chinese language learners: theories and practices (pp. 50-74). Singapore: NTU-SCCL Press.

中學華文創意寫作教學研究—— 以新加坡特選中學中一學生為例
Tan Chee Lay Book Chapters
 The teaching of Chinese composition writing in Singapore is long influenced by examination format, which has led to a lack of creativity in the students’ writings. The Singapore Centre for Chinese Language initiated a one-year school-based pilot research in creative composition writing with a group of higher Chinese (HCL) students from a top independent and Special Assistance Plan (SAP) school. This design study is based on the theoretical framework of creative thinking and Self-directed learning (SDL). The teaching and learning of creative composition writing are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with pre-/post-tests, and verified by triangulation of questionnaires, interviews and observations. Teaching materials are authentic and are based on topics closely related to the students’ daily life. The designs of the pedagogical activities within and beyond the classroom are highly innovative and diverse. Meanwhile, a blog was also set up to provide students with a platform catering to creative input, output and exchange. The results of this study show that the teaching of creative writing helps to reduce the rigidity of the students’ writing, and enhances their writing interest and quality. The positive findings of this research show that there is great potential for it to be further promoted.
 新加坡華文寫作教學長期受到考試命題作文“指揮棒式”的影響而成為格式化的寫作,缺乏創意。有鑑於此,新加坡華文教研中心於 2011 年展開為期一年的先導性校本研究,針對一所特選中學裡的一班高級華文學生,進行創意寫作教學試驗。 本研究屬設計型研究,以創造性思維和自主性學習為理論框架,配以前、後測的量化和質化分析,並以問卷、訪談和觀察作為三角驗證。教學材料則選擇以貼近學生生活的主題和真實性語料(authentic material)為主,設計相應的課堂教學和課後自學活動,以創新、多元為準則。同時設立博客,提供學生創作及同儕交流機會。研究發現創意寫作教學除了能改進學生作文“格式化”的缺失,更能提高學生的興趣與作文質量,大有加以推廣的潛能。
2015The Uniqueness of Singapore's Chinese Language and Literature Education in the International Context

国际视角下新加坡汉语语言和文学教育的独特性
Tan Chee Lay Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 Real-life examples from the global markets, especially within the Singapore context, would be presented for comparison and examination. They are valuable inputs for the assessment of the marketing communication strategies at issue.
 《本文通过比较验证来自全球市场的实例,特别是在新加坡范围内的例子,为评估具有争议性的营销传播策略提供有效支撑。
2015Lion’s Heart, Painted Thoughts - Children's Literature from Singapore and China
Tan, C. L., Wu, S. Y. (Ed.). (2015). Lion’s Heart, Painted Thoughts – Children’s Literature from Singapore and China (PP. 143). Hunan: Hunan Juvenile and Children's Publishing House. 

狮心绘意-来自新加坡和中国的儿童文学
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 Lion's Heart, Painted Thoughts is the featured book of Asian Festival of Children's Content in Singapore, 2015. The book is composed by 16 famous writers of children's literature from China and Singapore which composes around three subjects"home, dream, and friendship".
 《狮心绘意》是2015年新加坡亚洲儿童节的精选书。该书由16位来自中国和新加坡的儿童文学作家的作品组成,主要包括“家,梦,友”三个主题。
2015Deep Pedagogy: The Teaching Practices and Reflections of Singapore's Chinese Language Master Teachers
Tan, C. L. (Ed.). (2015). Deep Pedagogy: The Teaching Practices and Reflections of Singapore's Chinese Language Master Teachers. Taipei: Wanjuanlou (in Chinese). 

深入教学-新加坡华文特级教师的教学实践与反思
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 Deep Teaching: The teaching practices and reflections of Singapore’s Chinese Master Teachers is a compilation of 15 academic research papers on the teaching of Chinese language and literature. It discusses theories and methods that facilitate the classroom teaching of Chinese as a second language. The book is divided into two sections, “Teaching Material and Assessment” and “Pedagogical Explorations”, and the latter explores oral, writing and other pedagogies. As a joint effort of Singapore Centre for Chinese Language (SCCL) and Chinese language Master Teachers from MOE, this book is a milestone in the field of Chinese language education and research. It is a summary of the Master Teachers' reflections and experiences accumulated in practice. By sharing their experiences in teaching based on SCCL’s principle of “Research-Verify-Teach” and researches in latest teaching theories and pedagogies, the Editor and authors hope that the book will intensify communications among fellow educators, improve their professional abilities and help to promote the development of the teaching and learning of Chinese.
 深入教学:新加坡华文教师的教学实践和思考是15篇关于汉语言文学教学的学术研究论文汇编。本书讨论了促进汉语作为第二语言课堂教学的理论和方法,分为“教材与评估”和“教学探索”两部分,后者探讨口语,写作和其他教学法。作为新加坡中国语言中心(SCCL)和教育部汉语硕士教师共同努力的成果,本书是中国语言教育和研究领域的里程碑。它是对教师在实践中积累的反思和经验的总结。通过分享他们在SCCL的“研究 - 验证 - 教学”原则和最新教学理论和教学法研究方面的教学经验,编辑和作者希望本书能加强教育工作者之间的沟通,提高他们的专业能力,并有助于推动汉语教学的发展。
2015Singapore Chinese Literature and It’s Teaching
Nanjing University Press Scholarly Book 南京大学出版社

新加坡华文文学及其教学研究
Wang Bing Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 This book is divided into two parts: the first part discusses on the history of Singapore’s Chinese literature curriculum and related issues of teaching reform, including the bilingual and bicultural background, the evolution of Chinese literature course, current situation of Singapore’s literary teaching and the vision of reform, the factors that affect the curriculum reform and the selection of teaching plan. The second part focuses on the ontological study of Chinese literature under the multiple perspectives, including the position of the classical-style poetry in the literary history, the Chinese newspapers’ and well-known literati role Qiu Shuyuan’s played in the local literary circle, Chinese opera in Singapore, and the worldwide spread of Chinese literature.
 本书分为上下两大部分:上编探讨新加坡华文文学课程发展与教学改革的相关议题,包括华文文学科设置的双语双文化教育背景、华文文学教材的演变、新加坡华文文学教学的现实困境与改革方向、影响课程改革的因素分析以及文学教学设计精选;下编则为多元视野下的新加坡华文文学本体研究,包括华文旧体诗创作的文学史定位、华文文学报刊与新华文学创作思潮的关联、文人邱菽园、华语戏曲在新加坡的研究状况以及华文文学域外传播的理论思考与实践操作等话题。
2015Challenges and Changes in Teaching Chinese under the Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore
The Impact of Globalization on Language Policy and Social Change (pp. 81-106). Tokyo: Hituzi Publisher.

双语政策下的新加坡华文教育:问题与挑战
Xu FengBook Chapters
 This paper discusses the status changes of Singapore Mandarin and some problems in Chinese education in Singapore. Actually, the bilingual policy adopted by the Singapore government leads to unparallel language education. The different functional orientations of four languages make Chinese education in Singapore more structurally and fundamentally difficult. The competitive advantage of bilingual Singaporeans will disappear gradually if the applied space of Mandarin is not expanded and practical and effective measures and practice are not adopted.
 本文通过对新加坡华语地位变迁的考察,探讨了新加坡华文教育所面对的一些问题。文章指出由于新加坡政府所实行的双语政策是一种非平行的双语教育,同时由于政府对不同语言定位的导向不同,使得华文教育面临结构性和根本性的困难。如果不采取切实有效的措施拓展华语的应用空间、提升华语的实际地位,双语政策有可能会演变成一种有其名无其实的局面,新加坡人兼通双语的竞争优势也将一去不返。
2015The Characteristics of Chinese Grammar and the Grammatical Information in Chinese Dictionary for Second Language Learners
Researching and Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, No.1, 95-108.

汉语语法特点与汉语二语学习词典的语法信息配列
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 This paper discusses the question of configuration and arrangement of grammatical information in Chinese learner’s dictionary. There are three aspects should be brought into consideration in construction of grammar information, namely, characterizes of Chinese grammar, sub-category of word and the collaboration constrains of Chinese rhythm. The arrangement of grammar information also needs to make full use of Chinese database and pay more attention to painstaking explanation and the consistency of vocabulary system.
 本文结合《商务馆学汉语词典》和《汉语教与学词典》讨论汉语二语学习词典中语法信息的配置与呈现问题。汉语二语学习词典中的语法信息构建应结合汉语语法的自身特点,重视词类次范畴的标注,应体现汉语语法词汇搭配的韵律制约。语法信息的呈现也应利用语料库使例证更加合理高效,同时注意信息配置的系统性和解释的细致化。
2015On the Teaching of Chinese Vocabulary and Grammar in Primary Schools in Singapore: Viewed from the Error Analysis of Pupils’ Written Chinese
ON Chinese Studies, No.9, 53-62.

从作文语误看新加坡小学华文词汇语法教学
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 As a special second language teaching, teaching Chinese in Singapore faced with many difficulties, the complex language environment and the multiplicity mixed-learner type are two of the key roles. By investigation and analysis of the lexical and grammatical errors in Singapore primary students’ written Chinese, it was found that the errors affected by English has occupied the majority, those errors could be concluded to four kinds: preposition structure (location), modifier order, dynamic auxiliary "le" and indiscriminate copy of sentence patterns. At the same time the nonstandard expressions of Huayu (Singapore Chinese) are also found conspicuously occurred in students’ compositions, it means that language standardization in Chinese teaching was not paid adequate attention.
 新加坡华文教学是一种特殊的二语教学,新加坡的复杂语言环境与学习者的多样混合性是新加坡华文教学面临多重困难的关键因素。本文通过对新加坡小学生华文作文词汇语法语误的调查和分析发现,新加坡小学生华文语误中受英文影响而形成的偏误已占相当比重,主要偏误类型集中在介词性方位结构、偏正语序、动态助词“了”的运用和句式移用四个方面;同时,新加坡小学生书面表达中,新加坡华语的一些明显变异表达(假性语误)也相当突出。这显示新加坡小学华文教学中对标准或规范表达未引起足够重视。文章据此对新加坡小学华文教学中的教学方法和词汇语法教学策略提出了一些有针对性的建议。
2014An exploration of 21st century digital Problem Based Learning model—ReACT: A Singapore Context
Chapter in a Scholarly Book (Refereed): Aw,G.P,Chan K.G (2014). An exploration of 21st century digital Problem Based Learning model—ReACT: A Singapore Context. In Li,X,Jia,Y,Xu.J (Ed.), Digital Chinese Language Teaching (pp. 102- 113). Beijing: Tsinghua University Press.

华文教学的现代化教学实践:以新加坡ReACT批判性思维-问题导向网络学习模式研发为例
Aw Guat PohBook Chapters
 In the educational landscape where 21st century competencies are emerging, a great emphasis has been placed on ICT and 4C skills which encompass critical thinking and problem solving, effective communication, collaboration and building and creativity and innovation. Under BackPackLIVE! project which is a collaboration between Singapore’s Ministry of Education (Education Technology Division), Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) and Microsoft (Singapore), Bendemeer Secondary School’s Mother Tongue Department develops a digital problem-based learning model embedded in ReACT (Redesign for Assessing Critical Thinking) system which aims to enhance students’ competency in critical thinking skills as well as engagement in learning with technology. ReACT comprises of three inter-connected learning modules namely critical thinking assessment, problem based learning and self-directed critical thinking activities. Scaffolds such as SPEARL (to unpack the problem and issues based on the prescribed context), steps for better understanding, and Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) strategies, were also embedded within ReACT. This paper delineates a preliminary report of the pilot study harnessing ReACT. Both quantitative and qualitative data revealed effects on students’ cognitive and affective domains of learning through ReACT.
 21世纪技能教育高度重视ICT与包括“批判性思考与问题解决、有效沟通、团队共创、创造与创新”的4C能力。在新加坡教育部教育科技发展司、新加坡资讯通信发展管理局,微软(新加坡) 携手合作的“BackPackLIVE!计划”中,明智中学华文部通过问题导向学习模式来促进批判性思维能力,进而提升学习投入度和学习表现为旨,研发了ReACT 网络化批判性思维网络学习系统。系统提供了一系列批判性思维步骤,SPEARL六步问题导向学习思维支架;内容包括思维测试、网路学习单元与自主思维练习单元三部分。本论文乃研究初步报告,主要介绍ReACT学习系统、展示网络学习模式示例,并以先导研究的定量与定性数据来验证研究结果。数据显示,学生对ReACT 网络学习系统与学习模式的反应良好,适应度高。
2014An Explicit Teaching and Learning Model for Chinese Comprehension to enhance Self-directed Learning ability in Upper Primary school
Chapter in a Scholarly Book (Refereed): Aw, G.P, Tay,C.H (2014). An Explicit Teaching and Learning Model for Chinese Comprehension to enhance Self-directed Learning ability in Upper Primary school. In Xie,Y.F (Ed.), An exploration and practice: Teaching Chinese as a second language (pp. 281-298). Nanjing: Nanjing University.

基于显性教学法的阅读理解力教学:新加坡小学自主性高层级阅读理解力教学设计
Aw Guat PohBook Chapters
 The study was a school based research carried out by Chua Chu Kang Primary School. The objective of the study is to design a Comprehension Reading Teaching and Learning Model that caters to 21st century learning needs for local students. Taffy Raphael’s(1982)Questions and Answer Relation Comprehension strategy was adopted as a main theory. Self-directed learning approach and Explicit Instruction approach was also integrated into the learning model so as to provide sufficient scaffoldings for primary school students. The main focus of the teaching and learning model is on the strategies of answering the higher order thinking questions (Analyzing, Evaluating and Creating) in comprehension reading. Research findings showed that this model can help to enhance the awareness of self-directed learning as well as higher order thinking answering skills for middle ability students.
 本研究乃蔡厝港小学专项校本研究,研究经过三阶段:一、阅读理解教学与教材问题研究阶段;二、自主性阅读理解力先导研究阶段;三、自主性阅读理解力培养校本研究阶段。研究是以研究者所改良的“看、想、问”自主性阅读力培养模式为基础,结合显性教学策略,针对高层级阅读理解能力(分析与推论能力、评价能力以及创意表达能力)的教学,设计以学生为中心,简易的自主学习策略与课堂教学配套。配套包括:一、“看、想、问”显性阅读寻答思维模式;二、显性阅读理解教学完整配套,包括(一)三轮九次的阅读理解教学训练流程;(二)基本阅读教材;(三)寻答认知鹰架;(四)自主性意识与策略能力评价鹰架。
2014A Pilot Study on the Integration of Lesson Study and Classroom Observation Methods in Singapore Primary School Chinese Language Teaching.
Aw, G. P (2014). A Pilot Study on the Integration of Lesson Study and Classroom Observation Methods in Singapore Primary School Chinese Language Teaching. The Taiwan Journal of Chinese as a Second Language (TJ-CSL), 2015-17(17), 34-52.

教师专业社群研究方法个案研究:以课例研究与课堂观察工具与的结合为例
Li JiaJournal-Refereed
 Professional development is an important issue in the current research on the quality of Chinese language teachers. In recent years, lesson study was introduced as a platform for enhancing the professional development of Chinese language teachers in Singapore. A research method that originated from Japan in the 1960s, lesson study is used as a qualitative method for professional training of teachers within schools. Through the process of teachers' collective efforts in lesson preparation, observation and reflection, lesson study leads to an improvement in teaching and learning quality by promoting the knowledge construction of a professional community. However, the lack of scientific tools for recording and analysing of lesson observations often leads to highly subjective judgments in the process of lesson reflection. Differences in personal perceptions in turn results in a lack of focus during the discussions, which impacts the validity of the research. In an attempt to increase the validity of lesson study, we can leverage on classroom observation tools that originate from America. Classroom observation involves the observation, recording and analysis of lesson procedures, thereby extracting qualitative and quantitative data to develop a concrete and in-depth understanding of the teaching process in order to enhance teaching quality. In 2012, a study involving the combined use of lesson study and classroom observation methods was conducted in two primary schools in Singapore. This paper will present the aims, procedures and the use of qualitative and quantitative data in improving research validity through such methodological integration. The findings show that the combination of lesson study and classroom observation tools is an effective method for researching teacher professional communities. The integrated research method promotes teacher change and professional learning in a more focused and in-depth manner, allowing for more systematic knowledge construction of learning communities to enhance teachers' professional growth.
 教师专业发展乃当前华语文教师素质研究中的重要课题。近年来,以单堂课为研究对象的课例研究(Lesson Study)也开始被引入新加坡华语文教学中,成为目前学校教师专业发展的重要平台。课例研究起源于20世纪60年代的日本,是日本教师校内专业培训的质化手段,是通过教师集体协作过程:备课、观课、反思来改进教学,从而促进专业社群的知识构建。笔者发现,由于课例研究在观课过程中缺乏科学性的记录与分析,因此相对依赖教师个人的洞察力,在反思讨论时,经常出现讨论流于主观论断、因个人观察点有异,讨论时难以聚焦,而导致研究效度不稳定。笔者于是借鉴起源于美国的课堂观察工具,(classroom observation)尝试提高课例研究的效度。课堂观察主要通过观察、记录和研究课堂运行状态,提取质化与量化资料来说明教师具体、深入了解课堂,从而改进教学。笔者于2012年与两所小学合作,首次将两种方法结合,进行一次个案研究。本论文将提出两者结合之后的研究目的、步骤,并以具体的质化与量化资料来验证研究的效度。实验结果显示,结合课堂观察方法和课例研究的工具,是有效的教师专业社群研究方法,能更有效协助教师进行更聚焦、更有深度的转化学习,构建教师专业社群知识,进而促进教师专业成长。
2014Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Exploration of New Training Ideology and Methodology of the International Chinese Teachers

学习风格与教学风格:国际汉语教师培养新理念与方法探究
Choong Kok WengJournal-Refereed
 A teacher’s learning style can have an impact on the student’s learning styles. (Zhang, 2004) There is a strong close correlation between teachers teaching style and their own learning style. Studying a teachers’ teaching style will enable us to understand how teachers' beliefs affects their teaching behaviour and help teachers improve their teaching quality. (Heimlich & Norland, 2002) Studies have shown that a teacher’s teaching style is closely related to their personality type. Therefore, we must address the impact of a teacher’s personality towards their learning styles and teaching styles. (Cooper, 2001) This paper uses Oxford’s (1993) Style Analysis Survey and Cooper’s (2001) Teaching Activity Preference to study on twenty-two international Chinese language trainee teachers in my faculty to understand their personality, learning styles and teaching styles, in order to help these teachers fully understand their teaching strengths and their teaching potential, and thus enhancing their teaching quality and efficiency.
 教师的学习风格对学生的学习风格起着互动的关系,并对学生的学习产生影响。(Zhang, 2004)而教师的教学风格,则与他本身的学习风格有着密切的关系。研究教师的教学风格,可使我们了解教师的教学信念如何影响教学行为,帮助教师本身提升其教学品质。(Heimlich & Norland, 2002)研究结果显示,教师的教学与其自身的人格型态关系密切。因此,我们必须正视教师的人格型态对其学习风格和教学风格的影响。(Cooper, 2001)本篇论文使用Oxford (1993) 设置的Style Analysis Survey 量表和Cooper (2001) 设置的Teaching Activity Preference量表,对我系22名国际汉语培训教师进行研究,了解他们在人格型态、学习风格和教学风格方面的相互关系,以帮助这群教师更全面地了解自己的教学优势和有待开发的教学潜能,进而提升他们的教学质量和教学效益。
2014Strategies in Compiling Intermediate-advance Chinese Teaching and Learning Resources: Based on Singapore Secondary School Chinese Text Books

中高级汉语教学资源的编写策略:以新加坡中学教材为例
Choong Kok WengJournal-Refereed
 Singapore Ministry of Education released “Report of the Chinese Language Curriculum and Pedagogy Review Committee” in 2004, discovered that among ethnic Chinese students, the proportion of English as the most frequently used home language rose from 36% in 1994 to 50% in 2004. This shows that the teaching of the Chinese language has to be adjusted to cater to the students' learning needs. The report suggested, for the majority, the emphasis should be on effective oral communication and reading, and more emphasis on practical use of the Chinese Language (“Report of the Chinese Language Curriculum and Pedagogy Review Committee”, 2004:5,9) In this paper, the new secondary school textbooks compiled by the Singapore Ministry of Education in 2011 will be used as an example to analyse its compiling strategies. The paper will use textbooks of the new secondary school express stream curriculum as an example to discuss the concept of its compiling strategies: listening and speaking skills driven by reading and writing skills; the principles of its compiling strategies: cite example first, followed by explanation, then, practice; and the organizations of its compiling strategies: intensive reading, introductory reading, self-reading and integrated tasks. By showcasing the compiling strategies of the new textbooks of the new secondary school express stream curriculum of Singapore, it is hoped that it inspires the theory and practice of strategies in compiling intermediate-advance Chinese teaching and learning resources.
 新加坡教育部在2004年发布《华文课程与教学法检讨委员会报告书》,发现以英语作为主要家庭用语的华族学生从1994年的36%上升到2004年的50%。这显示汉语教学必须能针对这些学生的学习需要作出调整。报告书提出,对大部分学生的教学应注重有效的口语交际和阅读训练,注重华文的实用功能(《华文课程与教学法检讨委员会报告书》,2004:4,5,9)本文以新加坡教育部在2011年编制的新中学教材为例,分析其编写的策略。文中将以新中学教材中的快捷课程为例,论述其编写策略的理念:以读写带动听说;编写策略的原则:先例、后说、再练;和编写策略的组织:讲读课、导读课、自读课和综合任务。目的在于通过新加坡教材的展现提供实例,希望对中高级汉语教学资源编写策略的理念和实践有所启发。
2014Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Exploration of New Training Ideology and Methodology of the International Chinese Teachers

学习风格与教学风格:国际汉语教师培养新理念与方法探究
Choong Kok WengJournal-Refereed
 A teacher’s learning style can have an impact on the student’s learning styles. (Zhang, 2004) There is a strong close correlation between teachers teaching style and their own learning style. Studying a teachers’ teaching style will enable us to understand how teachers' beliefs affects their teaching behaviour and help teachers improve their teaching quality. (Heimlich & Norland, 2002) Studies have shown that a teacher’s teaching style is closely related to their personality type. Therefore, we must address the impact of a teacher’s personality towards their learning styles and teaching styles. (Cooper, 2001) This paper uses Oxford’s (1993) Style Analysis Survey and Cooper’s (2001) Teaching Activity Preference to study on twenty-two international Chinese language trainee teachers in my faculty to understand their personality, learning styles and teaching styles, in order to help these teachers fully understand their teaching strengths and their teaching potential, and thus enhancing their teaching quality and efficiency.
 教师的学习风格对学生的学习风格起着互动的关系,并对学生的学习产生影响。(Zhang, 2004)而教师的教学风格,则与他本身的学习风格有着密切的关系。研究教师的教学风格,可使我们了解教师的教学信念如何影响教学行为,帮助教师本身提升其教学品质。(Heimlich & Norland, 2002)研究结果显示,教师的教学与其自身的人格型态关系密切。因此,我们必须正视教师的人格型态对其学习风格和教学风格的影响。(Cooper, 2001)本篇论文使用Oxford (1993) 设置的Style Analysis Survey 量表和Cooper (2001) 设置的Teaching Activity Preference量表,对我系22名国际汉语培训教师进行研究,了解他们在人格型态、学习风格和教学风格方面的相互关系,以帮助这群教师更全面地了解自己的教学优势和有待开发的教学潜能,进而提升他们的教学质量和教学效益。
2014The Teaching of Ancient Chinese Literature at the Tertiary Institutions in Singapore
Li, J. & Qu, J.Y. (2014). The Teaching of Ancient Chinese Literature at tertiary institutions in Singapore. In HONG L.J. (Ed.), Chinese Teaching in Different Language, Culture and Policy Contexts (PP. 238-249). Shanghai: Xuelin Press.

新加坡高校中的古典文学课程设计
Li JiaBook Chapters
 The teaching of Chinese literature in Singapore is also an important part of second-language teaching. This paper discusses the classical literature courses offered by the Chinese Department in Singapore’s universities. Through the background analysis and comparison among students, it points out that the classical literature teaching in local universities faces many challenges and explores targeted strategies and methods. This paper believes that the use of different English translations to assist the teaching of classical Chinese literature is an effective method in Singapore's language environment. In addition, only the appropriate modern transformation of classical literary works could better stimulate students' interest in learning and lead to in-depth appreciation and reflection.
 新加坡的华文文学教学亦为第二语教学的重要组成部分,本文对新加坡高校中文系均有开设的古典文学课程进行探讨,通过对学生的背景分析、比较,指出在新加坡高校进行古典文学教学所面对的挑战,并探索具有针对性的策略和方法。本文认为在新加坡的语言环境之下,利用不同的英译辅助教学是一种行之有效的方法。另外,只有将古典文学作品进行适当的现代转换,才能更好的激发学生学习的兴趣,并引发深入的赏析和思考。
2014The Curricular and Pedagogic Creativity of Summerhill School, and Related Reflection on the Teaching in Singapore
Tan, C. L. (2014). The Curricular and Pedagogic Creativity of Summerhill School, and Related Reflection on the Teaching in Singapore. Journal of Education and Human Development, Vol. 3(No. 2), 541-557.

英国夏山学校的课程与教学创新以及新加坡环境下的相关教学反思
Tan Chee Lay Journal-Refereed
 Through a discussion of humanities education and liberal ideals in England’s Summerhill School, this paper hopes to highlight the important place of creative thinking in education, revealing how creative thinking will be an important ability and intrinsic quality in education henceforth, and even become its main goal. This text gathers discussions of a few representative innovative teaching methods and teaching activities in Summerhill School, and at the same time, reflects on education in Singapore’s environment.
 摘要:通过对英国夏山学校(Summerhill School)人文教育和自由主义理想的讨论,本文希望能够突显创造性思维在教育中的重要地位,揭示创造性思维如何成为教育将着重培养的能力和固有品质,甚至成为其主要目标。本文收集了针对夏山学校一些具有代表性的创新教学方法和教学活动的讨论,并反思新加坡环境下的教育。
2014An Overview on Chinese Character Recognition at Preschool Level in Singapore
Tan, C. L. (2014, July). An Overview on Chinese Character Recognition at Preschool Level in Singapore: Observations and Reflections. The 5th International Conference on Han Characters Education and Research - Proceedings, 1, 35-53.

新加坡学龄前儿童中文认字能力概览
Tan Chee Lay Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 The exposure to language use has a strong impact on children’s language learning and development in the long run. In order to define language dominance of Singapore preschoolers', and especially in the area of Chinese word recognition which is the focus of this paper, I would be looking at a number of multiple factors, such as the child’s language use in specific contexts, frequency of contact with Mandarin-speaking adults,the exposure to Chinese language the child has and the literacy support given to the child, etc., as points of references in investigating Singapore Chinese preschoolers’ competence in Chinese character recognition. While the survey and test results show that there is room for improvement in preschoolers’ Character Recognition, the findings also lead me to examine some of the current situations and practices in preschools and at home,and this paper will offer critical reflections to improve the teaching and learning of Chinese characters in Singapore.
 从长远角度来讲,接触语言使用环境对儿童语言学习和发展有着强烈的影响。为了界定新加坡学龄前儿童的语言优势,特别是在认识中文字词领域,是本文重点讨论的内容。我将研究一系列多重因素,如在特定语境中儿童语言的使用,与讲汉语普通话的成年人接触的频率,儿童对所掌握的中文的接触,以及能为孩子提供的识字能力的支持等。这些将作为调查新加坡华裔学龄前儿童汉字识别能力的参考因素。调查和测试结果表明,学龄前儿童的认字能力仍有改进的余地,但研究结果也使我对学龄前儿童和家庭的现状和做法进行了考察,本文将提出批评性建议,以提高新加坡汉字教学水平的思考。
2014Sidgwick Writings @ Cambridge
Tan, C. L. (2014). Sidgwick Writings @ Cambridge (PP. 132). Singapore: Global Publishing (in Chinese).

习之微刻书
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 Tan Chee Lay's " Sidgwick Writings at Cambridge" contains his e-letters written to his wife from November 2004 to February 2005. Sidgwick is a district of Cambridge University where the author studied and lived. He translated it into a "micro engraving" in a different way. In the bits and pieces of his life in Cambridge, even the most subtle moments, even the gaps of time, the author is not willing to let it fly by, and he would continue to make the best use of those moments to "learn".

The writer's letter seems to be his soul window. Reading Xu Zhimo's "Love Eyebrows" and all the other love letters from Liang Shiqiu to Han Jingqing and from Yu Dafu to Wang Yingxia's, there is a sense of novelty by peeking into the "soul window". Reading Tan Chee Lay’s letter can also "see" the secrets of his heart.

At the time of writing, Tan Chee Lay is already a young father. In the letters to his wife, in addition to the keywords of pining affection, school, diet, weather, and football, it is more of a husband’s responsibility, care and concern.

Dr. Tan writes books with sketches and poetic strokes. It is concise and clear. The text is constructed in addition to visual associations.
 陈志锐的《习之微刻书》收录他2004年11月至2005年2月写给妻子的电子书 信。Sidgwick是剑桥大学的一个区,也是作者学习生活的所在地。他与众不同 地把它译成"习之微刻"。 在剑桥的点点滴滴,即便是最细微的时刻,甚至时刻的缝隙,作者都不愿放过,且 不断"习之"。

作家的书信彷佛其心灵窗口,读徐志摩的《爱眉小札》,梁实秋写给韩菁清、郁达夫写给王映霞的情书,便有从"窗 口"偷窥的新鲜。读陈志锐的书信,也可"窥见"他内心的秘景。

写信时的陈志锐,已经是一个年轻的父亲,在给妻子的书信里,除了相思、学业、饮食、天气、 球赛这些关键词,更多的是一份丈夫的担待和责任、是一份对家的牵挂和关怀。

志锐以素描的、诗意的笔触写家书,简洁而明朗,文字建构之外辅以视觉联想,悠悠我心储藏在"习之微刻书"。
2014Critical Reading: Poetry, Novel and Play of Pre-University H2/H3 Chinese Language and Literature (Commissioned by MOE for all Pre-U schools)
Lin, G., & Tan, C. L. (2014). Critical Reading: Poetry, Novel and Play of Pre-University H2/H3 Chinese Language and Literature (Commissioned by MOE for all Pre-U schools). Singapore: Lingzi Media (in Chinese).  

思辨性阅读 :大学预科H2/H3诗汉语语言和文学中的诗歌,小说和戏剧
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This is a critical analysis in using Chinese poetry, novel and play to teach Chinese language and literature for pre-university students.
 本文以思辨性思维探索分析阅读诗歌,小说和戏剧等不同题材的文学作品对于大学预科学生汉语语言和文学教学的帮助。
2014A series of four bilingual books: A Very Big Storm, Little Otter Goes Fishing, Under the Sea, and The Really Really Hot Day
SEED Institute, & Tan, C, L. (2014). A series of four bilingual books: A Very Big Storm, Little Otter Goes Fishing, Under the Sea, and The Really Really Hot Day. Singapore: Singapore National Co-operative Federation (SNCF) (in Chinese and English).
Tan Chee Lay University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This is a series of four biligual books in children's literature that cultivates the spirit of mutual support in the community and encourages children to help each other in times of needs and disasters.
 这一系列的四本双语书籍,培养了孩子们在社会中相互支持的精神,鼓励他们在别人需要的时候和灾难发生的时候,伸出援手,互相帮助。
2014An Introduction of the Creatively ways of teaching Chinese Literature
K.C, Tan (2014). An Introduction of the Creatively ways of teaching Chinese Literature. In Chinese Language Society (Ed.), Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language Series (pp. 12-23). Singapore: Singapore Center of Chinese Language.

中国文学创新教学法初探
Tan Kar Chun Book Chapters
 This paper aims at discussing the different methodologies used in the teaching of Chinese literature. The paper will also explore how these methodologies can help in aiding the students to understand the commonly found strategies in the learning and appreciating of the literature works so as to enhance the active learning.
 本文旨在采用了几种方法论,说明文学作品的一些常见的特点,及介绍一些文学教学的方法,让学生的学习更为活泼有效。
2014Changes of the Chinese Literature Course books in Secondary Schools in Singapore
Journal of Hebei Normal University (Educational Science Edition) Journal 2nd author 河北大学学报(教育科学版)

新加坡中学华文文学教材的演进与变革
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Chinese literature has always played a very important role in the history of Chinese language teaching and bilingual-bicultural education in Singapore. Chinese literature textbooks used in secondary schools, served as important curriculum resources for literature teaching and have been through an evolutionary process from the transplantation and introduction period in the early years during the initial development period after the founding of Singapore, and the current autonomous transition period. With successive changes in curriculum standards, the concept and design of secondary school Chinese literature textbooks has also been innovative, together with the content and arrangement of selected texts. This article reflects the evolution and transformation of Chinese literature textbooks and discusses the development and changes within the Chinese literature curriculum in Singapore secondary schools.
 在新加坡华文教学以及双语、双文化教育的发展历程中,华文文学课程始终扮演着十分重要的角色。在此期间,充当文学教学重要课程资源的中学华文文学教材也经历了从早年的移植引进期、建国后的初步发展期到当下自主转型期的演进过程。伴随着课程标准的历次变革,中学华文文学教材在教材编写理念与设计、选文内容与安排等方面皆有所革新。因此,这种分期梳理既反映了华文文学教材的演进与变革,也体现出新加坡中学华文文学课程的发展变化。
2013Communicative Instructional Materials for Young Learners of Chinese as a Second Language

汉语作为第二语言的小学生口语交际教材
Choong Kok WengJournal-Refereed
 This paper aims to discuss the conceptual framework of communicative instructional materials in teaching Chinese as a second language for primary school children under the environment which Chinese language is not a dominant language used in the society. There are a total of seven sections in this paper. Section one is the background introduction. Section two discusses the characteristics of the instructional materials designed by mainland China for the use in overseas primary school children. Section three explains the features of the instructional materials designed by Taiwan for the use in overseas primary school children. Section four elucidates the distinguishing features of the instructional materials designed by Singapore. Section five analyzes the instructional materials designed by China, Taiwan and Singapore. Section six explores the conceptual framework of communicative instructional materials in teaching Chinese as a second language for primary school children. Section seven is the summary.
 本论文将以汉语非主导语言的环境基础,探讨汉语作为第二语言的小学生口语交际教材的构建理念。本论文分为七节:第一节为背景介绍;第二节综述中国所编制的以海外小学生为教学对象教材的特色;第三节论述台湾所编撰的海外小学生教材的特点;第四节阐述新加坡教育部制定的小学华文教材及其特征;第五节对比分析中国、台湾和新加坡三地的小学生教材;第六节探讨汉语作为第二语言的小学生口语交际教材的构建理念;第七节为总结。
2013Teachings of Tang Poetry in International Chinese Pedagogy: Singapore as Case Study
[Selected Papers of the 11th International Conference on Chinese Language Pedagogy], Chengdu: Sichuan Publishing Group Bashu Press, China, pp.186-195.

汉语国际教学之唐诗教学——以新加坡为个案
Li JiaBook Chapters
 Beyond language teachings, popularisation and diffusion of literature and culture should be important aspects in international Chinese Pedagogy. Tang Poetry is definitely the crown of Chinese literature and culture, and it is also an effective way for foreigners to understand Chinese culture according to learning Tang poetry. Although majority of the population in Singapore is Chinese, English has been promoted as the country’s administration language and many speak only English. The article takes teachings of Tang poetry as a case to talk about the challenges of Chinese literature Pedagogy in Singapore and corresponding teaching strategies.
 汉语的国际教学不应只是语言教学,也应该包括文学乃至文化上的推广与传播。唐诗是中华文学桂冠上的耀眼明珠,学习唐诗对于外国学生理解中华文化行之有效。新加坡是华人为主体的社会,但英语已成为最强势语言,本文即以在新加坡华文文学教学中的唐诗教学为例,探讨在此过程中面临的挑战,以及自己摸索出的教学策略。
2013Modern Chinese Literature and its Pedagogy
Tan, C. L. (Ed.). (2013). Modern Chinese Literature and its Pedagogy. Taipei: Wanjuanlou (in Chinese).

现代文学及其教学
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The articles in “Modern Chinese Literature and its Pedagogy” (Simplified Chinese Version) is divided into two parts: The first part is "Modern Literature Literacy", which mainly discusses the scope and characteristics of modern Chinese literature from the theoretical level, as well as the special topics of Chinese literature in various areas; Series 2 is the "Modern Chinese Literature Pedagogy", which mainly introduces the significance of modern Chinese literature in Chinese teaching, the curriculum framework and theory of modern literature, and the demonstration of effective modern literature teaching methods and approaches, such as the applications of film and drama in teaching modern literature. The authors are mostly experienced Chinese language educators and literary researchers. They have a deep understanding of modern literature and its teaching, and can also propose practical strategies based on actual classroom conditions and restrictions, so the articles included are of great reference value.
 《现代文学及其教学(简体字版)》收录的论述文章主要分为二部分:辑一为「现代文学素养篇」,主要从理论层面探讨现代华文文学的范畴、特色,以及各地的华文文学之特别课题等;辑二为「现代文学教学篇」,主要介绍现代华文文学在华文教学上的意义、现代文学的课程框架和理论,以及展示行之有效的现代文学教学方法和途径,例如现代文学教学中的电影应用、戏剧应用等。《现代文学及其教学(简体字版)》的作者多是教学经验丰富的华文教育学者和文学研究者,对现代文学华以及现代文学教学有深刻的认识,同时也能够根据实际课堂的情况与限制,提出因时制宜的文学教学策略,故收录的文章极具参考价值。
2013Micro Novel for Youth by Tan Chee Lay
Tan, C. L. (2013). Micro Novel for Youth by Tan Chee Lay (PP. 112). Singapore: Lingzi Publication. 

打嗝的亲情
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The stories included in this book are the budding works of Singaporean writer Tan Chee Lay many years ago. Some of them originated from the Taipei Basin where the young writer met with youth literature. They are also the efforts and concrete attempts to explore youth literature, some of which are the winning works that have been published in the juvenile newspapers and the columns. There are not only laughs and tears, but also sensitive emotions and touches; there are family and friendship, as well as the stadium and the examination room, showing the unique growth experience and mind enlightenment in juvenile literature from diverse angles.
 此书收录的少年小说是新加坡青年作家陈 志锐多年前青涩的少作,有些源自其邂逅 少年文学的台北盆地,然而却也是其寻索 少年文学的努力实践和具体尝试。其中好 些曾刊登于少年报章上的专栏或是得奖作 品,里头有大欢笑大泪水,也有小情绪小 感动;有亲情友情,也有球场考场,多层 次展现了少年文学中独特的成长经验以及 心智启蒙。
2013Interpretation on 2011 Syllabus Chinese Language Secondary in Singapore
Journal of Yunnan Normal University (Teaching and Research on Chinese as a Foreign Language Edition) Journal云南师范大学学报(对外汉语教学与研究版)

新加坡《 中学华文课程标准 2011》 解读——兼与 2002 年课程标准比较
Wang Bing Journal-Refereed
 2011 Syllabus Chinese Language Secondary promulgated by The Singapore Ministry of Education is a programmatic document for guiding to the current middle school Chinese teaching in Singapore. In 2002 with the Chinese Language Syllabus Secondary photograph is compared, new curriculum for the five aspects of the revision and the consummation: adjust the overall goal of course, language ability, pay attention to the construction of classification system of communication and self-learning ability, update the teaching strategy and the transformation of the traditional evaluation mode. In the two courses standard of comparison, we can see the reform dynamics’ development trend of Singapore middle school Chinese teaching. It also has certain instructive for Chinese language curriculum reform of ordinary Chinese middle school.
 新加坡教育部2010年颁布的《中学华文课程标准2011》,是指导新加坡当前中学华文教学的一份纲领性文件。与2002年《中学华文课程标准》相比较,新课标进行了五个方面的修正和完善,即调整课程总体目标、构建语言能力分级体系、注重交际和自学能力、更新课堂教学策略以及转变传统评价方式等。在新旧两套课程标准的比较中,我们可以窥见新加坡中学华文教学的发展趋势和改革动态,对于中国的普通中学语文课程改革亦有一定的启发作用。
2013The Design and Compiling of Exercises in Elementary Text Book of TCIL
Research on Chinese as a Second Language, No.2, 44-57.

国际汉语基础教材练习的设置与编写
Xu Feng Journal-Refereed
 Exercises are important parts of a Chinese textbook. The exercises which designed by domestic scholars are essential to training learners to grasp Chinese structures and language functions, while those exercises designed by overseas scholars become more targeted, which are better to meet the special needs of overseas Chinese learners. The design and compiling of practices in elementary text book of Teaching Chines as an International Language needs to uptakes the advantages of existing Chinese textbooks to conform to those two compiling principles: learner-centered and communicative tasks-oriented approach.
 练习是国际汉语教材的重要组成部分。国内所编写的对外汉语教材练习在对语言结构和功能的设置编排上有优势,而海外学者所编写的练习则在把握海外汉语学习者需求上有更为准确、清晰而深刻的认识,针对性更强。国际汉语基础教材中练习的设置和编写需要借鉴和吸收已有教材的优点,取长补短,从而进一步在细节上落实“学习者为中心”和“交际任务导向”的编写原则。
2012The evolution and reform of overseas Chinese language teaching: The Singapore experience
Goh Yeng Seng & Luo Qingming (2012). The evolution and reform of overseas Chinese language teaching: The Singapore experience. In Wang, Jilun, Wang Rongsheng, Bai Yunkai & Sun Shaozhen (Eds.), Exploring Chinese Language Teaching: Theory and Practice (pp. 645-653). Taipei: Wu-Nan Book Company Ltd.

海外华语文教学嬗变与革新:新加坡经验
Luo QingmingBook Chapters
 Chinese language teaching in Singapore has had a long history of transition through many political changes and educational systems. While Chinese teaching materials and textbooks have experienced much transformation and redesign, the fundamental design and writing philosophy and principles have remained relatively the same compared to the past. With the dual teaching objectives of propagating a rich Chinese cultural inheritance and developing competence in communicating in the Chinese language, the Singapore Chinese language textbooks have always taken the path of culture and language integration. This thesis will take both the global language perspective and the local Singapore Chinese language context as starting points to explore the overseas Chinese language teaching material evolution and innovation.

The paper is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the degradation of Chinese students’ language ability amidst a changing Singaporean society, from the inner circle ("central" district) to the outer circle (overseas Chinese district) – the transition from "breaking-off from dialects into Chinese" to "moving from Chinese into English”; The second section of the thesis expounds the evolution of overseas Chinese language teaching, exploring how textbooks hinges on the idea that "writings are for conveying truth" in three aspects of teaching Chinese in the Chinese language: by paying close attention to declarative cultural knowledge, ignoring procedural cultural knowledge and insisting on native language thinking; the third section of the thesis deals with language communication and cultural heritage, traditional Chinese culture and contemporary Chinese culture, as well as the learning philosophy that listening, speaking, reading and writing go hand in hand - with listening and speaking being foremost, then reading and writing. These are discussed to explore the innovation of teaching Chinese as a foreign language.
 新加坡华语文教材的总体设计思路和编写原则并未根本改变。新加坡华语文教材向来走的是语言与文化合流的方向。本文将探讨海外华语文教材嬗变与革新,共三大部分:首先,从“中原”区至海外华人区以及变动中的新加坡华族社会---从“脱方入华”至“脱华入英”两方面,论述海外华裔学生语言能力退化现象;再来,以编选范文作为“传道”教材、重视陈述性文化知识,忽略程式性文化知识、坚持母语思维,用华语教华人三方面,阐述海外华语文教学嬗变;最后,从语言交际与文化传承、传统中国文化与当代中国文化、听说读写并进与先听说再读后写的语言技能训练三方面,探讨海外华语文教学革新。
2012A review of Chinese Textbook for primary school under the New Educational System
Luo, Q.M. & Wang, Y.Y. (2012). A commentary on primary school Chinese textbooks designed under the new Singapore education paradigm. In Luo, F.T. (Ed.), A New Research Perspective on Singapore Education Materials (pp. 1-25). Singapore: Globe Publishing.

新教育体制下的小学华语教材述评
Luo QingmingBook Chapters
 With the Chinese textbook for primary school under the new educational system as a subject, this review makes a comparative analysis and commentary of the characteristics of the four sets of Chinese textbooks.
 本文以新教育体制下统编华文教材为研究对象,分析各版教材特点,并对四套教材进行对比评析。
2012The Original Notes: A Poetic Manuscript
Tan, C. L. (2012). The Original Notes: A Poetic Manuscript (PP. 134). Singapore: Lingzi Publication. 
 
原始笔记
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 "Original Notes" is Tan Chee Lay's ninth essay collection. In the form of full-color hardcover, it carries the manuscripts and final drafts of the poet of 9 years’ work, which presents a rare opportunity for readers to have a glimpse of the poet's complete creative process.
 《原始笔记》是陈志锐的第9本文学创作集,以全彩的精装本形式,承载了诗人9年来的手稿笔迹和最后定稿,难得地让读者一窥诗人完整的创作历程。
2012Study on the Bilingual and Bicultural Elite Education in Singapore
Education Exploration Journal 1st author

新加坡双语双文化精英教育探析
教育探索
Wang BingJournal-Refereed
 Since the 1980s, the bilingual and bicultural elite education in Singapore began to choose Special Assistance Plan schools as the main educational platform, the training mode consisted of official characteristic curriculum and school flagship plan has developed gradually as well as the course structure combined major courses and minor courses to ancillary activity. All of these achievement depends on the vigorously avocations of the government, the creative curriculum provision of the school and positive atmosphere of the whole language environment. It is obviously that this training mode could offer some useful information to Chinese education reform.
 自上世纪八十年代以来,新加坡的双语、双文化精英教育以特选学校为主要平台,逐步形成官方特色课程与校级旗舰计划衔接互补的培养模式,以及主修课程、副修课程和辅助活动有机结合的课程架构,取得了较为瞩目的成就。这些成就的取得,离不开新加坡政府的大力倡导、学校富有创意的教学策略和社会语言环境的积极营造。当然,新加坡双语、双文化精英教育的培养模式对于中国的教育改革也有一定的借鉴和启发作用。
2011Enhancing the Traditional with the Modern: A Web-based and Multimedia Pedagogical Design in the Instruction of Traditional Chinese
Tan, C. L. (2011). Enhancing the Traditional with the Modern: A Web-based and Multimedia Pedagogical Design in the Instruction of Traditional Chinese. In I. Torres, L. Chova, A. Martínez (Ed.) 4th International conference of Education, Research and Innovation (pp. 650-661). Singapore: International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED).

以新提高传统:设计使用网络和多媒体教学法来教授文言文
Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 The teaching of traditional Chinese (Wenyan wen) is amongst the most difficult part of the Chinese curriculum in Singapore. Besides students’ learning difficulties in a predominantly English-speaking environment, the lack of learning interest and the shortage of interesting and innovative teaching materials and methods are some of the prevailing challenges. In view of this, I have designed and constructed a school-based design research, harnessing web-based technology, web 2.0 platforms, and multimedia strategies to teach traditional Chinese to an experiment class, with another class as its control group. Traditional Chinese passages from the Pre-university "Chinese and Literature" curriculum are selected to be the texts for this student-centered learning research. The findings of this research positively show that students who have gone through traditional Chinese teaching with interactive web-based tools, in comparison to the control group students, tend to recall information better, display higher interest in their learning, and perform significant better in summative assessments, especially when the time gap between learning and assessment increases.
 在新加坡,教导文言文是华文课程最困难的一部分。除了学生在一个普遍使用英语环境里会遇到的困难,现有的挑战也包括学生缺乏兴趣,缺少有趣和创新的教研材料和方法。 基于如此,我设立了一个校本设计调查,把学生分为实验组和对照组。在试验组学生身上我利用互联网的技术,web 2.0平台和多媒体策略来教导文言文。这项以学生为主体的研究选择的篇章是大学预科班的 “华文与文学” 课程。 这调查结果确实显现了通过互动网络工具来学习文言文的学生,信息提取能力更强。他们的学习兴趣也比较高,测试表现比较好。尤其是当学习和测试相隔一段时间后,试验组学生的表现更为绝佳。
2011Constructing a Professional Development Framework for Chinese Language Pre-school Teachers in Singapore: Analysing a Nationwide Training Needs Survey
Lim. M. L., Tan, C. L., Toh, W. (2011). Constructing a Professional Development Framework for Chinese Language Pre-school Teachers in Singapore: Analysing a Nationwide Training Needs Survey.. In World Educational Conference in China (pp. 168-176). Beijing, Hong Kong (China): Ministry of Education, PRC., Secretariat of UNESCO in China.

为新加坡学前教育教师构建汉语言发展框架:全国培训需求调查解析
Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper is an analysis of the training needs of Chinese Language teachers in the construction of a professional development framework in preschools in Singapore.
 本文分析了汉语教师在新加坡幼儿园建立专业发展框架的培训需求。
2011The Biculturalism of Singapore Chinese Literature
 
新加坡华文文学的双文化性
Tan Chee LayKeynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 This keynote speech touches on the unique characteristics of biculturalism of Chinese literature in Singapore.
 本主题演讲探讨新加坡华文文学中中西双文化的独特性。
2011From Practice to Practical: Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language
Tan, C. L. (Ed.). (2011). From Practice to Practical: Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language. Nanjing: Nanjing University Press (in Chinese).  

行动与反思: 华文作为第二语言之教与学
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The book contains 16 papers by experts and scholars which explore and share the theory and strategy of teaching Chinese language as a second language as well as learners' methods and practical experience in using Chinese. The specific content includes five areas: theoretical practice, curriculum and teaching materials, pedagogies, information technology-assisted teaching, and teaching evaluation.
 本书共收录了专家学者的16篇论文。这16篇论文深入探讨与分享了华文作为第二语言教学理论与策略以及学习者使用华文的方法与实践经验。具体内容有华文作为第二语言的理论实践、课程与教材、教学法、资讯科技辅助教学以及教学评价等五个领域。
2011Multimedia Resource for Chinese Language Teaching: Teaching guide for CL B
Tan, C. L. Lim, K. W., Lin, Z. W., Puah, L. D, Lea, S. H. (2011). Multimedia Resource for Chinese Language Teaching: Teaching guide for CL B. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Press (in Chinese). 

中学华文B多媒体资源教师手册
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This multimedia resource is a teaching package developed by the Ministry of Education of Singapore Chinese Teaching and Research Center for Chinese B students in middle schools. The package includes four videos, an anime, a lesson plan, a teaching electronic briefing, a Chinese-English comparison table, an activity list and two teacher live video recordings. This package hopes to design meaningful teaching situations through teaching strategies, improve students' oral communication skills, and cultivate students' sentiment. The features of this package include the content familiar to students and the context provided by technology. It introduces different sentence patterns and reproduces each pattern for at least three times in the following practices. It also follows the principle of “ example first, then say, and then practice”, so that students can gradually master the knowledge and ultimately turn knowledge into ability.
 《这套多媒体资源是教育部委托新加坡华文教研中心为中学华文B学生开发的教学配套。本配套包括四个录像、一个动漫、教案、教学电子简报、中英文对照表、活动单和两个教师教学实况录像。本配套希望通过教学策略设计有意义的教学情境,提升学生的口语交际能力,并培养学生的情意。本配套的特点包括以学生熟悉的内容为主、借助科技提供情境、介绍了不同的句式并复现最少三次、遵循“先例,后说,再练”的原则,让学生逐步掌握知识,最终将知识转化为能力。
2011Teaching of Chinese Language and Literature in Singapore
Tan, C. L. (2011). Teaching of Chinese Language and Literature in Singapore. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University Press (in Chinese).

新加坡华文及文学教学
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 The dissertations in "Singapore Chinese and Literature Teaching" is mainly about the new strategy of Chinese teaching in Singapore, the new teaching method of Chinese literature and the introduction to education. In the context of Singaporean Chinese as a second language, Tan Chee Lay's article explores the environment, teaching materials and teaching methods of teaching Chinese and its literature. At the same time, according to the actual classroom conditions and limitations, it proposes innovative teaching modes, including drama, film, Information technology-assisted teaching, etc., which are of great reference value. Most of the articles in "Teaching of Chinese Language and Literature in Singapore" were published at the International Sinology Conference, Singapore Education Seminar, Teacher Symposium, Singapore Institute of Education and lectures by various universities. They are suitable for Chinese language educators and scholars in Singapore and other regions, especially for those teaching in secondary schools and above, as well as anyone interested in Chinese literature and cultural education.
 《新加坡华文及文学教学》收录的论述文章主要有关新加坡华文教学的新策略、华文文学的新教学法以及教育概论。在新加坡华文作为第二语言的语境中,陈志锐的文章深入探讨了华文与文学教学的环境、教材和教法,同时根据实际课堂情况与限制,提出了创新的教学模式,包括戏剧、电影、资讯科技辅助教学等,极具参考价值。《新加坡华文及文学教学》文章大多发表于国际汉学会议、新加坡教育研讨会、教师座谈会、新加坡教育学院及各学府的讲演等,适合新加坡以及其他地区的华文教育工作者及学者,特别是中学以上的华文作为第二语言教学和文学教学的工作者,以及任何有兴趣从事华文文学和文化教育的人士。
2011The Significant Europeanization Expressions found in Mao Dun’s work
Tan, K.C. (2011). The Significant Europeanization Expressions found in Mao Dun’s work. (Revised version). In Z.Y, Shan (Ed.), A Study of the East and West. (pp. 383-394). Shanghai: shanghai Guji publisher. 上海古籍出版社.

茅盾作品中的“欧化”表达
Tan Kar Chun Book Chapters
 Europeanization has a long history in modern Chinese. Since the early use of Chinese vernacular, Chinese writers in the May Fourth Movement had drawn lessons from the Western writers to be accurate and refine the expression of written vernacular Chinese. During this writing revolution, Chinese writers absorbed the linguistic features of the Western languages. Therefore, it will not be uncommon to have uncanny and abrupt experiences to read the literature works of the writers in this period. This is also true to Mao Dun, a famous modern Chinese writer. This paper aims at discussing the significance of the use of ‘hen’, ‘shi’, and ‘men’ to analyze the works of Mao Dun. Specifically, this paper intends to explore the Europeanization of the linguistic features in Mao Dun’s works. Evidence on how the language is used by him and what the differences between his and the language used by us nowadays are discussed in this paper.
 现代汉语中的欧化现象,由来已久。在白话文创建伊始,为了令白话文在表达能达臻更精确、细致的层面,“五四”作家多向西方文学取经;在学习的过程中,他们也把西方的一些语言特点,加以吸纳。也因此,在这些名家作品中出现让人读来甚感怪兀的欧式表达的句子,实不足为奇。即使是现代著名作家茅盾,也不能例外。本文拟从“很”、 “是” 及“们”的用法,加以探视茅盾用语的欧化特色。通过茅盾用语、以及对茅盾用语和我们现代用语的对比研究为本文提供研究实证。
2011Issues Concerning the Current Teaching of Chinese Grammar in Singapore
Chinese Language Learning, No.3, 105-112.

关于新加坡华语语法教学的若干思考
Xu FengJournal-Refereed
 This article first analyzes the current situation of the teaching of Chinese Grammar in Singapore, discussing the role of Chinese Grammar teaching and the Grammar Variances in Singapore Mandarin Teaching. It then discusses the principles and methods of teaching Mandarin grammar in Singapore by considering the change of the Language environment in the country. The paper claims that the Chinese Grammar Teaching should be emphasized. It also emphasizes that the first language of relevant learners must be used to facilitate the development of their second language.
 本文通过对新加坡华语语法教学现状的分析,提出必须对新加坡华语语法教学重新认识,并结合新加坡华语语言环境的变迁,讨论语法教学中语法变异的处理等问题。本文认为,在新加坡华语教学中必须强化语法教学,区分不同类型的语法变异,通过情景和任务教学法来构建儿童华语语法能力,强调应充分利用学习者的英语第一语言能力辅助实现华语语法能力的形成和发展。
2010Assessing Reading Comprehension in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language: A Singapore Model

汉语作为第二语言的阅读理解测试的新加坡模式
Choong Kok WengJournal-Refereed
 The article aims to propose a model of assessing reading comprehension in teaching Chinese as a second language in Singapore. It contains five sections. The first and second sections look into the models of assessment on PSLE and GCE ‘O’ level in Singapore as well as the models on HSK and TOP used internationally. The third section elaborates on the productive skills that are needed in higher order reading comprehension. The fourth section analyzes the requirements for different modes of questions in reading comprehension which require different comprehension skills and productive skills. The fifth section derives a model of assessing reading comprehension in teaching Chinese as a second language in Singapore context.
 本论文将以新加坡汉语阅读理解教学为基础,探讨汉语作为第二语言的阅读理解测试模式。本论文分为五节:第一节从新加坡现行汉语阅读理解测试入手,综述新加坡中小学汉语阅读理解测试的题型特色:第二节论述国际通用的“汉语水平考试”(HSK)、“华语文能力测验”(TOP)的设题结构和特点;第三节从阅读理解的四个层次,阐述学生在高层次的评价性和创造性阅读理解中所应具备的产出性能力和技巧;第四节从阅读理解的测试题型结构,分析不同类型的理解试题对学生阅读能力和产出性能力的不同要求;第五节从阅读理解和表达两方面,构建适合新加坡国情的汉语作为第二语言的阅读理解测试模式。
2010Analysis of the learner content creation process in a 1:1 mobile idiom learning environment
Wong, L. H., Chin, C. K., Tan, C. L., Liu, M., Zhan, Y. (2010). Analysis of the learner content creation process in a 1:1 mobile idiom learning environment. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computers in Education 2010 (pp. 352-359). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Putrajaya University.

分析在 1:1 流动成语学习环境里的学者内容创造程序
Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper reports a pilot study on mobile-assisted language learning that focused on both creative learner output and seamless learning. In learning Chinese idioms, students proactively used smartphones on a 1:1 basis to take photos in their daily lives, subsequently in-class or online sharing and discussions took place, enhancing the students’ understanding in the proper usage of the idioms. Our analysis of the student artefacts in both product- and process-oriented aspects reveals the students’ cognitive process and learning strategies during the course of content creation. The students’ ongoing, open-ended, personal-to-social meaning making process and learner-created authentic content have indeed shown some indicators of seamless language learning and induction-based peer learning that has the potential of transforming language learning into an authentic learning experience.
 本文报道使用流动电话协助成语学习的初步调查。这调查集中于学生创意成果和无缝学习。学生在学习华文成语时积极的使用智能手机,以 1:1的基础,将他们的日常生活拍摄下来,再参与课堂或线上讨论和分享,促进他们对成语正确使用的理解。在整个内容创造过程,以产品和过程为导向分析学生的成果透露出学生在创造内容时的认知和学习策略。学生在个人到群体的意义建构和学者创造内容中的持续和自由发挥显示无缝语言学习和基于归纳法同伴学习有潜能将语言学习改编成真正的学习体验。
2010A Delicate Touch - Essays on Chinese Influences and Chinese Genres
Tan, C.L. (2010). A Delicate Touch- Essays on Chinese Influences and Chinese Genres (PP. 118). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education.

Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 A Delicate Touch is a highly imaginative, original and powerful interpretation of literary ad performing works – including films, plays, novels, poems and even architecture – that are influenced by the Chinese cultures. Through careful and creative reading and rereading of these visual and written texts, with an attentiveness to the problematics of transcultural politics, this book sheds fresh light on how cross-cultural influences and exchanges have impacted traditional art forms and genres.
 《触》是对在中国文化影响下的文学和表演作品(包括电影,戏剧,小说,诗歌甚至建筑)的极富想象力和原创力的强大诠释。通过对书中视觉和书面文本仔细并创造性的阅读和重读,以及对跨文化政治中错综复杂的问题意识的关注,本书探讨了跨文化影响和交流对传统艺术形式和流派的冲击。
2009The Suitability and Practicality of Singapore's Modular Primary School Textbook in the Teaching of Chinese as a Second Language
Tan, C. L., Chin C. K., & Aw G. P. (2009). The Suitability and Practicality of Singapore's Modular Primary School Textbook in the Teaching of Chinese as a Second Language. In International Conference on Comparative Analysis of Primary and High School Chinese Textbook Proceedings (pp. 23-38). Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education, Taiwan, & National Taiwan Normal University.

新加坡模块化小学教科书在汉语作为第二语言教学中的适用性和实用性
Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 This report discusses the Suitability and Practicality of Singapore's Modular Primary School Textbook in the Teaching of Chinese as a Second Language in the Singapore context.
 本报告讨论了新加坡模块化小学教科书在新加坡汉语作为第二语言教学中的适用性和实用性。
2009Essays by Tan Chee Lay
Tan, C. L. (2009). Essays by Tan Chee Lay (PP. 234). Singapore: The Youth Book Co.

仙人掌散文系列-陈志锐卷
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book is a collection of proses written by Dr. Tan Chee Lay.
 本书是陈志锐博士的散文选集
2009Newspaper in Education, Teachers' Guidebook 1
Tan, A. H., Tan, C. L., Ong, H. Y. (Ed.). (2009). Newspaper in Education: Teachers' Guidebook 1. Singapore: Lianhe Zaobao, Ministry of Education & Singapore Centre for Chinese Language, NTU.

报纸要你好看!——读报教育教学手册
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 Turn newspaper materials into textbooks and assist teachers in systematic using newspapers in teaching reading classes. The manual is divided into three volumes (S1, S2, and S3), including lesson plans, activity sheets, activity cards, and teaching CDs. Each year's manual has 10 lesson plans, citing news from various Chinese newspapers (including pictures, charts, advertisements, etc.) as examples in compiling lesson plans.
 《报纸要你好看!——读报教育教学手册》将报章素材转为教材,协助老师进行系统化的读报教育课。手册分为三册(中一、中二、中三),包含教案、活动单、活动卡和教学光碟。每一年级的手册有10个教案,引用各华文报章的新闻(包括图片、图表、广告等)为例子,编成教案。
2009Newspaper in Education, Teachers' Guidebook 2
Tan, A. H., Tan, C. L. Ong, H. Y. (Ed.). (2009). Newspaper in Education, Teachers' Guidebook 2. Singapore: Lianhe Zaobao, Ministry of Education & Singapore Centre for Chinese Language, NTU. 

报纸要你好看!——读报教育教学手册
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 Turn newspaper materials into textbooks and assist teachers in systematic using newspapers in teaching reading classes. The manual is divided into three volumes (S1, S2, and S3), including lesson plans, activity sheets, activity cards, and teaching CDs. Each year's manual has 10 lesson plans, citing news from various Chinese newspapers (including pictures, charts, advertisements, etc.) as examples in compiling lesson plans.
 《报纸要你好看!——读报教育教学手册》将报章素材转为教材,协助老师进行系统化的读报教育课。手册分为三册(中一、中二、中三),包含教案、活动单、活动卡和教学光碟。每一年级的手册有10个教案,引用各华文报章的新闻(包括图片、图表、广告等)为例子,编成教案。
2009Newspaper in Education, Teachers' Guidebook 3
Tan, A. H., Tan, C. L., Ong, H. Y. (Ed.). (2009). Newspaper in Education, Teachers' Guidebook 3. Singapore: Lianhe Zaobao, Ministry of Education & Singapore Centre for Chinese Language.

报纸要你好看!——读报教育教学手册
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 Turn newspaper materials into textbooks and assist teachers in systematic using newspapers in teaching reading classes. The manual is divided into three volumes (S1, S2, and S3), including lesson plans, activity sheets, activity cards, and teaching CDs. Each year's manual has 10 lesson plans, citing news from various Chinese newspapers (including pictures, charts, advertisements, etc.) as examples in compiling lesson plans.
 《报纸要你好看!——读报教育教学手册》将报章素材转为教材,协助老师进行系统化的读报教育课。手册分为三册(中一、中二、中三),包含教案、活动单、活动卡和教学光碟。每一年级的手册有10个教案,引用各华文报章的新闻(包括图片、图表、广告等)为例子,编成教案。
2006Huang Se Yu Yi (Yellow Raincoat)
Tan, C. L. (2006). Huang Se Yu Yi (Yellow Raincoat) (PP. 178). Singapore: Firstfruits Publications.

黄色雨衣
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 A book of prose collection on being Chinese in Singapore.
 一本关于作为新加坡华人的散文集
2004Sir's Homework: prose and short story collection for students
Tan, C. L. (2004). Sir's Homework: prose and short story collection for students (PP. 184). Singapore: The Youth Book Co..  

老师的作业本
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 "Sir's Homework" is mainly about the essays and novels that Tan Chee Lay published in "Friday Weekly" and asked six of his students to preface and comment. This narrows the distance between the teacher and his students, breaks the gap lying in between and enables both sides progress together. While being touched by their teacher's works, the students also made a pertinent opinion for his new book.
 这本《老师的作业本》收录的主要是陈志锐在《星期5周报》所发表过的散文和小说,并请六名他的学生作序并点评,借此拉近和学生的距离,打破以往老师与学生间的尊卑隔阂,共同进步 。学生们感动于老师的作品的同时,也为老师的新书提出了中肯的意见。
2002Zao Jian Di (Where Swords are Forged): Selected Poems: 1998-2000
Tan, C. L. (2002). Zao Jian Di (Where Swords are Forged): Selected Poems: 1998-2000 (PP. 84). Singapore: Firstfruits Publications.

造剑地, 陈志锐诗集 1998-2000
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 A poetry collection selected from 1998-2000.
 收录了1998年到2000年的诗歌选集
2000An Atmospheric Study of Bai Xian Yong's Tai Bei Ren
Tan, C. L. (2000). An Atmospheric Study of Bai Xian Yong's Tai Bei Ren. In Woo, P. K. (Ed.) Modern Chinese Literature Conference - Proceedings (pp. 16-18). Singapore: Hwa Chong Junior College.

白先勇的《台北人》中的氛围营造研究
Tan Chee LayConference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper studies the strategy used by Bai Xian Yong in cultivating atmosphere for the context of "Tai Bei Ren".
 本文研究了白先勇在《台北人》中运用的氛围营造策略
2000Ge An Guan Wo - Tan Chee Lay's literary critical and creative writings
Tan, C. L. (2000). Ge An Guan Wo - Tan Chee Lay's literary critical and creative writings (PP. 240). Singapore: Hwa Chong Junior College. 

隔岸观我:陈志锐文集
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book is an excerpt of the collection of proses and novels written by Tan Chee Lay during his studies in Taiwan.
 本书摘录了陈志锐在台留学至返新后,这段期间所写的散文和小说集。
1999Selected Poetry of Tan Chee Lay
Tan, C. L. (1999). Selected Poetry of Tan Chee Lay (PP. 122). Singapore: Singapore Literature Society.

陈志锐诗选
Tan Chee LayUniversity Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book is a collection of poetry written by Dr. Tan Chee Lay.
 本书是陈志锐博士的诗歌选集
YearTitle
AuthorType
2019The Use of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Malay - A Critical Discourse Analysis

Muhammad Irwan Jamal. (2019). Penggunaan ICT dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran ICT Bahasa Melayu - Satu Analisis Wacana Kritis in Tan C L (EIC), Choong K W, A Ra Sivakumaran & Dr Mohamed Aidil Subhan (Eds.) (2019). Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation: Re-envisioning Mother Tongue Languages Education in Singapore. Singapore: National Institute of Education

Penggunaan ICT dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran ICT Bahasa Melayu - Satu Analisis Wacana Kritis
Muhammad Irwan JamalConference Presentations (with publication)
  This is an initial study on the discourses of ICT used in the Malay Language Seminar organised by the Malay Language Centre of Singapore. The Discourse Analysis framework is used to analyse research papers that were contributed by teachers for the seminar proceedings. The papers were analysed using Halliday's (1994) Transitivity System and van Leeuwen's socio-semantic structures in detecting agency or social action as a social construct through other language expressions. The impact of these micro findings is then seen in macro lenses through the social, economic and cultural context of Singapore.
 Kajian ini merupakan kajian rintis mengenai wacana penggunaan ICT dalam Seminar Bahasa Melayu anjuran Pusat Bahasa Melayu Singapura. Rangka Analisis Wacana Kritis dimanfaatkan untuk meneliti kertas-kertas kajian yang disumbang oleh para guru bagi prosiding seminar tersebut. Salah satu daripada prosiding tersebut dipilih untuk kajian ini. Dalam meneliti kertas-kertas kajian tadi, rangka analisis oleh Michael Halliday (1994) melalui Sistem Transitiviti dan rangka sosio-semantik van Leeuwen (1995) yang melanjutkan kerja Halliday untuk mengesan meneliti agensi atau tindakan sosial sebagai konstruk sosial melalui ekspresi bahasa yang lain. Kesan dapatan mikro ini kemudian dilihat dalam lensa makro melalui konteks sosiopolitik, ekonomi, pendidikian dan sosiobudaya negara.
2019Raising the bar on mother tongue language education

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2019). Raising the bar on mother tongue language education. In C. L. Tan, K. W. Choong, A. R. Sivakumaran, & M. A. Subhan (Eds.), Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation: Re-envisioning Mother Tongue Languages Education in Singapore (pp. 9-16). Singapore: National Institute of Education, NTU & Singapore Centre for Chinese Language Limited, NTU

Meningkatkan Kayu Ukur Pendidikan Bahasa Ibunda
Mukhlis Abu BakarBook Chapters
  Singapore is well known for its bilingual policy which prescribes “English plus one of the official ethnic mother tongues”. The Ministry of Education is the primary agency that translates this bilingual policy into effect, namely in the realm of education. This paper invites readers to rethink the goal of bilingualism in education, in particular the goal of mother tongue (MT) language education and argues for the need to revisit the system of prescribing English as the only medium of instruction for all content subjects while the MT figures only as a second language subject. The new sociolinguistic landscape where English has displaced the MT in almost all domains calls for a reinterpretation of the bilingual language policy in education if the long-term goal of keeping Singaporeans connected to their cultural roots through their MTs is to be realised. It suggests putting in place a new aspiration for Singapore’s young bilinguals and offers a strategy that expands the role of the MT in education as a means to nurture balanced and dynamic bilinguals.
 Singapura terkenal dengan dasar dwibahasa bahasa Inggeris dan salah satu bahasa ibunda etnik rasmi. Kementerian Pendidikan adalah agensi utama yang menterjemahkan dasar dwibahasa ini ke dalam bidang pendidikan. Makalah ini mengajak pembaca untuk memikirkan semula tujuan dwibahasa dalam pendidikan, khususnya tujuan pendidikan bahasa ibunda, dan mengajukan pendapat perlunya mengkaji semula sistem yang meletakkan bahasa Inggeris sebagai satu-satunya bahasa pengantar untuk semua mata pelajaran isi sementara bahasa ibunda hanya sebagai subjek bahasa kedua. Landskap sosiolinguistik terkini di mana bahasa Inggeris telah menggantikan bahasa ibunda dalam hampir semua domain kehidupan menuntut pentafsiran semula mengenai dasar dwibahasa dalam pendidikan sekiranya tujuan jangka panjang untuk memastikan warga Singapura tetap terhubung dengan akar budaya mereka melalui bahasa ibunda mereka tercapai. Ia menyarankan agar mewujudkan aspirasi baru untuk pengamal dwibahasa muda Singapura dan menawarkan strategi yang memperluas peranan bahasa ibunda dalam pendidikan sebagai alat untuk memelihara dwibahasa yang seimbang dan dinamis.
2019Encouraging Independence and Interdependence in Assessment: Moving Towards Assessment for Learning in Heritage Language Classrooms in Singapore

Rawi, Roszalina (2019). Encouraging Independence and Interdependence in Assessment: Moving Towards Assessment for Learning in Heritage Language Classrooms in Singapore. In IAFOR (Ed.), The Asian Conference on Education 2019: Official Conference Proceedings (pp. 845-860). Naka Ward, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan: IAFOR.

Peranan guru bahasa warisan mendorong kebebasan dan sikap saling bergantungan dalam penilaian
Roszalina Binte Rawi Conference Presentations (with publication)
  This conference paper discusses how heritage language teachers can encourage independence and interdependence in assessment within the Singapore education landscape. What are the assessment for learning moves that a teacher can make to promote meaningful learning and promote learners’ autonomy?
 Makalah persidangan ini membincangkan bagaimana guru bahasa warisan dapat mendorong kebebasan dan sikap saling bergantungan dalam penilaian dalam lanskap pendidikan Singapura. Apakah penilaian yang dapat menggerakkan pembelajaran dab boleh dilaksanakan oleh guru untuk menggalakkan pembelajaran yang bermakna dan mempromosikan autonomi pelajar?
2018Rethinking Madrasah Education in a Globalised World

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2018) (Editor). Rethinking Madrasah Education in a Globalised World. London & New York: Routledge

Memikirkan Semula Pendidikan Madrasah dalam Dunia Global
Mukhlis Abu BakarScholarly Book (Refereed)
  In a globalised world where boundaries are blurred and ideologies are in transition, where science and modern technologies become ever more present and demographic changes bring on new societal pressures, we are confronted with new and emerging educational challenges. How one lives one’s faith in the face of such circumstances and how one engages with the challenges are issues that are increasingly relevant in this day and age. This book explores these issues in the context of madrasah education. Over the centuries, madrasahs have been instrumental in circulating the knowledge and practice of the Muslim faith. They have succeeded in laying down taxing standards for students and the larger community to seamlessly connect religious beliefs to behaviour. However, they have been less successful, for the most part, in affecting the intellectual transformation of contemporary Muslim societies, especially in the field of religious thought. Consisting of 15 chapters and preceded with an introduction, this book argues for the need for the madrasah to rethink education for Muslim children, to re-envision an education that provides for their holistic development, and to foster a worldview where critical thinking, an ethical code of conduct and a scientific outlook are prequisites for addressing issues in a globalised world. A concern for many nations, in particular Muslim-minority nations, is how to address the increasing demands for robust intellectual capacity and simultaneously nurture the development of sound, moral and spiritual citizens. The book offers a glimpse into the modernising process at work and the extent it is successful through contemporary examples in selected countries.
 Dalam dunia global yang yang mana sempadan antara negara menjadi kabur dan ideologi berada dalam peralihan, yang mana sains dan teknologi moden muncul dengan banyaknya dan perubahan demografi memberi tekanan baru kepada masyarakat, kita menghadapi cabaran pendidikan yang baru. Bagaimana manusia dapat hidup dengan kepercayaan masing-masing dalam keadaan seperti ini dan bagaimana mereka menangani cabaran tersebut adalah isu-isu yang semakin relevan pada zaman ini. Buku ini meneroka isu-isu ini dalam konteks pendidikan madrasah. Sejak dahulu lagi, madrasah telah memainkan peranan penting dalam menyampaikan pengetahuan dan amalan kepercayaan umat Islam. Ia telah berjaya meletakkan standard tinggi untuk pelajar dan masyarakat untuk menghubungkan agama dan tingkah laku dengan lancar. Walau bagaimanapun, ia kurang berjaya melaksanakan transformasi intelektual masyarakat Islam kontemporari, terutama dalam bidang pemikiran agama. Mengandungi 15 bab yang didahului Pengenalan, buku ini menghujahkan bahawa madrasah perlu memikirkan semula pendidikan untuk anak-anak Islam, untuk mereka semula pendidikan yang menyediakan perkembangan holistik anak-anak ini, dan memupuk pandangan dunia yang mana pemikiran kritis, kod etika dan pemikiran saintifik adalah prasyarat untuk menangani isu-isu dalam dunia global. Kebimbangan banyak negara, khususnya negara-negara yang mempunyai penduduk minoriti Islam, adalah bagaimana untuk menangani permintaan yang semakin meningkat untuk keupayaan intelektual yang mantap dan pada masa yang sama memupuk pembangunan masyarakat yang bermoral dan berspiritual. Buku ini menawarkan sekilas pandangan terhadap proses pemodenan yang sedang berlangsung dan sejauh mana ia berjaya melalui contoh-contoh kontemporari di negara-negara terpilih.
2017Children Learning to Read with Dual Language Storybooks

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2017). Kanak-kanak Belajar Membaca Menggunakan Buku Cerita Dwibahasa [Children Learning to Read with Dual Language Storybooks]. International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation (Iman), 5(2), 29-41

Kanak-kanak Belajar Membaca Menggunakan Buku Cerita Dwibahasa
Mukhlis Abu BakarJournal-Refereed
  In Singapore's education system, two languages exist in isolation: English is the language of instruction for all core subjects such as Mathematics and Science while the Mother Tongue is learned as a subject. In a society where English is the dominant language, this is not an approach that can best produce students who are comfortable and proficient in the Mother Tongue besides English. Indeed, more children in Singapore are growing up in homes where English is now the preferred language which threatens the viability of the Mother Tongue as an everyday language. In an effort to develop children’s interest in Malay and their capacity to read in the language, the study reported in this paper examined the value of a strategy that involved preschool Malay children and their families doing shared reading in both Malay and English using dual language storybooks. Ten preschoolers participated in reading sessions with their parents at home and with their friends in school for six months. Analysis of field notes and interview data indicate that children were aware of the differences in the structure of words, sounds and spelling across languages. Parents used dual language strategies which included code switching, translation and bilingual vocabulary. A particular strength of bilingual books is the scaffolding they provide children with to read in a language they are weak in. Parents play an important role in helping their children learn to become additive bilinguals in a situation in which they were losing the active use of their mother tongue.
 Dalam sistem pendidikan Singapura, dua bahasa wujud secara berasingan: bahasa Inggeris bahasa pengantar bagi semua mata pelajaran teras seperti Matematik dan Sains manakala bahasa Ibunda dipelajari sebagai satu mata pelajaran. Kajian antarabangsa menunjukkan bahawa pendekatan ini, dalam suasana kehidupan masyarakat yang didominasi bahasa Inggeris, bukanlah yang terbaik untuk menghasilkan pelajar yang selesa dan cekap menggunakan bahasa Ibunda di samping bahasa Inggeris. Kadar kanak-kanak Singapura yang lebih kerap menggunakan bahasa Inggeris di rumah daripada bahasa Ibunda telah meningkat tahun demi tahun menjejaskan pelestarian bahasa Ibunda sebagai bahasa seharian. Dalam usaha mengembalikan minat dan keupayaan kanak-kanak Melayu membaca dalam bahasa Melayu, kajian yang dilaporkan dalam kertas kerja ini menyelidiki nilai strategi yang melibatkan kanak-kanak prasekolah membaca bersama ibu bapa dan rakan sebaya dalam bahasa Melayu dan Inggeris dengan menggunakan buku cerita dwibahasa. Sepuluh kanak-kanak prasekolah menyertai sesi membaca dengan ibu bapa mereka di rumah dan dengan rakan-rakan di sekolah selama enam bulan. Analisis nota lapangan dan data temu bual menunjukkan bahawa kanak-kanak sedar akan perbezaan binaan kata, bunyi bahasa dan ejaan antara bahasa. Penggunaan strategi merentas bahasa termasuk amalan dwibahasa yang meliputi alih kod, terjemahan, dan pembinaan kosa kata dwibahasa. Satu kekuatan khusus buku dwibahasa ialah perancah yang disediakan bagi membantu kanak-kanak membaca dalam bahasa yang mereka belum kuasai. Peranan ibu bapa penting dalam memberi sokongan agar anak-anak dapat menggunakan Bahasa Ibunda dengan baik di samping Bahasa Inggeris dalam suasana yang mana kanak-kanak ini sudah mula tidak menggunakan bahasa Ibunda dengan aktif.
2017The impact of Malay Language teachers’ early assessment habitus on classroom assessment procedures

Binte Rawi, R (2017). The impact of Malay Language teachers’ early assessment habitus on classroom assessment procedures. SARJANA, 32(1), 11-20.

Kesan habitus penilaian awal guru Bahasa Melayu terhadap prosedur penilaian bilik darjah
Roszalina Binte Rawi Journal-Refereed
  This journal article discusses the impact of Malay Language teachers’ early assessment habitus on their classroom assessment procedures. How has their past experiences shaped their current assessment beliefs and practices, and to what extent does this impact their Malay Language teaching?
 Artikel jurnal ini membincangkan kesan habitus penilaian awal guru Bahasa Melayu terhadap prosedur penilaian bilik darjah mereka. Bagaimana pengalaman masa lalu mereka membentuk kepercayaan dan amalan penilaian mereka dan sejauh mana ini mempengaruhi pengajaran Bahasa Melayu mereka?
2017Schools’ endeavor to ‘humanize’ Malay language testing through Assessment for Learning (AfL)

Sa'eda Buang (2017). Schools’ endeavor to ‘humanize’ Malay language testing through Assessment for Learning (AfL). Paper presented at World Council of Curriculum and Instructions-ASEAN Conference 2017, Quezon City, Philippines.

Upaya sekolah 'memanusiawikan' pengujian bahasa Melayu melalui Penaksiran untuk Pembelajaran (AfL)
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (with publication)
  This paper discusses how the practice of AfL is able to humanise language testing by fielding the efforts of 24 teachers from 10 Primary and Secondary schools to install Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices in the teaching of teacher-made assessment tasks for the Malay language. Rationale for and samples of the AfL practices form the main part of this paper.
 Kertas ini membincangkan bagaimana amalan penilaian untuk pembelajaran (AfL) dapat memanusiawikan ujian bahasa dengan menunjukkan usaha 24 orang guru daripada 10 sekolah rendah dan menengah melaksanakan AfL dalam pengajaran dan tugasan-tugasan penilaian bahasa Melayu olahan guru. Rasional dan contoh-contoh amalan AfL menjadi perhatian utama kertas ini.
2017Early Childhood - Language and Moral Development

Sa'eda Buang (2017). Melentur rebung melalui bahasa (Early Childhood - Language and Moral Development). Keynote Address, Seminar Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu, Singapore.

Melentur rebung melalui Bahasa
Sa’eda Buang Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
  Paper presented as a keynote speaker for the seminar on Teaching and Learning of Malay language for early childhood organized by the PAP Foundation. In this paper, the notion of language refinement as a tool in developing a child’s critical thinking, morality and language skills are highlighted. Various case studies from other researches were also shared.
 Kertas sebagai penyampai utama yang dibentangkan di seminar pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa untuk pendidikan awal anak-anak ini membincangkan kepentingan kesantunan bahasa sebagai alat untuk membina kemahiran berfikir, pembangunan moral dan bahasa kanak-kanak. Beberapa kajian kes turut dibincangkan.
2016Teaching Islam to Children in Multicultural Singapore

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2016). Teaching Islam to Children in Multicultural Singapore. In Michael A. Peters (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory (pp. 1-4). Singapore: Springer.

Mengajar Islam kepada Kanak-kanak di Singapura yang Berbilang Budaya
Mukhlis Abu BakarBook Chapters
  Educating a child spiritually has been the domain of the family, while provision of religious education, an extension of the child’s religious upbringing. However, religious education, as with any type of education, is never the independent or neutral imparting of information in relation to the teaching and learning of texts and languages but rather it projects power relations. This paper reports on Muslim parents’ beliefs on what is appropriate religious education for their children as they express their opinion on the pedagogy and curriculum of the state-approved Islamic religious education programme that their children attend. It is part of a larger study of two weekend Islamic religious education programmes for young Muslim children. In the semi-structured interviews with parents of 20 children, two lines of argument can be discerned: one is the desire to nurture what Boyle would consider an embodied spirituality, the other an attempt at cultivating good citizenry. The paper concludes with a discussion on the aims and practice of religious education and how it is impacted by the increasingly interconnected and shrinking global world.
 Mendidik anak dari segi kerohanian telah menjadi domain keluarga, sementara penyediaan pendidikan keagamaan merupakan lanjutan dari pendidik agama anak itu. Walau bagaimanapun, pendidikan agama, seperti mana-mana jenis pendidikan, tidak pernah merupakan penyebaran maklumat yang berlaku secara bebas atau neutral berhubung dengan pengajaran dan pembelajaran teks dan bahasa tetapi sebaliknya ia memperlihatkan hubungan kuasa. Makalah ini melaporkan kepercayaan ibu bapa Islam tentang pendidikan agama yang sesuai untuk anak-anak mereka apabila mereka menyatakan pendapat mereka mengenai pedagogi dan kurikulum program pendidikan agama Islam anak-anak mereka yang diluluskan pemerintah. Ini adalah sebahagian daripada kajian yang lebih besar terhadap dua program pendidikan agama Islam hujung minggu untuk anak-anak kecil Islam. Dalam wawancara separa berstruktur dengan ibu bapa 20 orang kanak-kanak, dua jenis hujahan dapat diperhatikan: pertama, keinginan untuk memupuk apa yang Boyle anggap sebagai kerohanian seseorang, satu lagi percubaan untuk memupuk rakyat yang baik. Makalah ini menyimpulkan dengan perbincangan mengenai tujuan dan amalan pendidikan agama dan bagaimana ia dipengaruhi oleh dunia global yang semakin saling terhubung dan mengecil.
2016Transmission and Development of Literacy Values and Practices: An ethnographic study of a Malay family in Singapore

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2016). Transmission and Development of Literacy Values and Practices: An ethnographic study of a Malay family in Singapore. In Silver, R. E. & Bokhorst-Heng, W. D. (Eds.), Quadrilingual Education in Singapore: Pedagogical Innovation in Language Education (pp. 33-64). Singapore: Springer

Penyampaian dan Perkembangan Nilai dan Amalan Literasi: Kajian Etnografi Keluarga Melayu di Singapura
Mukhlis Abu BakarBook Chapters
  In this chapter, ethnographic methods are used to illustrate some of the dynamic relationships involved in the transmission and development of literacy practices in a Malay family in Singapore. Interactions between parents, between parents and the children, and between the home and the school all contribute to the nature of reading and writing practices in the home. The picture that emerges adds to the literature on the effects of children’s home language experience on their school performance. This chapter also documents the influence from the opposite direction, that is, the impact of school literacy practices on what happens in the home. While school-type literacy practices are usually typical of middle-class homes including that of Malay families, in the family reported in this chapter, school experience is mediated in particular ways by parents’ personal histories, religion, occupation, and by the experience of the older siblings.
 Dalam bab ini, kaedah etnografi digunakan untuk menunjukkan beberapa hubungan dinamik yang terlibat dalam penyampaian dan pembangunan amalan literasi dalam keluarga Melayu di Singapura. Interaksi antara ibu bapa, ibu bapa dan anak-anak, dan antara rumah dan sekolah semuanya menyumbang kepada amalan membaca dan menulis di rumah. Penjelasan yang muncul menambah kepada khazanah ilmu mengenai kesan pengalaman bahasa rumah kanak-kanak terhadap prestasi sekolah mereka. Bab ini juga memaparkan pengaruh dari arah yang bertentangan, iaitu, kesan amalan literasi sekolah terhadap apa yang berlaku di rumah. Walaupun amalan literasi jenis sekolah biasanya tipikal yang terdapat di rumah kelas menengah termasuk keluarga orang Melayu, dalam keluarga yang dilaporkan dalam bab ini, pengalaman sekolah disusun dengan cara tertentu oleh sejarah peribadi, agama, pekerjaan, dan pengalaman adik beradik yang lebih tua.
2016Inculcation of Malay Values and Culture in Language Pedagogy in Singapore.

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2016). Inculcation of Malay Values and Culture in Language Pedagogy in Singapore. In Silver, R.E. & Bokhorst-Heng, W.D. (Eds.), Quadringal Education in Singapore: Pedagogical Innovation in Language Education (pp. 247-271). Singapore: Springer.

Penyemaian Nilai dan Budaya Melayu dalam Pedagogi Bahasa di Singapura.
Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah Book Chapters
  This chapter explains in detail the elements of values covered in Primary 1 and 2 textbooks and workbooks that have been published by CPDD, MOE. As BM is the repository for cultural and normative values that form the central tenets of life in the Malay society, as well as the ‘Arif Budiman’ concept that all Malay students are expected to realise, this chapter has successfully covered all the various aspects of values and culture, which have been included either directly or indirectly, ensuring that the message is understood by the books’ target audience, students from Primary 1 and 2. Having used the triangulation method for data collection, that is, the observation analysis in classrooms as well as detailed textual analysis, it seems that the values embedded in the texts have been unearthed thoroughly. The value components found in the textbooks include kindness, respect, graciousness, thrift/wise spending, love, hard work, helping one another, and responsibility. On top of that, cultural elements that were uncovered include clothing, traditional games, marriage customs, ceremonies, and Hari Raya, as well as the custom of eating using hands. Classroom observation as well as transcripts of teacher and student conversations show a level of afore-mentioned value application during teaching that is somewhat awkward as teachers place a greater emphasis on teaching grammar.
 Bab ini mencerakin unsur-unsur nilai yang terangkum dalam buku teks dan buku kerja bagi darjah satu dan dua yang telah diterbitkan oleh pihak CPDD, MOE. Oleh kerana BM menjadi wadah penyambung budaya dan nilai kehidupan yang menjadi teras kepada cara hidup masyarakat Melayu, serta konsep arif budiman yang menjadi matlamat yang diharapkan akan tercapai oleh para pelajar Melayu, maka bab ini telah berjaya mencungkil kesemua aspek nilai dan budaya yang dirangkumkan secara langsung atau tidak langsung bagi memampukan mesej itu dapat diserapkan dalam jiwa pembaca buku tersebut iaitu kanak-kanak dalam darjah satu dan dua. Kaedah triangulasi yang dimanfaatkan bagi mengumpul data, iaitu analisis pemerhatian bilik darjah serta analisis teks yang teliti, nampaknya kandungan elemen nilai berjaya dicungkil dengan menyeluruh. Di antara komponen nilai yang dijumpai dalam buku teks adalah seperti nilai baik hati, hormat menghormati, berbudi bahasa, berjimat cermat, sayang menyayangi, berkerja keras/rajin, tolong menolong dan bertanggungjawab. Di samping itu, elemen budaya yang berjaya dicungkil adalah aspek pakaian, permainan tradisional,adat perkahwinan, majlis kenduri dan hari raya serta buda makan dengan menggunakan tangan.Pemerhatian bilik darjah serta transkripsi perbualan guru dan murid menunjukkan peringkat pengaplikasin nilai-nilai tersebut dalam pengajaran agak genjot kerana para guru lebih memberatkan pengajaran tatabahasa secara khusus.
2016Developing Assessment for Learning Practice in a School Cluster: Primary and Secondary Teachers Learning Together

Swaffield, S., Rawi, R. & O'Shea, A. (2016). Developing Assessment for Learning Practice in a School Cluster: Primary and Secondary Teachers Learning Together. In D. LEvault & L. Allal (Eds.), Assessment for Learning: Meeting the Challenge of Implementation, The Enabling Power of Assessment 4. Springer Dordrecht.

Mengembangkan Amalan Penilaian untuk Pembelajaran di Kluster Sekolah: Guru Sekolah Rendah dan Menengah Belajar Bersama
Roszalina Binte Rawi Book Chapters
  The nature of professional development for the sustained implementation of assessment for learning (AfL) is a pressing and perennial challenge. So too are pupils transfering between schools. This chapter explores how cross-phase collaborative learning supports the development of AfL practice. Teachers from a secondary school and its seven feeder primary schools worked together using three principles of AfL derived from previous research to assist analysis of existing practices, to plan developments, and to scaffold discourse. The value of this approach was revealed by data gathered through questionnaires and interviews with teachers in the working group, along with observations of workshops at which participant teachers shared their work with other teachers, who were also invited to complete a questionnaire. It is suggested that AfL, underpinned by the principles of making learning explicit, promoting learning autonomy, and focusing on learning, can act as a pedagogical unifier across age ranges and subjects and thus aid pupil transfer. Recommendations are proposed for teachers, policymakers, and particularly school leaders.
 Isu pembangunan profesional untuk pelaksanaan penilaian untuk pembelajaran (AfL) adalah cabaran yang mendesak dan berterusan. Begitu juga dengan hal peralihan murid antara sekolah. Bab ini menerangkan bagaimana pembelajaran kolaboratif yang merentas fasa, menyokong perkembangan amalan AfL. Guru-guru dari sebuah sekolah menengah dan tujuh sekolah rendah saluran bekerjasama menggunakan tiga prinsip AfL, berasaskan penyelidikan awal, untuk membantu menganalisis amalan, merancang perkembangan, dan menyokong perbincangan tentang pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Nilai pendekatan ini dilihat melalui data yang dikumpul menerusi borang soal selidik dan temu bual bersama guru dalam kumpulan kerja. Pemerhatian juga dilaksanakan ketika bengkel di mana guru peserta berkongsi kerja mereka dengan guru-guru lain, yang turut dijemput untuk memberi maklum balas melalui borang soal selidik. Bab ini mencadangkan bahawa perlaksanaan AfL, yang disokong oleh prinsip-prinsip: 1) menjadikan pembelajaran jelas, 2) mempromosikan autonomi pelajar, dan 3) memberi tumpuan kepada pembelajaran, boleh bertindak sebagai pengantara pedagogi merentas umur pelajar dan subjek serta seterusnya, dapat membantu dalam peralihan murid. Bab ini juga mengemukakan cadangan untuk guru, penggubal dasar, dan terutama sekali pemimpin.
2016Assessment for learning for students’ achievements: continuous endeavours by schools to ‘humanize’ language testing

Sa'eda Buang (2016). Penilaian untuk pembelajaran demi pencapaian pelajar: usaha berterusan sekolah ‘memanusiawi’ pengujian bahasa (Assessment for learning for students’ achievements: continuous endeavours by schools to ‘humanize’ language testing). Keynote Address, National Seminar on Assessment for Learning: An Introspection, Singapore.

Penilaian untuk pembelajaran demi pencapaian pelajar: usaha berterusan sekolah ‘memanusiawi’ pengujian bahasa
Sa’eda Buang Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
  This keynote highlights the efforts of 24 teachers from 10 Primary and Secondary schools to install Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices in the teaching of teacher-made assessment tasks for the Malay language. Rationale and samples of the AfL practices form the main part of this paper. More importantly, how the practice of AfL is able to humanise language testing is critically analysed.
 Kertas ucaptama ini mengetengahkan usaha 24 guru dari 10 sekolah rendah dan sekolah menengah menjalankan Penilaian untuk Pembelajaran (AfL) dalam pengajaran bahasa Melayu, dan juga tugasan-tugasan yang dibina oleh guru. Rasional dan contohan amalan-amalan mereka merupakan inti utama kertas ini. Bagaimana amalan AfL ini memanusiawi pengujian bahasa dianalisis secara kritis.
2014Learning Malay Proverbs through Aurasma

Julinda Hassan & Muhammad Irwan Jamal (2014). Malay Language Seminar 2014: Menyemai Bahasa, Menuai Budi. 180-190.

Pembelajaran Peribahasa Melalui Aplikasi Aurasma
Muhammad Irwan JamalProfessional Publications
  Teachers tend to meet a dead end when it comes to explaining the aesthetic, philosophical and intellectual value inherent in Malay proverbs. In fact, many teachers adopt a purely explicit way of teaching Malay proverbs. This study explores a teaching strategy that utilizes the Teaching for Understanding (TfU) framework and the use of Aurasma, a smart phone application that leverages the use of augmented reality. The findings of the study suggests that the interactive nature of the application makes the lesson not only fun but also experiential and relevant to the way they make implicit meanings of the knowledge gained from the Malay proverbs.
 Para guru sering bertemu dengan jalan buntu apabila tiba masanya untuk memperlihatkan nilai estetik, falsafah dan keintelektualan yang sedia ada dalam peribahasa Melayu. Malah, guru-guru kadang kala menyerah kalah lalu menggunakan pendekatan pengajaran eksplisit kerana inginkan anak didiknya untuk meraih markah yang baik bagi komponen peribahasa dalam kertas peperiksaan. Kertas ini akan mengutarakan strategi pengajaran yang dijalankan di Sekolah Menengah Ngee Ann selama sepenggal bagi 24 orang pelajar Menengah Satu yang mengambil kursus Bahasa Melayu / Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan. Ia berpandukan rangka kerja pengajaran Teaching for Understanding (TfU) dan dibantu oleh kecanggihan aplikasi telefon bijak dan tablet, Aurasma. Sebelum kajian dijalankan, para pelajar diminta untuk mencatatkan perasaan dan pendapat jujur mereka mengenai pengajaran dan pembelajaran peribahasa di Sekolah Menengah Ngee Ann sejauh ini. Pascakajian, maklum balas mereka juga diminta sebagai data kualitatif. Dengan ini, objektif kajian untuk memastikan para pelajar lebih memahami dan menghayati peribahasa secara implisit boleh dicapai.
2014Employing Bilingual Practices and Developing Bilingualism and Biliteracy through Reading Dual-language Books

Mukhlis Abu Bakar & Nurul Taqiah Yussof (2014). Employing Bilingual Practices and Developing Bilingualism and Biliteracy through Reading Dual-language Books. In Ting, S. H., Kayad, F. G., Jerome, C., & Rethinasamy, S. (Eds.) Proceedings of International Conference on Language Studies 2014 (iCLS 2014), Kuching (pp. 161-167). Kota Samarahan, Malaysia: Centre for Language Studies

Menggunakan Amalan Dwibahasa dan Membangunkan Dwibahasa dan Dwiliterasi melalui Pembacaan Buku Dwibahasa
Mukhlis Abu BakarConference Presentations (with publication)
  This paper reports on one particular finding which emerged from a Singapore study of young Malay children reading bilingual English-Malay books. Observations were conducted at home and in school to explore the utility of these books in developing children’s biliteracy. Focussing on a range of language behaviours that can be considered as ‘bilingual practices’ such as code-switching and translating, the purpose of this paper is to explore how these practices were used by the mothers as strategies to help their children read and make sense of the books. Data analysis shows that the use of these practices influences the language behaviour of children initially considered as English dominant. The role of the mothers were integral in introducing these practices and in encouraging their children to learn these practices as tools to develop their biliteracy.
 Makalah ini melaporkan satu dapatan khusus yang muncul daripada kajian di Singapura ke atas anak-anak kecil Melayu yang membaca buku dwibahasa Melayu-Inggeris. Pemerhatian dijalankan di rumah dan di sekolah untuk meneroka penggunaan buku-buku ini dalam membangunkan biliterasi kanak-kanak. Dengan menumpukan perhatian kepada pelbagai tingkah laku bahasa yang boleh dianggap sebagai 'amalan dwibahasa' seperti menukar kod dan menterjemah, makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji bagaimana amalan ini digunakan oleh para ibu sebagai strategi untuk membantu anak-anak mereka membaca dan memahami buku-buku tersebut. Analisis data menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan amalan ini mempengaruhi tingkah laku bahasa kanak-kanak yang pada awalnya dianggap sebagai dominan dalam bahasa Inggeris. Peranan ibu adalah penting dalam memperkenalkan amalan-amalan ini dan menggalakkan anak-anak mereka supaya mempelajari amalan-amalan ini sebagai alat untuk membangunkan biliterasi mereka.
2014Distinctiveness and Uniformity: Teaching Language in Singapore Primary Grades 1 & 2

Silver, R. E., Curdt-Christiansen, S., Abdullah, R., Lakshmi, S., Yanning, Y. (2016). Distinctiveness and Uniformity: Teaching Language in Singapore Primary Grades 1 & 2. In Silver, R. E. & Bokhorst-Heng, W. D. (Eds.), Quadrilingual Education in Singapore (pp. 153-180). Singapore: Springer.

Kepelbagaian dan Keseragaman: Pengajaran Bahasa bagi Darjah 1 dan 2 di Singapura
Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah Book Chapters
  This chapter presents data from a study of primary 1 and 2 (P1 and P2) lessons for Chinese, English, Malay and Tamil. There are few, if any, comparative studies which examine pedagogy in all four official languages in Singapore; therefore, our primary purpose is to investigate how classroom teaching is similar or different for the four languages. For this investigation, data are drawn from 62 lessons observed in 2009 after new language syllabi were introduced. Despite a continuing policy of maintaining separate teaching teams, materials, syllabi/curricula and teacher training for each language, many of the policies for language and education apply across all four languages. These include recent emphasis on oral skill development, recommendations that schools develop more engaging pedagogies for young learners and common policies on assessment. Our data shows that teaching across the four languages are remarkably similar, which we take to be evidence of the impact of the common policies and cultural beliefs about language education in Singapore primary schools.
 Bab ini membentangkan data dari kajian pelajaran Bahasa Cina, Inggeris, Melayu dan Tamil darjah 1 dan 2. Hanya terdapat beberapa kajian yang membandingkan pedagogi yang digunakan dalam semua bahasa rasmi Singapura. Tujuan utama adalah untuk menyiasat sejauhmanakah pengajaran dalam bilik darjah berbeza atau sama bagi empat bahasa yang berbeza. Data dikumpul daripada 62 pemerhatian terhadap pengajaran dalam bilik darjah pada tahun 2009,iaitu selepas silibus baru untuk bahasa diperkenalkan. Walaupun terdapat pasukan pengajaran, bahan-bahan, silibus yang berbeza bagi setiap bahasa, kebanyakan polisi untuk bahasa and pendidikan adalah sama dan boleh digunakan untuk kesemua empat bahasa. Ini termasuk penekanan yang diberi pada kemahiran lisan, penggunaan pedagogi yang lebih melibatkan pelajar yang muda dan polisi yang sama keatas penilaian. Data kami menunjukkan pengajaran merentasi empat bahasa sangat mirip, kerana polisi dan amalan budaya mengenai pendidikan yang sama bagi sekolah rendah di Singapura.
2013A Workshop on Malay Grace, Goodness and Courtesy

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). A Workshop on Malay Grace, Goodness and Courtesy, held at NIE on 6 June 2013.

Perkhemahan Adab dan kesantunan Melayu
Hadijah Rahmat Workshops
  This workhop discussed on the concept and philosophy of Grace, Goodness and Courtesy in Malay culture and the approaches and strategies to teach to the subjects to achieve the vision of Arif Budiman (the learned person who contributes to society) in 21th century. It was conducted to train a pioneer group of teachers who awarded as 'Guru Ariff Budiman' and Master teachers in Malay language. It was jointly organised by NIE and MLLPC/MOE.
 Bengkel ADAB, BUDI DAN KESANTUNAN MELAYU - Strategi Pendidikan Untuk Memupuk Arif Budiman Abad 21 membincangkan konsep dan falsafah Adab, Budi dan Kesantunan dalam Kebudayaan Melayu dan pendekatan serta strategi untuk mendidik unsur-unsur tersebut untuk mencapai Visi Arif Budiam pada abad ke-21. Ia diadakan untuk melatih sekumpulan guru perintis Arif Budiaman dan guru pakar dalam bahasa Melayu. Bengkel ini anjuran bersama NIE dan MLLPC, Kementerian Pendidikan Singapura.
2013BYOD Empowers Students

Muhammad Irwan Jamal, Julinda Hassan, Sarimah Ahmad & Nurulhuda Ab Hamid (2013). Malay Language Seminar 2013: Bahasa dan Jati Diri Melayu. 133-144.

BYOD Perkasa Pelajar
Muhammad Irwan JamalProfessional Publications
  A disengaged student may be scared, shy and/or bored in the classroom. This study explores a teaching strategy that aims to increase the level of confidence and interest among students through the use of ICT devices and tools in the classroom. In encouraging the use of digital devices in the lessons, this study also explores its utilization for the purpose of teaching, learning and assessment. In the end, the findings of the study suggests a shift in perspective among the students can be seen in that they regard the use of digital devices as not only a fun way to learn but it has become a relevant need in making the Malay language lesson more engaging and meaningful.
 Kegentaran, keseganan dan kebosanan merupakan ciri-ciri ketara yang dimanifestasikan oleh para pelajar yang tidak [mahu] terlibat dalam sesebuah sesi pengajaran di dalam kelas. Kertas ini akan mengetengahkan strategi pengajaran yang dijalankan di Sekolah Menengah Ngee Ann dalam meningkatkan keyakinan dan minat malah, mengubah perspektif para pelajar untuk lebih terlibat dalam sesi pelajaran yang dijalankan di bilik darjah. Strategi pengajaran ini menerapkan pendekatan BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) dan dipandu pedagogi yang memanfaatkan aplikasi-aplikasi telefon bijak dan tablet sebagai wahana pengajaran, pembelajaran dan penilaian. Sinergi dan kesinambungan antara isi, alat dan aplikasi merupakan tunggak utama dalam memastikan kejayaanpendekatan BYOD. Melalui strategi ini, pasukan pengkaji bertujuan untuk menggembleng potensi para pelajar selaku pribumi digital dan kecanggihan teknologi aplikasi telefon bijak dan tablet untuk menghidupkan pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu. Dapatan kajian ini memperlihatkan anjakan perspektif para pelajar bukan hanya dalam keseronokan mempelajari bahasa Melayu, malah juga kerelevanan dan keperluannya dalam membentuk jati diri mereka.
2012QR Code: The Expository Essay

Muhammad Irwan Jamal, Julinda Hassan, Sarimah Ahmad & Ramna Johana (2012). Malay Language Seminar 2012: Kecekapan Berbahasa dan Penghayatan Nilai dalam Pendidikan Abad ke-21. 78-92.

Kod QR: Karangan Ekspositori
Muhammad Irwan JamalProfessional Publications
  Students cite ‘the lack of ideas, material and strategies’ to tackle an expository essay question during the examination. This study explores a teaching strategy to promote an interest among students to write an expository essay. Capitalizing on the Gradual Release of Responsibilty (GRRF) and the use of QR Codes as a tool for self-motivation and self-directed learning. The findings of the study point towards an improved quality of language use, ideas and coherence in the essays written by the students.
 Ketandusan idea, kekurangan bahan dan kekaburan struktur esei acap kali dijadikan alasan para pelajar untuk mengelak daripada menjawab soalan karangan ekspositori. Kertas ini akan mengetengahkan strategi pengajaran yang dijalankan di Sekolah Menengah Ngee Ann dalam memupuk minat para pelajar menengah tiga untuk menangani soalan-soalan karangan jenis ekspositori. Strategi pengajaran ini turut memanfaatkan rangka kerja Gradual Release of Responsibilty (GRRF) dan pedagogi yang menggunakan kod QR sebagai alat rangsangan dan pembelajaran kendiri. Via strategi ini, pasukan pengkaji bertujuan untuk mengadunkan kemahiran digital para pelajar dan kecanggihan teknologi terkini yang ketara dalam wadah dan aplikasi telefon bijak. Dapatan kajian ini memperlihatkan peningkatan prestasi para pelajar bukan hanya dalam aspek laras dan mutu bahasa, malah juga kepadatan dan kerelevanan isi yang dikemukakan dalam esei-esei mereka.
2012Learning and Spirituality in Young Muslim Children

Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2012). Learning and Spirituality in Young Muslim Children. Journal of Religious Education, 60(3), 25-34.

Pembelajaran dan Kerohanian dalam Kalangan Kanak-kanak Islam
Mukhlis Abu BakarBook Chapters
  This paper reports on one particular finding which emerged from a Singapore study of young Muslim children attending the last year of a four-year Islamic education weekend program. The program provides the 5-8 year old young learners with a learning environment in which they not only memorise Qur’anic verses but also learn the relevance of Islamic values and practices in their daily lives through activities which are age-appropriate. Learning in the program is perceived to be holistic in that it recognises the roles of thinking (cognitive), feeling (affective) and reflecting (spiritual) as complementary within the learning process. Children’s account of what they have learnt suggests the emergence of the interplay between these learning dimensions. Such interplay, as argued in this paper, may lead to transformative learning experiences even as the program itself is concerned with a particular outcome (i.e., convergence with the Islamic worldview).
 Makalah ini melaporkan satu dapatan khusus yang muncul daripada kajian di Singapura terhadap anak-anak kecil Islam yang menghadiri tahun akhir program pendidikan Islam yang berjalan pada hujung minggu selama empat tahun. Program ini menyediakan pelajar-pelajar kecil berusia 5-8 tahun dengan persekitaran pembelajaran di mana mereka bukan sahaja menghafal ayat-ayat al-Qur'an tetapi mempelajari juga kerelevanan nilai-nilai dan amalan Islam dalam kehidupan seharian melalui aktiviti-aktiviti yang bersesuaian dengan usia mereka. Pembelajaran dalam program ini dianggap holistik kerana ia mengiktiraf peranan berfikir (kognitif), perasaan (afektif) dan renungan (spiritual) sebagai pelengkap dalam proses pembelajaran. Penceritaan kanak-kanak tentang apa yang mereka pelajari menunjukkan kewujudan hubungan antara dimensi-dimensi pembelajaran tersebut. Interaksi berkenaan, seperti yang dibincangkan dalam makalah ini, boleh membawa kepada pengalaman pembelajaran transformatif walaupun program itu sendiri tertumpu kepada hasil tertentu (iaitu mencapai keselarian dengan pandangan dunia dari sudut agama Islam).
2012From laissez-faire to standardized tests to holistic assessments: efforts to infuse “high intellectual quality” into the Malay language assessment tasks in Singapore

Sa'eda Buang (2012, January). From laissez-faire to standardized tests to holistic assessments: efforts to infuse high intellectual quality into the Malay language assessment tasks in Singapore. In Ministry of Education, Republic of Kazakhstan & The International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA). (Eds.), International Conference on Assessments: Designing the assessment of learning outcomes to make positive impact on individuals and institutions, 1, 1-15.

Dari corak laissez-faire ke pengujian standard ke penaksiran secara menyeluruh: pelbagai usaha untuk menyisipkan "kualiti daya pemikiran yang tinggi" ke dalam tugasan pengujian bahasa Melayu di Singapura
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (without publication)
  This paper traces the development of assessment practices of Malay school and in Malay language as a subject when Malay school was abolished in 1980s due to the growing importance of national schools in Singapore. While the narrative of assessment reforms of the Malay school and the Malay language forms the first part of this paper, the second part covers recent efforts to infuse “authentic intellectual quality” into teachers’ assessments tasks. The criteria of “authentic intellectual quality” are discussed.
 Kertas ini membincangkan perkembangan amalan-amalan penilaian di sekolah Melayu dan dalam subjek bahasa Melayu apabila sekolah Melayu ditutup pada 1980-an akibat semakin bertambah pentingnya sekolah nasional di Singapura. Reformasi penilaian di sekolah Melayu dan bahasa Melayu dibincangkan di bahagian awal kertas ini. Manakala bahagian kedua kertas ini meliputi usaha-usaha terkini untuk menyisipkan ‘kualiti intelektual autentik’ ke dalam tugasan-tugasan olahan guru. Kriteria ‘kualiti intelektual autentik’ akan juga dibincangkan.
2011Sharpening Students’ Understanding through Video Comprehension

Muhammad Irwan Jamal, Julinda Hassan, Sarimah Ahmad & Ramna Johana (2011). Sharpening Students’ Understanding through Video Comprehension. Malay Language Seminar 2011: Memperkasa Guru, Mempercekap Pelajar – Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu dalam Abad ke-21. 147-157.

Mempertajam Pemahaman Pelajar Melalui Kefahaman Video
Muhammad Irwan JamalProfessional Publications
  Students tend to lift wholly from the text as they attempt to answer questions in the reading comprehension component. This paper explores a teaching strategy that encourages students to use their own words in answering reading comprehension questions. This strategy leverages on the Teaching for Understanding (TfU) framework, Socratic questioning and the use of videos as [con]texts. The findings of the study would enable the research team to focus on the skill sets needed to equip students to be confident in answering the comprehension question in their own words.
 Keratan frasa dan potongan ayat yang dicedok bulat-bulat daripada petikan karangan sering menjadi tabiat buruk para pelajar ketika menjawab soalan kefahaman subjektif. Kertas ini akan membentangkan strategi pengajaran yang dijalankan di Sekolah Menengah Ngee Ann dalam menggalakkan para pelajar menengah satu untuk menjawab soalan-soalan kefahaman dengan menggunakan ayat-ayat mereka sendiri. Strategi pengajaran ini turut memanfaatkan rangka kerja Pengajaran untuk Pemahaman (TfU) dan Penyoalan Socratic (Socratic Questioning) serta pedagogi yang menggunakan klip video ringkas sebagai [kon]teks. Secara tidak langsung, pasukan pengkaji berusaha untuk memperhalusi kemahiran dan kecenderungan yang sedia ada dalam diri para pelajar selaku pribumi digital agar dapat diterima pakai dalam konteks akademik dan formal. Dapatan kajian amat berguna dalam mempersiap dan memperlengkapkan para pelajar dengan set kemahiran tertentu memandangkan komponen kefahaman subjektif membentuk peratusan yang signifikan dalam kertas peperiksaan yang bakal diduduki para pelajar.
2011Character Building Through the Teaching of Malay language

Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah (2011). Penerapan Nilai dan Budaya Melayu dalam Pengajaran Bahasa di Singapura. In Maslin Haji Jukim (Ed.), Persidangan Antarabangsa Pengajian Melayu (pp. 332- 353). Brunei DS, Brunei: Universiti Brunei Dasrussalam.

Penerapan Nilai dan Budaya Melayu dalam Pengajaran Bahasa di Singapura
Roksana Bibi binte Abdullah Book Chapters
  The application of value and culture is done consciously through the teaching of Malay language in schools in Singapore. These moral values are applied through selected topics in Malay textbooks, as well as aspects of Malay tradition and culture introduced through various Malay language teaching strategies in schools. Aspects of the application of these values and Malay culture are described based on observations conducted on Malay language teaching at sixteen primary schools for Primary 1 and 2 in Singapore, and the disclosure of textbooks used.
 Penerapan nilai dan budaya menjadi satu usaha yang secara sedar dilakukan melalui pengajaran bahasa melayu di sekolah-sekolah di Singapura. Nilai-nilai murni ini diterapkan melalui beberapa topik terpilih dalam buku-buku teks bahasa Melayu; serta aspek tradisi dan budaya Melayu diperkenalkan melalui pelbagai strategi pengajaran bahasa Melayu di sekolah. Melalui pemerhatian pengajaran bahasa Melayu di enam belas sekolah rendah bagi darjah satu dan dua di Singapura serta penyingkapan buku-buku teks yang digunakan, aspek penerapan nilai dan budaya Melayu ini telah dihuraikan.
2011Civilizing the Civilization Studies to developing ‘inclusive’ character

Sa'eda Buang (2011, June). Civilizing the Civilization Studies to developing ‘inclusive’ character. In University of Science Malaysia (Ed.), Empowering the Humanities in Upholding Heritage, Knowledge, People and Nature, International Conference on Humanities 2011, 1, 1-20.

Menyantuni pengajian ketamadunan demi membina sifat inklusif
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (with publication)
  Civilisational studies has the potential to develop inclusivity and individuals who are inclusive. This paper approaches inclusivity from the standpoint of man as responsible global citizen. To ‘civilising’ civilisational study and to establish inclusivity it suggests a revisit to the conception of ethics and politeness advocated by al-Jahiz (776AD-869AD) and Ibn Khaldun (1332AD – 1406AD).
 Pengajian ketamadunan yang ditawarkan di Jabatan Bahasa dan Kebudayaan Melayu, Institut Pendidikan Nasional, Singapura, merupakan satu bidang sains kemanusiaan yang agak baru diperkenalkan di peringkat Sarjana Muda Pendidikan. Walaupun demikian, ia mempunyai potensi yang sangat baik sebagai wadah pembinaan insan yang inklusif atau terangkum. Pengertian inklusif di sini dilihat dari sudut falsafah Arif Budiman yang berharap melahirkan insan yang berilmu dan menyumbang kepada masyarakat‘. Visi Arif Budiman menjadi teras kurikulum, pembelajaran dan pengajaran bahasa Melayu di sekolah-sekolah di Singapura. Di samping itu, kertas ini juga mendekati pengertian inklusif dari aspek kesedaran individu sebagai warga dunia yang bertanggungjawab. Kertas kerja ini menyarankan bahawa usaha menyantuni pengajian ketamadunan dapat membantu mencapai matlamat melahirkan insan yang sedemikian rupa dengan mengambil kira konsep kesantunan dan etika tajaan al-Jahiz (776M-869M) dan sudut pandangan sosiologi Ibn Khaldun (1332M – 1406M) mengenai ketamadunan.
2011Model of Teacher Training in Singapore: a sharing

Sa'eda Buang (2011, June). Model Program Pendidikan Guru di

Model Program Pendidikan Guru di Singapura: Satu Perkongsian Singapura: Satu Perkongsian. Paper presented at Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Profesi Guru, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (without publication)
  This paper puts forth teacher training in Singapore as a case study. Theories, approaches, and methods that form the basis of this model are discussed.
 Kertas ini mengutarakan program pendidikan guru di Singapura sebagai bahan contohan. Pelbagai teori, pendekatan dan kaedah yang menjadi dasar program ini dibincangkan.
2005Use of newspapers to enhance multiple intelligences

Saeda Buang (2005). Akhbar penggalak kecerdasan pelbagai (use of newspapers to enhance multiple intelligences). Paper presented at Making News: Teach All about it, organised by English language and Literature Teachers Association & Singapore Press Holdings Foundation, Hotel Grand Hyatt, Singapore, Singapore.

Akhbar penggalak kecerdasan pelbagai
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (without publication)
  This paper reinforces the importance of multiple intelligence as a pedagogical method to establish effective teaching. The use of newspapers as a learning tool to accentuate students’ multiple intelligence is highlighted.
 Kertas ini mengajukan keperluan guru mengajar secara berkesan melalui pendekatan Kecerdasan Pelbagai. Penggunaan akhbar sebagai alat pengajaran yang dapat mencungkil dan menjulang kecerdasan pelbagai pelajar ditekankan.
YearTitle
AuthorType
2020Tamil and Tamilians in Singapore

காரைக்குடி, இந்தியா: அழகப்பா அரசு கலைக்கல்லூரித் தமிழ்த்துறை,

சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழும் தமிழரும்
Raman Vimalan Conference Presentations (with publication)
  This article is based on the migration of Tamils to Singapore, the circulation of the Tamil language and the recognition of the Tamil language, the study of Tamil language education and the development of the literary field, and the historical background of the Tamils and their life development in the social, economic and political conditions.
 சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழர்களின் குடியேற்றமும் தமிழ்மொழியின் புழக்கத்தையும், தமிழ்மொழிக்கான அங்கீகாரத்தையும் பின்புலமாகக்கொண்டு, தமிழ்மொழிக் கல்வி குறித்தும் இலக்கியத்துறை வளர்ச்சி பற்றியும் குறித்தும் இக்கட்டுரை ஆராய்கிறது. மேலும், தமிழர்களின் வரலாற்றுப் பின்னணியையும் அவர்களின் வாழ்வியல் மேம்பாட்டையும் சமூக, பொருளாதார, அரசியல் நிலைகளில் ஆராய்ந்து வெளிப்படுத்துவதாய் இக்கட்டுரை அமைந்துள்ளது.
2020ICT in Tamil Teaching and Learning Past-Present-Future

Harnessing technology and its multi-faceted approach in Blended Learning. இணைய வளம்: Pages: 143-149. ஏற்பாடு: Sponsored by INFITT, and Co-Sponsored by University of Moratuwa, Srilanka and Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu.

கலவைமுறைக் கற்றலில் தொழில்நுட்ப வளங்களின் பன்முகப் பயன்பாடு
Raman Vimalan Conference Presentations (with publication)
  During Covid-19, ICT-based learning is the most prioritised in education. For teaching, we emphasised on blended learning during this period. We used ICT tools to prepare lessons, teaching, marking, assessment and resources. This research paper tells us how important these ICT tools are in blended learning.
 கொவிட்-19 சூழலில் தொழில்நுட்பவழிக் கற்றல் முன்னிலைப்படுத்தப்பட்டது. இச்சூழலில் கலவை முறைக் கற்றல் செல்வாக்குப் பெற்றது. கற்றல் கற்பித்தலில் பாடவளம், பாடத்தயாரிப்பு, கற்பித்தல், மதிப்பீடு ஆகிய தளங்களில் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் பங்கையும் பணியையும் பற்றி ஆராய்வதாக இக்கட்டுரை அமைகிறது.
2019Usage of Information and Communication Technology in Tamil Language Teaching

Usage of Information and Communication Technology in Tamil Language Teaching. In Tan C L (EIC), Choong K W, A Ra Sivakumaran & Dr Mohamed Aidil Subhan (Eds.) (2019). Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation: Re-envisioning Mother Tongue Languages Education in Singapore. Singapore: National Institute of Education.

தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலில் தகவல் தொடர்புத் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் பங்கு
Balasubramanian Mohan Kumar Conference Presentations (with publication)
  In the current teaching world, Information and Communication Technology plays a vital role. ICT is a tool which enhances pupils’ learning and understanding of any key concept. Great emphasis has been placed on integrating ICT with lessons. The youth today are highly responsive to and connected to the digital platform. Lessons can be made more innovative and interactive with the help of ICT tools. Tamil Language teaching and learning for students is made fun through ICT. Some popular tools include videos, the use of interactive tools such as iPads and computers. These help to direct the students towards learning and discovering on their own. When students are tasked to discover and learn on their own, they become more engaged in their learning. For instance, students who face difficulties reading could learn to read better with the assistance of e-books. This could be done both at home and in school.

Two-way communication skills, in both speaking and writing is one of the emphasis in Mother Tongue teaching. This skill can be cultivated in students by planning ICT-infused lessons. For example, blogging. Blogging is a platform where students are free to express their opinions, experience and learning. Lot of Tamil resources are available online. Schools can train and encourage students to develop these resources as well. E-books and topic-based podcasts could be amongst those initiatives. The use of ICT is also able to effectively connect parents with the learning of their children. Educational platforms allow learning to take place at home. Television and radio broadcasts in Tamil can now be found online. Students can both watch and listen to relevant shows and develop their interests in learning Tamil Language.
 இன்றைய உலகில் கற்பித்தல் புலத்தில் தகவல், தொடர்புத் தொழில்நுட்பம் இன்றியமையாப் பணியைச் செய்து வருகிறது. தகவல் தொடர்புத் தொழில்நுட்பம் மாணவர்கள் எந்த ஒரு முக்கியமான கருத்தமைவையும் பற்றிக் கற்பதையும் அதைப் புரிந்துகொள்வதையும் மேலும் எளிதாக்கி மேம்படுத்துகிறது. பாடங்களுடன் தகவல் தொடர்புத் தொழில்நுட்பத்தை இணைப்பது இன்று முக்கியக் கவனத்தையும் இடத்தையும் பெற்று வருகிறது. இன்றைய இளையர்கள் எண்மத் துறை சார்ந்த கூறுகள்பால் தங்களை இணைத்துக்கொள்வதுடன் அது சார்ந்த எதிர்பார்ப்புகளுக்குத் தம் செயல்பாடுகள்வழியே பதில் தருவதில் முக்கிய இடம்பெறுகின்றனர். தகவல் தொடர்புத்தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் துணையுடன் பாடங்களைக் கூடுதல் புத்தாக்கம், இடைவினையாடல் கூறுகள் ஆகியன நிறைந்த முறையில் மேம்படுத்தலாம். தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலைத் தகவல் தொடர்புத் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் உதவியுடன் இன்னும் சுவாரசியமிக்கதாக ஆக்க இயலும். காணொளிகள், ஐபேட், கணினிகள் போன்ற இடைவினையாடல் கருவிகள் உட்படப் பல புகழ்பெற்ற கருவிகளை இங்கு குறிப்பிடலாம். இவை மாணவர்கள் தாமே தம் கற்றலில் ஈடுபடவும் அவர்கள் சுயமாகப் பலவற்றைக் கண்டறியவும் வழி செய்கின்றன. மாணவர்கள் ஒன்றைச் சுயமாக் கண்டறியும் பணியில் ஈடுபடுத்தப்படும் அவர்கள் தாங்கள் சுயமாகக் கற்பதுடன் தங்களது கற்றலில் அவர்கள் மேலும் ஆழமாக ஈடுபடுவோராகத் தம்மை மேம்படுத்திக்கொள்வர். எடுத்துக்காட்டுக்கு, வாசித்தலில் சிரமங்களை எதிர்நோக்கும் மாணவர்கள் மின்புத்தகங்களைப் படிக்கும்போது தங்கள் சிரமங்களிலிருந்து தாமே வெளிவருகின்றனர். அவர்கள், இத்தகு வாசிப்புப் பணிகளை மாணவர்கள் வீட்டிலும் வகுப்பிலும் மேற்கொள்ளலாம்.

தற்போது, தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலில் காலத்துக்குக்காலம் பல கூறுகள் முக்கியத்துவம் பெற்று வருகின்றன. அவை தொடர்ந்து வலியுறுத்தப்பட்டும் வருகின்றன. அவற்றுள் ஒன்றாக, பேசுதலிலும் எழுதுதலிலும் இருவழிக் கருத்துப்பரிமாற்றத் திறன்கள் வலியுறுத்தப்பட்டு வருகின்றன. இத்தகு இருவழிக் கருத்துப்பரிமாற்றத் திறனைத் தகவல் தொடர்புத் தொழில்நுட்பத்தைப் பாடங்களில் இணைக்கும்வகையிலான பாடத்திட்டமிடலின் உதவியுடன், மாணவர்களிடையே மேம்படுத்தலாம். வலைத்தலளங்களை உருவாக்கி மாணவர்கள் தங்கள் கருத்துகளையும் அனுபவங்களையும் கற்றலையும் பகிர்ந்துகொள்ள வழிகள் வகுக்கின்றன. இத்தகு வளங்கள் இன்று இணையத்தில் ஏராளமாகக் கிடைக்கின்றன. பள்ளிகள் மாணவர்களுக்கு இத்தகைய வளங்களை உருவாக்குவதுகுறித்துப் பயிற்சியும் ஊக்கமும் அளித்து புதிய படைப்புகளைப் படைக்க வழி காட்டலாம். அத்தகைய முனைப்புகளுள், மின்புத்தகங்களும் பாட்காஸ்ட் எனப்படும் தலைப்புகளை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்ட ஒலிச்சித்திரங்களை உருவாக்குவதையும் இங்குக் குறிப்பிடலாம். தகவல் தொடர்புத்தொழில்நுட்பப் பயன்பாடு, பெற்றோரை அவர்களது குழந்தைகளின் கற்றலுடன் எளிதில் இணைக்கும் பாலமாக அமைந்து உதவுகிறது. கல்வி சார்ந்த இணைய வசதிகள், இல்லத்திலும் கற்றல் இடம்பெற வழி சமைக்கின்றன. தமிழில் அமைந்த வானொலி, தொலைக்காட்சி ஒலி, ஒளிபரப்புகளும் இணையத்தில் கிடைக்கின்றன. மாணவர்கள் அவற்றில் தங்களுக்கு ஏற்புடைய படைப்புகளைக் கேட்டும் பார்த்தும் மகிழ்வதுடன் தமிழ் மொழி கற்றல் குறித்த தங்களது விருப்பங்களை மேம்படுத்திக்கொள்ளலாம்.
2019Teaching Tamil Language Through Traditional Games and Songs

Teaching Tamil Language Through Traditional Games and Songs In Tan C L (EIC), Choong K W, A Ra Sivakumaran & Dr Mohamed Aidil Subhan (Eds.) (2019). Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation: Re-envisioning Mother Tongue Languages Education in Singapore. Singapore: National Institute of Education.

பாரம்பரிய விளையாட்டுகள், பாடல்கள் வழியே தமிழ்மொழியைக் கற்பித்தல்
Sasikumar Ponnalagu Book Chaptersram
  Our traditional games and game-based songs have cultural values. As such, we would like to teach our students these traditional games and game-based songs for better understanding of our values and integrating them into their daily lives. Our traditional songs have an array of benefits which include the teaching of correct pronunciation. When these songs are practiced aloud, the students will be able to recognize and pronounce Tamil alphabets in the proper manner. In the past, people lived as joint-families. However, in our current modern world, most of them are living with their separate families. As such, they do not have sufficient knowledge and exposure with regards to the proper kinship terms. Most of the traditional Tamil game-based songs include Tamil kinship terms, Tamil names of flowers, names of the 12 Tamil Months, and names of the 60 Tamil years. All these, can be taught easily through our Tamil game-based songs. By singing the songs, students can build on their vocabulary. Self-directed learning is one important aspect amongst the 21st CC skills. These songs equip our students skills necessary to meet the challenges of the globalized world today as well as enhancing their psychological learning. While playing these traditional games, students tend to learn more from their peers as compared to their parents and teachers. Many Tamil students face problems in reading Tamil fluently. Practicing our game-based songs will help to recognize, speak and read Tamil without much difficulties, making them more fluent in reading. Most of the songs have values and deep meanings, which boost the morale of students allowing them to have a greater sense of esteem. In all, we would like to reiterate that teaching and learning through Tamil game-based songs is enjoyable, enriching and fulfilling.
 நமது பாரம்பரிய விளையாட்டுகளும் அவ்விளையாட்டுகள் தொடர்பான பாடல்களும் விழுமியப் பண்புகள், பண்பாட்டுக் கூறுகள், வாழ்வியற்செய்திகள் போன்றனவற்றைக் கொண்டுள்ளன. எனவே அவற்றை மாணவர்களுக்கு அவர்களது அன்றாட வாழ்வில் இணைத்துப் பயன்படுத்துவதற்கு ஏதுவாக, நாம் பாரம்பரிய விளையாட்டுகளையும் விளையாட்டுகளை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்ட பாடல்களையும் கற்றுத்தர விரும்புகிறோம். மேலும் நமது பாரம்பரிய விளையாட்டுப் பாடல்களை மொழிப்பாட வகுப்பறைகளுக்குள் கொண்டு சென்று மாணவர்களின் மொழிவளம், உச்சரிப்பு, சொல்வளம் முதலிய அம்சங்களை மேம்படுத்த முடியும். மாணவர்கள் இப்பாடல்களை வாய்விட்டு உரக்கச் சொல்வதால் அவர்களால் தமிழ் எழுத்துகளைச் சரியாக அடையாளங்கண்டு உச்சரிக்க முடிகின்றது. முன்பு மக்கள் கூட்டுக்குடும்பங்களில் வாழ்ந்து வந்தார்கள். தற்போதைய நாகரிக உலகில் பெரும்பாலானோர் தனிக்குடும்பங்களில் வாழ்ந்து வருகின்றனர். இதனால் மாணவர்களுக்குத் தங்களது உறவுப்பெயர்கள் குறித்து அதிக அளவில் தெரிந்துகொள்ளும் வாய்ப்புகள் இல்லாமல் போகிறது. பெரும்பாலான தமிழ்ப் பாரம்பரியப்பாடல்கள் தமிழ் உறவுப்பெயர்கள், பன்னிரண்டு தமிழ் மாதங்களின் பெயர்கள், அறுபது தமிழ் வருடங்களின் பெயர்கள் ஆகியவற்றைத் தம்முள் கொண்டுள்ளன. இவற்றைத் தமிழ் விளையாட்டுகளை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்ட பாடல்களின் வழியாக மாணவர்களுக்குக் கற்றுக்கொடுக்கலாம். பாடல்களைப் பாடுவதற்கான ‘வாயிலா’க மாணவர்கள் தங்களது சொற்கோவையை மேம்படுத்திக்கொள்ளலாம். இன்றைய இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டுப் போட்டித்திறன்களில் ஒன்றான சுயமுனைப்புடன் கூடிய கற்றல் திறனையும் மாணவர்கள் தங்களுக்குள் கட்டமைத்துக்கொள்ளலாம். இப்பாடல்கள் நமது மாணவர்களின் இன்றைய உலகில் தென்படும் சவால்களை எதிர்நோக்கிச் சமாளித்து வாழும் திறன்கனையும் அவர்களது உளவியல் கற்றலையும் மேம்படுத்துகின்றன. மாணவர்கள், தங்கள் பெற்றோரிடமும் ஆசிரியர்களிடமும் இருந்து கற்றுக்கொள்வனவற்றுடன் ஒப்பிடும்போது, தங்கள் வயதொத்த பிள்ளைகளுடன் இத்தகு பாரம்பரிய விளையாட்டுகளை விளையாடுவதன் வாயிலாக அதிக அளவில் கற்றுக்கொள்கிறார்கள். இன்று தமிழ் மாணவர்களில் அதிகமானோர் வாசிப்பதில் சிரமங்களை எதிர்நோக்குகிறார்கள். விளையாட்டுகளுடன் கூடிய பாடல்களைப் பாடிப் பயிற்சி பெறுவதன் வாயிலாகத் தமிழை அடையாளம் கண்டு பேசவும் வாசிக்கவும் அதிலும் குறிப்பாகச் சரளமாக வாசிக்கும் திறனையும் பெறுகிறார்கள். பெரும்பாலான பாடல்கள் விழுமியங்களையும் ஆழமான பொருள்களையும் தம்முள் கொண்டிருப்பதால் மாணவர்களின் தன்னம்பிக்கையையும் தம் மீதான மதிப்புணர்வையும் அதிகப்படுத்துகின்றன. எனவே இத்தகு விளையாட்டுகளை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்ட பாடல்களை, மாணவர்கள் உற்சாகத்துடன் அனுபவத்திடவும் தங்களை வளப்படுத்திக்கொள்ளவும் மனநிறைவுடன் கூடிய முழுமைத்தன்மையைப் பெற்றிடவும் வழிகாட்டும்வகையில் தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலில் பயன்படுத்துவது சிறந்ததாகும். இவ்வாறு பாரம்பரிய விளையாட்டுகளாலும் விளையாட்டுகளை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்ட பாடல்களாலும் தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலை இனிமையான ஓர் அனுபவமாக மகிழ்வூட்டும் கற்றலாக (Joy of Learning) மாற்ற இயலும்.
2019Teaching Tamil in the Diaspora in the next decade

Seetha Lakshmi (2019). அடுத்த பத்தாண்டுகளில் நாங்கள் செய்யவேண்டியது என்ன? (அடுத்த பத்தாண்டுகளில் புலம் பெயர்ந்த தமிழ்ச் சமூகத்தில் தமிழ் கற்பித்தல்- ஒரு பார்வை) What do we need to do next? Tamil Language Teaching in Diaspora Tamil Community in the Next Ten Years- An Overview. (Invited Presentation). Paper presented at International Tamilology Conference - 2019 Tamilology in Diasporic Context: Now and in Future, Toronto, Canada

அடுத்த பத்தாண்டுகளில் புலம்பெயர் நாடுகளில் தமிழ் கற்பித்தல் - ஒரு பார்வை
Seetha Lakshmi Conference Presentations (without publication)
  This presentation discusses the challenges faced in maintaining and sustaining the mother tongue language in diasporic Tamil communities. Mother tongue language is a great asset and benefits a child from birth. When the medium of education is different from a child’s mother tongue language, it becomes the duty of the parents and the heritage language teachers to use the language as a functional resource. In today’s twenty first century context, acquiring mother tongue language has many benefits like using it as a functional and communicative resource and treasuring it as a linguistic identity and ethnic solidarity. This presentation shares the educational research projects based experiences of Singapore Tamil classrooms using data that had been collected and analysed qualitatively from primary and secondary school classrooms. Recommendations to the Tamil community (and educators?) include understanding the nature of hybrid identity and second language or heritage language situation, making meaningful and motivating linguistic and cultural investments on youth, conducting sustainable teacher training, preparing interesting reading resources for children, facilitating immersion in language (from the first to the fifth year of a child) and strengthening the unity in the community.
 புலம்பெயர் தமிழ்ச் சமுதாயங்கள் தாய்மொழியைப் பராமரிப்பதில் எதிர்நோக்கும் சவால்களைப் பற்றி இப்படைப்பு விவாதிக்கிறது. தாய்மொழி ஒரு குழந்தைக்கு நன்மைகள் பலவற்றைச் சேர்க்கும் சொத்து, அதாவது முதலீடு. கல்வி கற்கும் மொழி தாய்மொழியிலிருந்து வேறுபடும்பொழுது தாய்மொழியை ஒரு செயல்பாட்டு வளமாகப் பயன்படுத்துவது பெற்றோருக்கும் பாரம்பரிய மொழி ஆசிரியர்களுக்கும் முக்கியமானதொரு பணியாகிறது. ஆரம்பத் தொடக்கநிலை வகுப்புகளிலிருந்து சேகரிக்கப்பட்ட பகுப்பாய்வு செய்யப்பட்ட தரவுகளைக் கொண்டு இப்படைப்பு கல்வி ஆய்வுத் திட்டங்களின் அடிப்படையான சிங்கப்பூர் தமிழ் வகுப்பறை அனுபவங்களைப் பகிர்ந்துக்கொள்கிறது. கலப்பின அடையாளத்தின் இயல்பான தன்மையும் பாரம்பரிய மொழியின் நிலைமை, நிலையான ஆசிரியர் பயிற்சியை மேற்கொள்வது, குழந்தைகளுக்கு அவர்கள் மனங்கவரும்வகைஇயல் வாசிப்பு வளங்களைத் தயாரிப்பது போன்ற பரிந்துரைகள் முன்வைக்கப்படுகின்றன.
2019Making Tamil a Living Language in Singapore through Story Reading techniques

Seetha Lakshmi. (2019). Making Tamil a Living Language in Singapore through Story Reading techniques. Workshop for Preschool Teachers. 6th June 2019 at the Ang Mo Kio Library. Singapore: National Library Board.

கதை வாசிப்பு உத்திகளின் வழியே சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழை வாழும் மொழியாக்குவோம்!
Seetha Lakshmi Workshops
  Reading skill is an invaluable skill. It has the ability to determine a country’s economy. Teachers can read stories for students to listen and have dialogues on the stories even before pre-school children begin to acquire reading skills in Tamil. This workshop attempts to improve aspects such as students’ prior knowledge, vocabulary, extended dialogue, learning language with enthusiasm and joy in order to use it in life and discovering information about a topic. The workshop will also share various strategies such as recording of classroom lessons, recommendations from research studies (Cummins, 1979; Schiffman, 1999; Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2004). Kagan, O. E., Carreira, M. M., & Chik, C. H. (2017). Halliday, (1998), Heikka & Waniganayake, 2011 cf. Seetha Lakshmi & Vanitha Saravanan, 2017; Silver et al., 2012), children’s stories, songs (Azha Valliappa, Chia and Gan, 1998, Balsavar, 2005; Nur-EI -Hudaa Jabaar, 2014), and pictures that can be used to teach students Tamil.
 விலைமதிப்பற்ற வசிப்புத்திறன் ஒரு நாட்டின் பொருளாதாரத்தை மேம்படுத்தி உயர்த்தும் தன்மை வாய்ந்தது. பாலர்பள்ளிக் குழந்தைகள் தமிழில் வாசிக்கும் திறமையைக் கைவறப்பெறுவதற்கு முன் ஆசிரியர்கள் அவர்களுக்கும் கதைகள் வாசித்து, அக்கதைகளைப் பற்றி உரையாடல்களை நிகழ்த்தலாம். மாணவர்களின் முன்னறிவு, சொல்வளம், நீடித்த உரையாடல், ஆவலோடு மொழியைக் கற்றுக்கொண்டு அதனைப் பயன்படுத்தி ஒரு தலைப்பைப் பற்றிக் கண்டறிவது போன்ற கூறுகளை மேம்படுத்த முயற்சிக்கிறது இப்பயிலரங்கு. மேலும் வகுப்பறைப் பாடங்களைப் பதிவு செய்வது, ஆய்வுகளின் பரிந்துரைகள், சிறுவர்களுக்கான கதை, பாட்டு போன்ற உத்திகளையும் பற்றி இப்பயிலரங்கில் பகிர்ந்து கொள்ளப்படுகின்றது.
2019Joy of Learning in Mother Tongue Language

Joy of Learning in Mother Tongue Language. In Tan C L (EIC), Choong K W, A Ra Sivakumaran & Dr Mohamed Aidil Subhan (Eds.) (2019). Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation: Re-envisioning Mother Tongue Languages Education in Singapore. Singapore: National Institute of Education.

தாய்மொழி - மகிழ்வூட்டும் கற்றல் கற்பித்தல்
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (without publication)
  Joy of Learning is about nurturing an intrinsic motivation towards learning in every student. Education Minister, Mr Ng Chee Meng has mentioned that through Joy of Learning, students will be able to discover their interests, grow their passion and love what they are doing. Student autonomy in classrooms is proven to increase intrinsic motivation to learn. Students’ autonomy can be supported by teachers’ minimizing the salience of evaluative pressure and any sense of coercion in the classroom, as well as by maximizing students’ perceptions of having a voice and choice in those academic activities in which they are engaged. Research suggests that autonomy-supportive teaching practices are associated with positive outcomes in the classroom. For example, Chirkov and Ryan (2001) studied both Russian and US high-school students and found that students’ perceptions of both teacher and parent autonomy support were associated with greater internalization of academic motivation. Therefore, we will be sharing with teachers strategies that can foster the Joy of Learning while increasing their intrinsic motivation to learn mother tongue languages.

The strategies shared would include,
i) Critical Literacy Approach; ii) 6 Factors Differentiation ; iii) Plot Prediction Strategy. These strategies allow students to actively participate in the activities without the pressure or need to give the right answer. On top of that, these strategies also help to build on the students’ critical thinking skills and enhance their language skills by building on their vocabulary and presentation skills. For example, under the Critical Literacy Approach, students will have to critically review Tamil songs and share their thoughts and feelings with the class. Students are well versed in and enjoy listening to Tamil Songs. Therefore, the sharing by the students is more spontaneous and non-threatening as they will not be penalised for being wrong. Lessons would also move away from being teacher-centric to student-centric as students’ voices is the focal point in the discussions. Similar to this, strategies which are innovative and induce the Joy of Learning would be shared to teachers in the presentation.
 உலக அரங்கில் தமிழ்மொழி கற்பிக்க எத்தனையோ விதமான வழி முறைகள் உள்ளன. தமிழ்மொழியைக் கற்பிக்கின்றபோதும் கற்றுக்கொள்ளும்போதும் ஆசிரியர்களும் மாணவர்களும் அதில் ஆர்வத்துடனும் மகிழ்ச்சியுடனும் ஈடுபட வேண்டியது அவசியம். அவ்வாறு மகிழ்ச்சியைத் தூண்டும் வண்ணம் கற்பிக்கின்ற போதே கற்றல், கற்பித்தல் அங்குச் சிறப்பாக நடைபெறும். அதற்குக் கல்விசார்ந்த ஊக்குவிப்பு அவசியம். மகிழ்ச்சியைத் தூண்டும் விதத்தில் திரைப்பாடல்களின் மூலம் தமிழ்மொழியைக் கற்பிக்கலாம். கூத்தும் பாட்டும் நமது கலை, எழுத்து உருவாவதற்கு முன்பே இசை உருவாயிற்று. இசையோடு தொடர்புடைய பாட்டு மனிதனை எளிதில் வசப்படுத்தும் தன்மை கொண்டது. இக்கருத்தினை வலியுறுத்தும்படி, ஆய்வாளர் மரியா என்பவர் இசை என்பது மாணவர்களை மேலும் ஈடுபடுத்தும் கருவியாக மட்டுமல்லாமல் அவர்களுடைய ஆழமான புரிந்துணர்வுக்கும் வழிவகுக்கிறது என்கிறார். எனவே திரைப்படப் பாடல்களின் மூலம் தமிழ்மொழியை ஆர்வத்துடனும் ஆக்கரமான முறையிலும் கற்பிக்கலாம். ஆர்வமூட்டும் இக்கருத்தினைத்தான் சிங்கப்பூர்க் கல்வி அமைச்சர் திரு இங் சீ மெங்கும் அவருடைய உரையில் வலியுறுத்தியுள்ளார். இங்குத் தமிழ்மொழி கற்பிப்பது என்பது கேட்டல், பேசுதல், வாசித்தல், எழுதுதல் ஆகிய அனைத்துத் திறன்களையும் குறிக்கிறது. இத்திறன்களை ஆர்வமூட்டும் வகையில் வளர்க்க கீழ்க்கண்ட அணுகுமுறைகள் உதவுகின்றன: சிந்திக்கத்தூண்டும் அணுமுகுறை, ஆறு வேறுபாடுகmளைக் கண்டறியும் உத்திமுறை, சம்பவம்வழிக் கற்பிக்கும் அணுகுமுறை, மெய்ப்பாட்டு மறுமொழி அணுகுமுறை.

இவ்வணுகுமுறைகள்வழி மாணவர்கள் எவ்வித அழுத்தத்திற்கும் உட்படாமல் இயல்பாக மகிழ்வாகக் கற்றுக்கொள்ள முடிகிறது. அவர்கள் அருஞ்சொற்களை அறிவதோடு அவர்களால் நல்ல தமிழில் பேசவும் எழுதவும் முடிகிறது.
2018Introduction to Tamil Alphabets and Reading in Tamil Language Classes and Professional Developmental Needs of Tamil Teachers - An Overview

Seetha Lakshmi & Nanthini Arivuselvan (2018, July). Introduction to Tamil alphabet and Reading in Tamil Language Class and Professional Developmental Needs - an Overview. Paper presented at IConFed-International Conference on the Future of Education 2018, Penang, Malaysia.

தமிழ்மொழி வகுப்பில் தமிழ் நெடுங்கணக்கு அறிமுகமும் வாசித்தலும் தமிழ் ஆசிரியர்களின் பட்டத்தொழில் மேம்பாட்டுத் தேவைகளும் - ஒரு பார்வை
Seetha Lakshmi Conference Presentation (without publication)
  In primary one Tamil reading lessons, students will be introduced to learning alphabet, writing letters; words containing the letters taught; and sentences containing those words (Harrison, Maurice, 1965; Piasta and Wagner, 2010). The reading lessons will mostly include the interaction between the student and the teacher. This paper analyses the content of the reading lesson and as well as the student teacher talk (Rymes Betsy, 2016). It also discusses role of the teacher as a facilitator, the students’ interest in learning and the pros and cons of the language the students speak at home. This analysis is based on the transcriptions of the reading lessons and the encouragement, teacher’s beliefs (Cyndi Maxey, 2013; James Rath, 2011) and the facilitating skills of the teacher enabling the students to ease through the lesson and as well as empowering them to acquire the language were the key findings of our research. Research findings includes effective Big Book Teaching approach and sustained engagement in speaking in the class and they will be elaborated further at the conference. Understanding teachers’ pedagogical needs and providing professional development courses will be the key for the educational development.
 தொடக்கநிலை ஒன்றில் வாசிப்புப்பாடங்களில் மாணவர்களுக்கு நெடுங்கணக்கை கற்றல், எழுத்துகளை எழுதுதல், எழுத்துகள் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள சொற்கள், அந்தச் சொற்கள் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள வாக்கியங்கள் ஆகியன கற்றுத்தரப்படும். (Harrison, Maurice, 1965; Piasta and Wagner, 2010). வாசிப்புப்பாடங்களில் பெரும்பாலும் மாணவருக்கும் ஆசிரியருக்கும் இடையே இடம்பெறும் இடைவினையாடல்கள் இடம்பெறும். இந்தக் கட்டுரை, வாசிப்புப்பாடத்தின் உள்ளடக்கம், ஆசிரியர்- மாணவர் பேச்சு (Rymes Betsy, 2016). ஆகியன குறித்து ஆராயும். ஆசிரியர் என்பவர் ஒரு வசதியாளராக ஆசிரியரின் பங்கு, கற்பதில் மாணவரின் விருப்பம், மாணவர்கள் வீட்டில் பேசும் மொழியினால் வகுப்பில் மாணவர் எதிர்கொள்ளும் சாதகபாதகங்களைப் பற்றிப் பகுப்பாய்கிறது. இந்தப்பகுப்பாய்வு ஆய்வுத்திட்டமொன்றில் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள வாசிப்புப்பாடங்களின் ஒலிபெயர்ப்புகளை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்டு அமைகிறது. பாடத்தில் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள ஊக்குவிப்பு, ஆசிரியரின் நம்பிக்கைகள், மாணவர்கள் வகுப்பில் எவ்வித மனக்கவலையும் அச்சமுமின்றி வகுப்பில் பாடத்தில் இடம்பெறுவதற்கு ஏதுவாக ஆசிரியரது வசதி செய்யும் திறன்கள் ஆகியன மாணவர்கள் மொழியைக் கைவரப்பெறும்வகையில் எவ்வாறு அவர்களுக்கு அமைந்திருக்கின்றன என்பன குறித்துப் பகுப்பாய்வு இடம்பெற்றது. செம்மையான முறையிலான பெரிய புத்தகத்தைப் பயன்படுத்திக் கற்பிக்கும் அணுகுமுறையும் பேசுதலில் நீடித்த ஈடுபாடும் உட்பட்ட பல முடிவுகள் ஆய்வில் கிடைத்துள்ள முக்கிய முடிவுகளாகும். இவை குறித்து மாநாட்டில் விரிவாக எடுத்துரைக்கப்படும். ஆசிரியர்களின் ஆசிரியவியல் தேவைகளைப் புரிந்துகொள்வதும் அவர்களுக்குத் தேவையான பட்டத்தொழில் மேம்பாட்டு வகுப்புகளை வழங்குவதும் கல்வியியல் மேம்பாட்டுக்கு அடிப்படையாகும்.
2018Tamil Corpus Bank and Students’ Spoken Language - An Overview

Seetha Lakshmi, Letchmi Devi d/o Ponnusamy & Nanthini Arivuselvan (2018, June). Tamil Corpus Bank and Students’ Spoken Language - An Overview. Paper presented at 4th Corpus Linguistics in China Conference, Wuhan, China.

தமிழ்த் தரவு வங்கியும் மாணவர்களின் பேச்சுமொழியும் - ஒரு பார்வை
Seetha Lakshmi Conference Presentation (without publication)
  This paper highlights the use of Standard Spoken Tamil (SST) in Tamil classrooms in Singapore. Tamil language is one of the official languages in Singapore and is taught as a Mother Tongue Language subject at second language level in schools. Due to changing demographic patterns, majority of young students come from homes where English is the dominant language and are acquiring Standard Spoken Tamil (MOE, 2005) in their Tamil language classes. The implementation of Standard Spoken Tamil into curriculum took place in 2005. The research project team (DEV13/15 SL) has been working on creating a corpus bank of the classroom spoken language. Out of the 27 classrooms selected, data was collected from 14 classrooms through audio and video recordings which have been transcribed into Tamil and translated into English to create a corpus. The corpus has the potential materials to conduct courses for teachers to develop their teaching (Chambers, Farr and O’Riordan, 2011; Cubero and Ignacio, 2011; Honan, 2010, Zaki, 2017) approaches and strategies based on the students’ use of language in the Tamil classrooms. Data from six Primary and eight Secondary classroom lessons were analysed to examine the teachers’ and students’ use of SST during their lessons. Preliminary findings show that there is a significant improvement in the use SST between teachers and students due to their mutual understanding, sustained engagement, encouragement and motivation in the class.
 இந்தக் கட்டுரை சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழின் பயன்பாட்டைப் பற்றி எடுத்துரைக்கிறது. சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழ் மொழி அதிகாரத்துவமொழிகளில் ஒன்றாக இருக்கிறது. பள்ளிகளில் தாய்மொழிப்பாடமாக இரண்டாம் மொழி நிலையில் கற்பிக்கப்படுகிறது. மாறிவரும் மக்கள்தொகை, வாழ்க்கைமுறைக் காரணிகளால் பெரும்பாலான இளம் மாணவர்கள் ஆங்கிலம் பேசும் இல்லப்பின்ணனியிலிருந்து வருகிறார்கள். அவர்கள் தமிழ்மொழி வகுப்பறைகளில் தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழைக் (கல்வி அமைச்சு, 2005) கைவரப்பெறுகின்றனர். பாடத்திட்டத்தில் பேச்சுத்தமிழைப் பயன்படுத்திக் கற்பித்தல் குறித்த நடைமுறைத் தகவல்கள் 2005இல் இடம் பெற்றன. ஆய்வுத்திட்டக்குழு (DEV13/15 SL) வகுப்பறைப்பேச்சுத்தமிழினை 27 வகுப்பறைகளில் பதிவு செய்யுள்ளது. அவற்றில், 14 வகுப்பறைகளில் ஒளி, ஒளிப் பதிவுகள் செய்யப்பட்டு ஆங்கிலத்தில் மொழிபெயர்க்கப்பட்டன. இந்த் தரவு வங்கி ஆசிரியர்களுக்குத் தமிழ்மொழியை மாணவர்கள் எவ்வாறு பயன்படுத்துகிறார்கள் என்று அறிந்து தமது கற்பித்தலை மேம்படுத்திக்கொள்வது( Chambers, Farr and O’Riordan, 2011; Cubero and Ignacio, 2011; Honan, 2010, Zaki, 2017) குறித்துக் அவர்களுக்குக் கற்பிக்க உதவும் அணுகுமுறைகளையும் உத்திகளையும் பற்றிய பயிற்சிகளை நடத்த ஏற்ற வளமான ஆதாரங்களையும் பயிற்றுக்கருவிகளையும் தம்முள் கொண்டுள்ளன. ஆறு தொடக்கப்பள்ளிகளையும், எட்டு உயர்நிலைப்பள்ளிகளையும் சேர்ந்த தமிழ் வகுப்பறைகளில் திரட்டப்பெற்ற தரவு, வகுப்பறைகளில் ஆசிரியர்கள், மாணவர்கள் ஆகியோரின் தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழ்ப் பயன்பாட்டை ஆராய்கிறது. தமிழ் வகுப்பறையில் ஆசிரியர்கள், மாணவர்கள் ஆகியோருக்கிடையே இடம்பெற்றுள்ள பரஸ்பரப் புரிந்துணர்வு, நீடித்த ஈடுபாடு, ஊக்குவிப்பு, ஆதரவு ஆகியன அவர்களிடையே தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழின் பயன்பாட்டில் குறிப்பிடத்தக்க மேம்பாட்டை எடுத்துக்காட்டுவதாக ஆரம்பநிலை முடிவுகள் குறிப்பிடுகின்றன.
2018Discourse analysis in Tamil classrooms using corpus data: A study on student agency affecting the level of classroom interaction

Nanthini Arivuselvan & Seetha Lakshmi (2008, July). Discourse analysis in Tamil classrooms using corpus data: A study of the acquisition and usage of Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore Tamil classrooms. Paper presented at ICONFED_International Conference on the Future of Education 2018, Penang, Malaysia.

தரவு வங்கியைப் பயன்படுத்தித் தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் சொல்லாடல் பகுப்பாய்வு: மாணவர் எனும் முகவரும் வகுப்பறை இடைவினையாடலும்
Seetha Lakshmi Conference Presentation (without publication)
  This paper aims to examine how student agency affects the level of classroom interaction through discourse analysis in Tamil classrooms. This study is part of a larger research project that analyses language acquisition in Singapore Tamil classrooms. Before effective learning takes place, it is important for the students to feel that they are the key agents in their learning. They need to have a sense of comradeship in their classroom where they feel a sense of connectedness and feel empowered to develop their capacity in learning. This is only possible when teachers create a suitable learning environment where they are responsive to students’ voices and subsequently actions that follow (Wiliams, 2017). Student agency is critical in language learning and discourse analysis will enable one to study the interaction that takes place in a language classroom. This will facilitate the understanding of how the learning environment is structured and to what extent there is a capacity for student agency. This paper analyses the data collected from the Tamil classrooms under the research project (DEV03/SL15) (Seetha Lakshmi et al., 2015). Data included audio and video recordings that have been transcribed into Tamil and then translated into English. The preliminary findings of two Primary classroom data reveal that the level of classroom interaction is increased by student agency and teachers’ facilitation on sustained speaking.
 இந்த ஆய்வுத்தாள் தமிழ் வகுப்பறைகளில் இடம்பெறும் சொல்லாடல் பகுப்பாய்வின் வழியே மாணவர் என்ற முகவர் வகுப்பறை இடைவினையாடலில் எத்தகைய தாக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்துகிறார் என்று ஆராய்கிறது. இந்த ஆய்வு சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் வகுப்பறைகளில் மொழி கைவரப்பெறல் பற்றி ஆராயும் பெரியதோர் ஆய்வுத்திட்டத்தின் ஒரு பகுதியாக அமைகிறது. திறம்பட்ட கற்பித்தல் இடம்பெறுவதற்கு முன்பு மாணவர்கள் தங்கள் கற்றலில் தாங்கள்தாம் முக்கிய முகவர்கள் என்று உணர்வது இன்றியமையாதது. தமிழ் வகுப்பறைகளில் தாம் ஓர் இன்றிமையாத மனிதர் என்றும் தமிழ் வகுப்பறையில் தமக்குத் தம் சக மாணவர்களுடன் கூடிய ஒரு தொடர்பு இருக்கிறது அவர் உணர்ந்துகொள்வதுடன், தங்களது கற்றல் சார்ந்த கொள்ளளவை மேம்படுத்துவதில் தங்களுக்கு உரிமையும் சக்தியும் (அதிகாரமும்) உள்ளது என்ற சிந்தனையும் இன்றியமையானவாகின்றன. இது, வகுப்பறையில் மாணவர்களின் குரல்களுக்குத் தாம் பொறுப்பானவர்கள் என்றும் அவர்கள்தம் குரல்நோக்கிய செயல்பாடுகளில் ஈடுபடுபவர், தாம் என்றும் ஆசிரியர் உணர்ந்து, ஏற்ற கற்றல் சூழலை உருவாக்கித்தரும்போது சாத்தியமாகும் Wiliams, 2017).மொழி வகுப்பறையில் மொழி கற்றலையும் சொல்லாடலையும் ஆராய்பவர்களுக்கு மாணவர் முகவர் என்ற கருத்தமைவு மிகவும் இன்றியமையாதது என்பதுடன் கருத்தாய்வுக்குரியது. இது, கற்றல் சூழல் எவ்வாறு வடிவமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது என்பதைப் புரிந்துகொள்ளவும், மாணவர் முகவர் என்பது எந்த அளவுக் கொள்ளளவைக் கொண்டுள்ளது என்பதை அறிந்துகொள்ளவும் வழி வகுக்கிறது. இந்த ஆய்வுத்தாள், ஆய்வுத்திட்டம் (DEV03/SL15) (Seetha Lakshmi et al., 2015). ஒன்றின்படி தமிழ் வகுப்பறையில் திரட்டப்பட்ட தரவுகளைப் பகுப்பாய்கிறது. மேலும் இது, ஆரம்பத்தொடக்கநிலை வகுப்புகள் இரண்டில் திரட்டப்பட்ட தரவுகளின் ஆரம்பப் பகுப்பாய்வு முடிவுகள், மாணவர் முகவர், நீடித்த பேச்சிற்கான ஆசிரியரின் வசதி செய்தல் ஆகியவற்றினால் வகுப்பறையில் இடைவினையாடலின் அளவு அல்லது தன்மை எவ்வாறு உள்ளது என்பதை எடுத்துக்கூறுகிறது.
2017ICT in Tamil Teaching and Learning Past-Present-Future

இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டில் தமிழின் நோக்கும் போக்கும் (Tamil in twentieth century and its mission and vision) (பன்னாட்டுக் கருத்தரங்கக் கட்டுரைகள் - 2017) இரண்டாம் தொகுதி, பக் 280-287. பதிப்பாசிரியர்: பேராசிரியர் சே.செந்தமிழ்ப்பாவை தமிழ்ப்பண்பாட்டு மையம் அழகப்பா பல்கலைக்கழகம், காரைக்குடி, இந்தியா

தமிழ் கற்றல் - கற்பித்தலில் தகவல் தொழில்நுட்பப் பயன்பாடு நேற்று-இன்று-நாளை
Raman Vimalan Conference Presentations (with publication)
  The influence of information technology on the teaching of Tamil language learning is immense. Because students are technology dependent. This article highlights the need to innovate and enhance classroom teaching using a variety of technological resources aimed at furthering learning. Tools like web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and the new virtual technology are used in teaching and learning.
 தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலில் தகவல் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் செல்வாக்கு மிகுந்துள்ளது. மாணவர்கள் தொழில்நுட்பம் சார்ந்து இயங்குவதால் அதன்வழிக் கற்றல் கற்பித்தலைக் கொண்டு செல்லும் நோக்கில் பல்வேறு தொழில்நுட்ப வளங்களைப் பயன்படுத்தி வகுப்பறைக் கற்பித்தலைப் புதுமையாக்கிக் கற்றலை இனிமையாக்கும் நிலையை இக்கட்டுரை எடுத்துரைக்கிறது. மேலும், எத்தகு தொழில்நுட்பங்களின் பயன்பாடு கற்றல் கற்பித்தல் சிறக்கப் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகின்றன என்பதை வெப்1.0, வெப்2.0, வெப்3.0, வெப்4.0, மெய்ந்நிகர் தொழில்நுட்பம் (Virtual Technology) போன்றவற்றைக் கொண்டு விளக்குவதாய் இக்கட்டுரை அமைந்துள்ளது.
2017Picture Books in Standard Spoken Tamil – A Proposal In-Waiting

Seetha Lakshmi & Karthickeyen Govindaraj (2017, May). Picture Books in Standard Spoken Tamil - A Proposal ln Waiting. Paper presented at the Redesigning Pedagogy International Conference: Education for the Future: Creativity, Innovation, Values. 2017, Singapore. Singapore: National Institute of Education, Singapore.

தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழில் படப்புத்தகங்கள் - காத்துக்கொண்டிருக்கும் ஓர் உத்தேச முன்மொழிவுத் திட்டம்
Seetha Lakshmi Conference Presentation (without publication)
  Picture books in Tamil are used extensively by Singaporean early childhood educators and parents to help develop reading skills and critical literacy amongst young children. Although the purpose of using these books is to assist young children learn Tamil language, these picture books are set in contexts that are alien to the environment in which Singaporean children live in and do not pay attention to the practices and beliefs of Singaporean society. While children’s literature should promote universality of beliefs and cross-cultural understanding, this paper asserts that children’s language acquisition is dependent on language-settings that resonate with communities and the wider society in which children are part of (Bronfenbrenner, 1979).

Since children move through a series of life transitions which necessitate the use of language to gain access to social support and coping skills, understanding the interconnectedness between people and their environment will help them understand how Tamil is identified and used in the Singaporean context (Lakshmi, S & Saravanan, V, 2011). Hence, how can Tamil language picture books help promote the use of Standard Spoken Tamil (SST) and which type of picture books are needed in the Tamil language to help Singaporean children distinguish SST from the Tamil language varieties used in Tamil Nadu? After assessing fifty Tamil language children picture books published in Singapore through process-based analysis, (Hearne, 1993; Johnston, Bainbridge & Shariff, 2007), this paper emphasises the need for picture books to promote SST in a climate where Singaporean Tamilians no longer view themselves as part of a Tamil Diaspora but see themselves as a community that is Singaporean in identity, belief and practice.
 சிங்கப்பூரில் பாலர்கல்வியில் ஈடுபட்டிருக்கும் கல்வியாளர்களும் பெற்றோரும் தமிழில் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள படப்புத்தகங்களை அதிக அளவில் பயன்படுத்துகிறார்கள். இளம் குழந்தைகளிடையே வாசிப்புத்திறன்களையும் கருத்தாய்வு நிலையிலான எழுத்தறிவையும் மேம்படுத்த இப்புத்தகங்கள் உதவியாக இருப்பதால் அவர்கள் இவற்றைப் பயன்படுத்துகிறார்கள். இளம் குழந்தைகள் தமிழ்மொழியை வாசித்து உயர்வதற்கு உதவியாக இப்புத்தகங்கள் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகின்றன. இருந்தும் இப்புத்தகங்கள் சிங்கப்பூர்க் குழந்தைகள் வாழும் சூழல்களிலிருந்தும் அவர்கள் நடைமுறையில் பின்பற்றும் பழக்கவழக்கங்கள், நம்பிக்கைகள் ஆகியவற்றிலிருந்தும் வேறுபட்ட சூழல்களைத் தம்முள் கொண்டிருக்கின்றன. சிறுவர் இலக்கியம் உலகளாவிய நிலையிலான நம்பிக்கைகள் குறித்தும் பல்லினப் பண்பாட்டுப் புரிந்துணர்வு குறித்தும் கவனம் செலுத்த வேண்டும். இந்நிலையில், குழந்தைகளின் மொழி கைவரப்பெறல் என்பது குழந்தைகள் பங்கேற்கும் அல்லது ஒரு பகுதியாக அமையும் பரந்த சமூகத்தை ஒட்டிய மொழிச்சூழல்களைச் (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) சார்ந்து அமையும் என்று இந்தக்கட்டுரை எடுத்துக்காட்டகிறது. குழந்தைகள் வாழ்க்கை எனும் தொடர்சங்கிலியில் பல இடைக்கடப்புகளைக் கடந்து பயணம் செல்லும் காலத்தில், சமூகத்தின் ஆதரவைப் பெறவும், சமாளிக்கும் திறன்களைப் பெறவும், மக்கள், சூழ்நிலை ஆகியவற்றுக்கு இடையே உள்ள இடைத்தொடர்பை அறிந்து, புரிந்துகொள்ளவும் சிங்கப்பூர்ச் சூழலில் மொழி என்பது எவ்வாறு பயன்மிக்கதாக இருக்கிறது என்று உணரவும் மொழியின் பயன்பாடு என்பது அவசியமாக அமைகிறது (Lakshmi & Saravanan, 2011). எனவே, தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழின் பயன்பாட்டைத் தமிழ்மொழிப் படப்புத்தகங்கள் எவ்வாறு மேம்படுத்த முடியும்? சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ்க் குழந்தைகளுக்கு, தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழைப் பிற தமிழ்நாட்டு மொழிவகைகளிலிருந்து வேறுபடுத்திப் பார்ப்பதற்கு ஏதுவாக, எத்தகைய தமிழ்மொழிப் படப்புத்தகங்கள் தேவை? சிங்கப்பூரில் வெளியிடப்பட்ட குழந்தைகளுக்கான ஐம்பது தமிழ்ப் படப்புத்தகங்களை ஒரு படிநிலை அடிப்படையில் (Hearne, 1993; Johnston, Bainbridge & Shariff, 2007), பகுப்பாய்வு செய்துள்ளது. சிங்கப்பூரர்கள் தங்களை புலம் பெயர்ந்த தமிழர்களாக எண்ணாமல் சிங்கப்பூர்ச் சமூகத்தில் சிங்கப்பூரராகத் தம் அடையாளம் நம்பிக்கை, நடைமுறை, சிந்தனை ஆகியவற்றால் திகழ வழி வகுக்கும் தமிழ்மொழிப் படப்புத்தகங்கள் தேவை என்று இந்தக்கட்டுரை வலியுறுத்துகிறது.
2016Use and Impact of Spoken Tamil in the Early Tamil Classrooms

Seetha Lakshmi (2016). Use and Impact of Spoken Tamil in the Early Tamil Classrooms. In Silver, R. E. & Bokhorst-Heng, W. D. (Eds.), Quadrilingual Education in Singapore: Pedagogical Innovation in Language Education (pp. 229-246). Singapore: Springer.

ஆரம்பத் தொடக்கநிலைத் தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் பேச்சுத்தமிழின் பயன்பாடும் தாக்கமும்
Seetha Lakshmi Book Chapters
  Despite governmental and community efforts to support Tamil maintenance in Singapore, census and school data show a decrease in the number of Indian families using Tamil as the predominant home language. While this is true of Singapore’s other mother tongues as well, diglossia compounds the declining use of Tamil in Singapore. In addition to a formal, written form, Tamil has more than one oral form. Currently teachers are encouraged to teach Standard Spoken Tamil as the educated, oral variety. This article explores those efforts through an analysis of language use in classrooms.
 சிங்கப்பூரில், அரசு, சமூகம் ஆகிய இரு துறைகளும் தமிழ்மொழியின் பராமரிப்புக்கு ஆதரவையும் ஊக்கத்தையும் வழங்கிவரும் நிலையிலும், மக்கள் தொகைக் கணக்கெடுப்புகளும் பள்ளித்தரவுகளும் இந்தியக் குடும்பங்களில் தமிழ்மொழியை இல்லமொழியாகக் கொண்டிருப்பதில் சுணக்கம் தென்படுவதைக் காட்டுகின்றன. இல்லங்களில் குறைந்துவரும் பயன்பாடு, சிங்கப்பூரின் மற்றத் தாய்மொழிகளுக்கும் உள்ள நிலையாக இருப்பினும் சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழின் குறைந்துவரும் பயன்பாட்டுக்கு அதன் இரட்டை வழக்குக் கருத்தமைவும் காரணமாக இருக்குமா? என்பது சிந்திக்க வேண்டிய ஒரு வினா. ஆம் என்று கூறலாம். தமிழில், முறைசார்ந்த, எழுத்துமொழி வடிவத்துடன் வாய்மொழியாகப் பயன்படுத்தும் பேச்சுத்தமிழ் வடிவமும் உள்ளது. கற்றவர்கள் பயன்படுத்தும் தரமான மொழிவகையான தரமான பேச்சுத்தமிழை ஆசிரியர்கள் தங்கள் கற்பித்தலில் பயன்படுத்தக் கூடுதல் ஊக்கம் வ\ழங்கப்பட்டு வருகின்றனர். வகுப்பறையில் தென்படும் மொழிப்பயன்பாட்டை ஆராய்வதன் வழியே இக்கட்டுரை தமிழ்மொழிக்கான முயற்சிகளைப் பற்றியப் பற்றி ஆராய்கிறது.
2016Pedagogy to teach Tamil Language (Second Language) in a fun and effective manner

Presented at the Tamil Diaspora Tamil Education Conference, 2016, California, USA. புலம்பெயர்ந்தோர் தமிழ்க்கல்வி மாநாடு 2016, கலிபோர்னியா, அமெரிக்கா.

தமிழ்மொழியை ஆர்வம் ஊட்டும் வகையில் திறம்படக் கற்பித்தலில் ஆசிரியவியல்
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (without publication)
  The primary objective of this paper is to throw light on the various pedagogies to teach Tamil Language (Second Language) in a fun and effective manner and why such unorthodox teaching methods have to be used in the teaching of second language. The article largely aims to talk about new pedagogies, which would be helpful in teaching Tamil language (Second Language) in diasporic community in a fun filled and effective way. The pedagogies that are mentioned in this article are teaching literature by engaging students visually, creating “real life” scenario for learners (booth method), learning vocabulary and the use of words via songs from Tamil cinema and learning culture and language by playing traditional games. The article will also explain about the reasons why such unorthodox and creative pedagogical methods are required in the teaching of the Tamil Language to students in a diasporic community.
 இந்தக் கட்டுரையின் முக்கிய நோக்கங்கள் தமிழ்மொழியை (இரண்டாம் மொழி) ஈடுபாட்டுடனும் சிறப்பான முறையிலும் கற்பிப்பதற்கான பல்வேறு ஆசிரியவியல் உத்திகளை அறிதல். இரண்டாம் மொழியாக கற்பிக்கின்றபோது மரபுவழி கற்பித்தல் முறைகள் ஏன் பயன்படுத்தப்பட வேண்டும் என்பதற்கான காரணங்களையும் அறிதல். இக்கட்டுரை புதிய ஆசிரியவியல் உத்திகளைப் பற்றிப் பேசுவதை நோக்கமாகக் கொண்டுள்ளது. இவை தமிழ்மொழியை (இரண்டாம் மொழி) புலம்பெயர்ந்தச் சமுதாயத்தில் உற்சாகமாகவும் சிறப்பான வழியில் கற்பிப்பதற்கும் உதவியாக இருக்கும். இந்தக் கட்டுரையில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டிருக்கும் ஆசிரியவியல் பின்வருமாறு. மாணவர்களை ஐம்புலங்களுள் ஒன்றான கண்ணினை அதிகம் ஈடுபடுத்தி இலக்கியத்தைக் கற்பித்தல், கற்பவர்களுக்கு ‘உண்மையான வாழ்க்கை சூழலை’ ஏற்படுத்திக் கொடுத்தல் (பூத் முறை), தமிழ்த் திரைப்படப் பாடல்களின் மூலம் சொல்வளத்தைப் பெருக்கி அவற்றைப் பயன்படுத்துதல் மற்றும் பாரம்பரியப் விளையாட்டுகளை விளையாடுவதன் மூலம் கலாச்சாரம், மொழி ஆகியவற்றைக் கற்றுக்கொள்ளுதல். இத்தகைய மரபார்ந்த மற்றும் ஆக்கபூர்வமான கற்பித்தல் முறைகள், தமிழ்மொழியைக் கற்பிப்பதில், புலம் பெயர்ந்த சமூகத்தில் உள்ள மாணவர்களுக்கு எவையெவை தேவைப்படுகின்றன என்பதற்கான காரணங்களையும் இந்தக் கட்டுரை விளக்குகிறது.
2016Good Thinking for Great Teaching and Learning

Good Thinking for Great Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Arts and Humanities, Vol.2, No.5(No.5), 22-25.

சிந்தனைத்திறனே கற்றல் கற்பித்தலின் உயிர்நாடி
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Journal-Refereed
  This paper shares the thought process behind effective thinking which in turn impacts the teaching and results achievable through that. Thinking skill is the basis of teaching and learning process. It can be improved when the teacher deeply thinks over every factor of the process and teaches in accordance with the mood of the learners. Teaching and learning process is a continuous one. Teaching techniques must be formed with this kind of realization and they should adapt to learners requirements. Teaching is done well when the teaching methods are changed in accordance to the time, place and situation. Teaching and learning process will improve when teachers and students develop thinking skill, which is indeed the basis of every skill.
 இன்றைய உலகம் சிந்தனைத் திறன் விளைவின் கீழ் ஆட்படுத்தப்பட்டுள்ளது. எவ்வாறு சிந்திக்க வேண்டும் என்பதையொட்டி பல வகுப்புகள் நடத்தப்பட்டுள்ளன. இந்தக் கட்டுரை பயனுள்ள சிந்தனையின் பின்னால் இருக்கும் செயல்முறையையும், அதன் மூலம் இடம்பெறும் கற்பித்தலின் வாயிலாக அடையக்கூடிய முடிவுகளைப் பற்றியும் அமைந்துள்ளது. 'சிந்தனைத் திறன்' என்பது அனைத்துக் கற்பித்தல் மற்றும் கற்றல் செயல்பாட்டிற்கும் அடித்தளம் என்று இங்கே வலியுறுத்தப்படுகிறது. ஆசிரியர் ஒவ்வொரு காரணியையும் ஆழ்ந்த சிந்தனைக்கு உட்படுத்தும்போதும் கற்பவர்களின் மனநிலைக்கு ஏற்பக் கற்பிக்கும்போதும் அது மேம்படும். கற்பித்தல் மற்றும் கற்றல் செயல்முறை தொடர்ச்சியான ஒன்றாகும். இதுபோன்ற உணர்தலின் அடிப்படையில் கற்பித்தல் உத்திகள் உருவாக்கப்பட வேண்டும். மேலும் அவை கற்போரின் தேவைகளுடனும் பொருந்த வேண்டும். நேரம், இடம் மற்றும் சூழ்நிலை ஆகியவற்றைக் கருத்தில் கொண்டு காலத்திற்கேற்பக் கற்பித்தல் முறைகள் மாறும்போது கற்பித்தல் சிறப்பாக அமையும். ஆசிரியர்களும் மாணவர்களும் அனைத்துத் திறன்களுக்கும் அடிப்படையான சிந்தனைத் திறனை வளர்த்துக்கொண்டால் கற்பித்தலும் கற்றலும் மிக செம்மையான முறையில் நடைபெறும்.
2015E-book Creation and Usage in Tamil

World Tamil Research Conference and Seminar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya.

தமிழில் மின்னூல் உருவாக்கமும் பயன்பாடும்
Sasikumar Ponnalagu Conference Presentations (with publication)
  Together with knowledge and language competencies, it is essential for students to be equipped with the 21st Century Skills. Of these, Information technology is vital. Integrating and teaching these skills together with language activities would be appropriate and beneficial. There are many tools available to create and share e-books easily. However, the purpose of this paper is to identify the software that are simple, effective and quick to use, and at the same time, demonstrate ways to effectively integrate other forms of electronic media to create e-books and use them. By exploring learning through the usage of computers and new technologies such as eBooks, students will find self-motivation in learning and an improvement in joint-learning. Students who receive such experiences will be responsible for their learning. This is indeed the basis for the student's self-learning.
 மாணவர்களுக்குப் பாட அறிவு, மொழித்திறன்கள் ஆகியவற்றோடு 21-ஆம் நூற்றாண்டுத் திறன்களும் மிகவும் அவசியமாகின்றன. இவற்றுள் இன்றியமையாததாகத் தகவல் தொழில்நுட்பத்திறன் விளங்குகிறது. இத்திறன்களைத் தனித்துக் கற்பிக்காமல், மொழிப்பாட நடவடிக்கைகளோடு இணைத்துக் கற்பிப்பதே பொருத்தமாகும். மின்னூல்களை எளிதாக உருவாக்கவும் பகிர்ந்துகொள்ளவும் பல மென்பொருள்கள் உள்ளன. ஆனால், எளிமையாகவும் விரைவாகவும் முழுப்பயனோடு அவற்றைப் பயன்படுத்துவதற்கு ஏதுவாக உள்ள மென்பொருள்களை அடையாளம் காண்பதும் பல்வேறு ஊடகங்களை உட்புகுத்தி மின்னூல்களை உருவாக்கி அவற்றைப் பயன்படுத்தும் வழிமுறைகளையும் கூறுவதுமே இத்தாளின் நோக்கமாகும். கணினியையும் மின்னூல் போன்ற புதிய தொழில்நுட்பங்களையும் பயன்படுத்தும்வழி, மாணவர்கள் சுய முனைப்புடன் கற்றல், உடனிணைந்து கற்றல் முதலியவற்றில் மேம்பாடு காண்பர்; இத்தகைய அனுபவங்களைப் பெறும் மாணவர்கள் தம் கற்றலுக்குத் தாமே பொறுப்பேற்பர். மாணவர்களின் சுய கற்றலுக்கும் இதுவே அடித்தளமாக அமையும்.
2015The role of corpus in the Teaching and Learning of Tamil Language

The role of corpus in the Teaching and Learning of Tamil Language. Paper presented at 14th Tamil (International) Internet Conference, Singapore, Singapore.

தமிழ்மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தலில் தரவகமொழியியலின் பங்கு
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (without publication)
  In Language Teaching, the particular language to a learner should be taught using communicative approach. Teaching grammar and lexicon isolated from their real communicative function cannot be considered as Language Teaching. Teaching the language is different from teaching about the language. In developing the language teaching materials, the above-mentioned aspect of the communicative approach should be kept in mind. The materials or lessons should be authentic (real-time communication) instead of ‘contrived’ or synthetic one. This paper is about how the Tamil Language electronic learning Corpus developed for this purpose can be used to teach Tamil to students. The Tamil Language electronic learning Corpus can be used in two ways in Language Teaching. The first way would be to use it to develop lessons, design curriculum/syllabus, and prepare textbooks. The other way is to use it in the direct teaching/learning activities that are used to teach Tamil to students through the Communicative Approach.
 மொழி கற்பித்தலில், ஒரு குறிப்பிட்ட மொழி அதனைக் கற்போரினிடத்தில் தகவல்தொடர்பை நோக்கமாகக் கொண்ட அணுகுமுறையைப் பயன்படுத்திக் கற்பிக்கப்பட வேண்டும். இலக்கணத்தையும் அகராதியியலையும் பயன்பாட்டு மொழியிலிருந்து புறக்கணித்துவிட்டு மொழி கற்பிப்பதை மொழி கற்பித்தலாக ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளமுடியாது. மொழியைக் கற்பிப்பது மொழியைப் பற்றிக் கற்பித்தலிலிருந்து வேறுபட்டது. மொழியைக் கற்பிக்க உதவும் வளங்களை உருவாக்கும்போது மேற்கூறப்பட்ட தகவல்தொடர்பு நோக்கத்தைப் பற்றிய கண்ணோட்டம் மனத்தில் இருக்க வேண்டும். வளங்கள் அல்லது பாடங்கள் 'திட்டமிடப்பட்ட' அல்லது செயற்கைமுறையில் அமையாமல் உண்மையானதாக இருக்க வேண்டும். இந்தக் கட்டுரை "தமிழ்மொழி மின்னியல் கற்றல் தரவக மொழியியல் தொகுப்பு" உருவாக்கப்பட்டதன் நோக்கத்தை எடுத்துக்கூறுகிறது. மேலும் தரவகம் எவ்வாறு மாணவர்களுக்குத் தமிழைக் கற்பிக்கப் பயன்படலாம் என்பதையொட்டியே இக்கட்டுரை அமைந்திருக்கிறது. மொழி கற்பித்தலில், "தமிழ்மொழி மின்னியல் கற்றல் தரவக மொழியியல் தொகுப்பை இரண்டு வழிகளில் பயன்படுத்தலாம். முதல் வழி, பாடங்கள், பாடத்திட்டம் / பாடக்கலைத்திட்டம் ஆகியவற்றையும் பாடநூல்களையும் தயாரிக்கப் பயன்படுத்தலாம். மற்றொரு வழி, தகவல்தொடர்பு அணுகுமுறையில் தமிழை மாணவர்களுக்குக் கற்பிக்கும்போது நேரடியான கற்பித்தல் / கற்றல் நடவடிக்கைகளில் பயன்படுத்துவதாகும்.
2014ICT and its significance in Knowledge based Economy Development

Seetha Lakshmi (2014). ICT and its significance in Knowledge based Economy Development. Keynote Address, International Conference on Recent Advances in Educational Technology: Implications and Future Directions, Khajamalai, Tiruchirappalli, India: Bharathidasan University.

அறிவு சார்ந்த பொருளியல் மேம்பாட்டில், தகவல் தொடர்பு தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் பங்கும் தாக்கமும்
Seetha Lakshmi Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
  Today’s 21st globalized world expects different set of skills from our young students. Hence the educators and the leaders in educational field need to inculcate surviving skills for 21st century and relevant knowledge to their students. For this, the educators and leaders of educational institutions at all levels are being trained themselves and developing their capabilities. This will enable the future citizens of the global world to be equipped with knowledge, skills, and experience to work for employers with high expectations and far-sighted goals. Currently, the knowledge based functional skills that are expected among our students are ability to use the digital technology, assessing capability of technological information and the intelligence to integrate the information and create new information. These skills are felt necessary at functional level in the knowledge-based economy (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2004). Using technology (Mike Eisenberg, Doug Johnson & Bob Berkowitz, 2010) in a responsible and ethical way to do research and solve the problems of a community is a level of skills needed for today’s youth. To develop this kind of future leaders, the educators and institutional leaders have to formulate themselves as 21st century educators and educational leaders. This paper will highlight the place of ICT in today’s knowledge-based economy and how it plays a critical role in developing young students to facilitate the growth of knowledge-based economy (Kenneth J. Literacy & Kenneth J. Luterbach, 2011) with a reference to ICT in Singapore’s Educational Institutions.
 இன்றைய இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டில் உலகமயமாக்க உலகம் இளம் மாணவ்ரகளிடம் பலதரப்பட்ட திறன் தொகுதிகளை எதிர்பார்க்கிறது. அதனால் கல்வியாளர்களும் கல்வித்துறையில் தலைவர்களாகப் பொறுப்பேற்றுள்ளோரும் தங்களது மாணவர்களுக்கு இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டில் வாழ்வதற்கான உயிர்வாழ்வுத்திறன்களையும் இந்நூற்றாண்டுக்கு ஏற்ற பொருத்தமான அறிவையும் வழங்கி மேம்படுத்தவேண்டும். இதற்குக் கல்வியாளர்களும் அனைத்துக் கல்வி நிலைய தலைவர்களும் உரிய பயிற்சிகளில் பங்கேற்று தங்களது கொள்ளளவை மேம்படுத்திக்கொள்ள வேண்டும். இது எதிர்காலக் குவலயக்குடிமக்கள் வேலை இடங்களில் அதிக எதிர்பார்ப்புடனும் தொலைநோக்குச் சிந்தனையுடனும் கூடிய முதலாளிகள் எதிர்பார்க்கக்கூடிய அறிவு, திறன்கள், அனுபவம் ஆகியவற்றைப் பெற உதவி புரியும். தற்போது, மாணவர்களிடம் எதிர்பார்க்கப்படும் அறிவு சார்ந்த செயல்பாட்டுத் திறன்கள் கீழ்வருமாறு: நுண்மத்தொழில்நுட்பம், தகவல் தொழில்நுட்பத்தகவலை மதிப்பிடும் திறமை, அதற்கான தகுதி, இருக்கும் தகவலை இணைததுப் புதிய தகவலை உருவாக்கும் அறிவு. இத்தகு திறன்கள் அறிவு சார்ந்த பொருளியலில் செயல்பாட்டு நிலையில் அவசியமானவை. (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2004) தொழில்நுட்பத்தைப் (Mike Eisenberg, Doug Johnson & Bob Berkowitz, 2010) பொறுப்போடு ஆய்வுக்குப் பயன்படுத்தி ஒரு சமூகத்தின் பிரச்சினைகளைத் தீர்ப்பதும் இன்றைய இளையர்க்குத் தேவையான திறன் தகுதி. இதத்கைய திறன் தகுதி மிக்க எதிர்காலத் தலைவர்களை மேம்படுத்தும்வகையில் கல்வியாளர்களும் கல்வி நிறுவனத்தலைவர்களும் முதலில் தங்களை இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டுக் கல்வியாளர்களாவும் கல்வித்துறைத் தலைவர்களாகவும் வடிவமைத்துக்கொள்ளவேண்டும். இந்தக் கட்டுரை இன்றைய அறிவுசார்ந்த பொருளியலில் தகவல் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் இடத்தையும் இளையர்களை மேம்படுத்துவதில் சிங்கப்பூர்க்கல்வி நிறுவனங்களில் தகவல் தொழில்நுட்பப்பயன்பாட்டின் இன்றியமையாப் பங்கையும் (Kenneth J. Literacy & Kenneth J. Luterbach, 2011) எடுத்துக் கூறுகிறது.
2014Developmental Needs and Sustainment of 21st Century Teachers

Seetha Lakshmi (2014, August). Developmental needs and Sustainment of 21st Century Teachers (Invited Plenary Address). Paper presented at International Conference on Recent Advances in Educational Technology: Implications and Future Directions, Khajamalai, Trichirappalli, India: Bharathidasan University.

இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டுக்கான ஆசிரியர்கள்தம் மேம்பாட்டுக்கான தேவைகளும் அவற்றைத் தக்கவைத்தலும்
Seetha Lakshmi Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
  Teacher education is the backbone of a country’s socio-economic development. For countries like Singapore, teacher education is vital to the development of its citizens and the sustainment of its knowledge-based economy. Designing a 21stcentury teacher education curriculum, enactment, evaluation and systematic review are key procedures here. National Institute of Education’s ‘A Teacher Education Model for the 21st Century (TE21) Framework’ (2009) fosters the enhanced partnership model with 6 key recommendations to equip the teachers to become skilled 21st century teachers for 21st century students. With strong ethical attitudes, values, skills, knowledge, hard work and continuous motivation, the 21st century teachers can be developed and sustained in their service. This paper traces the journey of teacher education programmes conducted by National Institute of Education and Finland by highlighting the importance of planning, developing and sustaining the 21st century teachers. As Finland is well-known for its structured teacher training and high-quality teacher education with research orientation, a comparative study of the systems would be beneficial and enlightening.
 ஒரு நாட்டின் சமூகப் பொருளியல் மேம்பாட்டுக்கு ஆசிரியர் கல்வி முதுகெலும்பாகும். சிங்கப்பூர் போன்ற நாடுகளுக்குத் தன் குடிமக்களின் வளர்ச்சிக்கும் அவர்களது அறிவுசார் பொருளியளைத் தொடர்ந்து தக்கவைப்பதற்கும் ஆசிரியர் கல்வி இன்றியமையாதது. இங்கு இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டு ஆசிரியர் கல்விக்கான பாடத்திட்டம், அதற்கு உயிர்கொடுத்தல், மதிப்பீடு, முறைசார்ந்த மறுஆய்வு ஆகியன முக்கியமான படிநிலைகளாகும். தேசியக் கல்விக்கழக்தின் இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டுக் கட்டமைப்புக்கான (TE21) ஆசிரியர் கல்வி மாதிரி (2009), மேம்படுத்தப்பட்ட பங்காளித்துவ மாதிரியாக ஆறு முக்கிய பரிந்துரைகளைக்கொண்டு திகழ்கிறது. இந்த ஆறு பரிந்துரைகளும் ஆசிரியர்கள் இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டு மாணவர்களுக்குக் கற்பிக்கும் இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டு ஆசிரியர்களாகத் திகழ வேண்டிய திறன்களைக் கைவரப்பெற வழிவகுக்கும். வலுவான மரபுநோக்கிய குணப்போக்குகள், விழுமங்கள், திறன்கள், அறிவு, கடின உழைப்பு, தொடர்ந்த ஊக்கம் ஆகியவற்றைக்கொண்டு இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டு ஆசிரியர்கள் தம் சேவையில் மேம்பட்டுத் தொடர்ந்து தம்மைத்தக்கவைத்துக்கொள்ள முடியும். இந்தக் கட்டுரை தேசியக் கல்விக்கழகம், ஃபின்லாந்து நாட்டின் ஆசிரியர் கல்விப்பயணத்தைப் பற்றி எடுத்துரைபத்தோடு இருபத்தோராம் நூற்றாண்டு ஆசிரியர்களுக்கான திட்டமிடல், மேம்படுத்துதல், நிலைத்து நிற்றல் ஆகியனவற்றின் இன்றியமையாமையையும் குறிக்கிறது. ஃபின்லாந்து நாட்டின் ஆசிரியர் கல்வி ஆராய்ச்சிக்கு முக்கியத்துவம் தரும் கட்டமைக்கப்பட்ட, தரமான கல்வி என்பதால், இரண்டு அமைப்புகளையும் ஒப்பிட்டுப் பார்ப்பது அறிவு புகட்டுவதாகவும் பயன்மிக்கதாகவும் அமையும்.
2013Teaching Language and Cultural Values through Short films

10th World Tamil Teachers’ Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

மொழி, பண்பாட்டு விழுமியங்களைக் கற்பிப்பதில் குறும்படங்கள்
Sasikumar Ponnalagu Conference Presentations (with publication)
  Mother tongue education encompasses a person's cultural identity, heritage and values. Values and culture should be given importance in the education system. There is a need to carry out teaching and learning in a way that captivates students’ interest. Today’s short films serve as a training ground and tools for teaching for this purpose. This paper shares a list of short films and the various techniques that could be incorporated with them to achieve great teaching and learning outcomes. As a follow-up activity, after students have watched a short film, techniques such as ‘hot seating’ could be applied. This will help students to achieve the learning outcomes comprising of language and cultural components. By choosing short films, language learning in the classroom will appeal better to the students. Through this, students can continue to retain their learning curiosity. It would encourage them to make the language their preferred mode of communication. There is no doubt that we will bring our culture and values to them guide them thereon.
 தாய்மொழிக்கல்வி என்பது ஒருவரின் பண்பாட்டு அடையாளத்தையும் மரபுவழிப் பண்புகளையும் விழுமியங்களையும் உணர்த்தவல்லது. கல்வித்திட்ட முறையில் விழுமிய நெறிகளும் பண்பாடும் முக்கியமானவைகளாக இருக்க வேண்டும். மாணவர்களின் மனங்களைக் கவரும் வகையில் கற்றல் கற்பித்தலும் இருக்க வேண்டுவது அவசியமாகிறது. அதற்கான பயிற்சிக் களங்களாகவும் கற்பித்தலுக்கான கருவிகளாகவும் இன்றைக்குக் குறும்படங்கள் திகழ்கின்றன. இத்தாள் சிந்தனையைத் தூண்டும் பல குறும்பங்களையும் அவற்றை வெவ்வேறு உத்திகளுடன் பயன்படுத்தி பயன்பெறும் வழிமுறைகளையும் பகிர்கின்றது. மாணவர்கள் குறும்படத்தைக் கண்ட பிறகு, தொடர்நடவடிக்கையாக முதன்மை இருக்கை, மனசாட்சிப் பாதை ஆகிய உத்திகள் பயன்படுத்தப்படும். இவையே மொழி மற்றும் பண்பாட்டு விழுமியங்களை மாணவர்களினிடத்தில் கொண்டு சேர்க்க உதவும். குறும்படங்களைத் தேர்ந்தெடுத்து நாம் பயன்படுத்தினால் வகுப்பறையில் மொழி கற்றல் கற்பித்தல் என்பது மேலும் சுவாரசியமாக அமையும். அத்தோடு மாணவர்களின் கற்றல் ஈடுபாட்டையும் தொடர்ந்து தக்கவைத்துக்கொள்ள முடியும். அவர்கள் தொடர்ந்து மொழியைப் பேசுவதற்கும் அது வழிவகுக்கும். இது நமது பண்பாட்டையும், விழுமியங்களையும் அவர்களிடம் கொண்டுசென்று அவற்றை அவர்களிடம் நிலை நிறுத்துவதற்கும் அவர்களை வழி நடத்துவதற்கும் உதவியாக இருக்கும் என்பதில் ஐயமில்லை.
2012Globalisation and Teaching of Tamil - Challenges & Problems faced by Tamil Teachers

Presented at the National Research Seminar on Tamil Education.ஆசிரியம்: சுவடுகளும் சுவடிகளும். பன்னாட்டுத் தமிழ்க்கல்வி ஆய்வரங்கம்.

உலகமயமாதலில் தமிழ் கற்றல் கற்பித்தல் - சிக்கல்கள், சவால்கள்
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (without publication)
  Tamil Language has regained “Ancient Language” status and has been widely used throughout the world. As Tamil is becoming globalised, there are differing thoughts about teaching the language. For example, since there is no uniformity in teaching Tamil Grammar, even the basic and salient concept of the number of letters in Tamil language raises a debate. Additionally, with the rise of technology transcending into classrooms, students are stuck between teachers who on one hand believe in memorising for better understanding and on the other hand who believe that through new inventions such as iPhone and iPad, memory work is not required. As a result of such problems, there are difficulties in preparing and constructing software or other internet and computer related programs for usage throughout the world. Hence, this paper will be looking into such problems and elaborating them. It will also focus on problems faced by NIE Singapore during the teacher training course. The author hopes that giving prominence to such problems will enable the audience to learn about the problems and develop various solutions to mitigate them.
 தமிழ்மொழிக்குச் செம்மொழி என்னும் உயரிய பட்டம் வழங்கப்பட்டு உலகம் முழுவதும் பயன்பாட்டில் இருந்து வருகிறது. தமிழ்மொழி உலகமயமாக்குதலில் உட்பட்டிருப்பதால் தமிழ்மொழியைக் கற்பித்தல் தொடர்பாகப் பலரிடையே பலவிதமான மாறுபட்ட கருத்துகள் நிலவுகின்றன. எடுத்துக்காட்டுக்குத் தமிழ் இலக்கணம் கற்பிப்பதற்கென ஒரு முறைப்படுத்தப்பட்ட நிலை இல்லை என்னும் காரணத்தால் தமிழ்மொழியில் எத்தனை எழுத்துகள் இருக்கின்றன என்ற மிக அடிப்படையான வினாவிற்குக் கூட பலர் விவாதிப்பதைப் பார்க்கலாம். அதுமட்டுமில்லாமல், வளர்ந்துவரும் தொழில்நுட்பத்தின் தாக்கம் வகுப்பறைகளில் ஊடுருவ, மாணவர்கள் இரண்டு வகையான ஆசிரியர்களிடம் சிக்கித் தவிக்கின்றனர். ஒரு புறம் மனனம் செய்வதே புரிதலுக்கு வழி வகுக்கும் என்று நம்பும் ஆசிரியர்கள். மறுபுறம், ஐ-போன், ஐ-பாட் போன்ற புதிய கண்டுபிடிப்புகள் இருக்கும்போது மனனம் செய்வது அவசியமில்லை என்று நம்பும் ஆசிரியர்கள். இத்தகைய பிரச்சினைகளின் காரணமாக, உலகப் பயன்பாட்டிற்காகப் புதிய மென்பொருள் உருவாக்கவோ இணையம்/கணினி சார்ந்த நடவடிக்கைகள் தயாரிக்கவோ சவால்கள் எதிர்நோக்கப்படுகின்றன. எனவே, இக்கட்டுரை இத்தகைய பிரச்சினைகளை ஆராய்ந்து விளக்க விரும்புகின்றது. மேலும், ஆசிரியர் பயிற்சி வழங்கும் சிங்கப்பூர் கல்விக் கழகம் சந்திக்கும் பிரச்சினைகளையும் இது பார்க்கவிருக்கிறது. இப்பிரச்சினைகளுக்கு முக்கியத்தும் அளித்துக் கூர்ந்து பார்ப்பதன் மூலம் கல்வியாளர்களால் இவற்றினை அறிந்துகொண்டு அவற்றினைத் தீர்ப்பதற்கான வழிகளைக் கண்டறிய முடியும் என்று கட்டுரையாசிரியர் நம்புகின்றார்.
2006Research efforts pertaining to Singapore's Tamil literature; The role played by the higher Education Institutions

Research efforts pertaining to Singapore's Tamil Literature; The role played by the higher education. In Karthigesu, R., & Seethalakshmi (Eds.) Malaysia-Singapore Literary Conference Singapore: NIE.

சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் ஆய்வு முயற்சிகள்: உயர் கல்விநிறுவனங்களின் பங்கு
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (with publication)
  The Paper deals with how the Higher Education Institutions in Singapore helped develop Singapore Tamil Literature. National University of Singapore and National Institute of Education conducted many seminars based on Singapore Tamil literature. Yishun Junior college also conducted Tamil literature seminars regularly for more than 30 years. The paper explains thoroughly how all these seminars helps directly or indirectly the development of Singapore Tamil Literature.
 உயர்கல்வி நிறுவனங்கள் என்னும் தொடர் பொதுவாகப் பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள், தொழில் நுட்பக் கல்லூரிகள் ஆகியவற்றைக் குறிக்கக் கூடியது. அப்படிப் பார்க்கையில் சிங்கப்பூரில் தேசிய பல்கலைக் கழகமும், தேசியக் கல்விக்கழகமும்தான் தமிழ் இலக்கியம் தொடர்பான ஆய்வுகளை நடத்தி வந்துள்ளன, வருகின்றன. பொதுவாகச் சிங்கப்பூரில் தமிழிலக்கிய ஆய்வு என்று குறிப்பிடும்போது குறிப்பிட்டுச் சொல்லக்கூடிய ஒரு சில கல்வி நிறுவனங்களும் சில அமைப்புகளும்தான் அவற்றை ஏற்று நடத்தி வந்துள்ளன, வருகின்றன. கல்வி நிறுவனங்களைச் சார்ந்தவைகளுள் சிங்கப்பூர்த் தேசிய பல்கலைக்கழகமும், தேசியக் கல்விக்கழகமும், யீசூன் தொடக்கக் கல்லூரியும் குறிப்பிடத்தக்கவையாகும். இவற்றுள் யீசூன் தொடக்கக் கல்லூரி உயர் கல்வி நிறுவனங்களின் வரிசையில் இடம்பெறாதாது. இருப்பினும் அது “புகுமுக வகுப்புக்களுக்கான தமிழ் இலக்கியக் கருத்தரங்கு” என்று கடந்த 30 ஆண்டுகளாகத் தொடர்ந்து கருத்தரங்குகளை நடத்தி வருகின்றது. எனவே அதனைத் தவிர்ப்பது சரியல்ல. ஆகையால் அதனையும் இணைத்து இத்தலைப்பை அணுகுவதே பொருத்தமாக இருக்கும்.

சிங்கப்பூர்த் தமிழ் இலக்கிய ஆய்வு முயற்சிகளில் உயர் கல்வி நிறுவனங்களின் பங்கு என்னும் இத்தலைப்பைக் கீழ்க்கண்ட உட்தலைப்புகளின் அடிப்படையில் பார்க்கலாம்.

1. சிங்கப்பூர் தேசியப் பல்கலைக்கழகமும் தமிழ் இலக்கிய ஆய்வும்

2. தேசியக் கல்விக்கழகமும் தமிழ் இலக்கிய ஆய்வும்

3. யீசூன் தொடக்கக் கல்லூரியும் தமிழ் இலக்கிய ஆய்வும்

4. தேசிய நூலக வாரியம்

5. பிற உயர்கல்வி நிறுவனங்களும் தமிழ் இலக்கிய ஆய்வும்.
2005Instructional Phases in Tamil Language Classrooms

தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் படிநிலை வளர்ச்சிகளின் மேம்பாடு
Sivakumaran s/o Ramalingam Conference Presentations (with publication)
  In this poster-presentation, the nature of instructional phases observed in 12 Tamil lessons will be examined in detail with the aim of improving Tamil pedagogy. These lessons were observed as part of CRPP’s Core Project which involves a multi-level analysis of the Singapore School System. In the 12 Tamil lessons observed, there were altogether 182 phases. Examination of these phases indicated that teachers used a variety of instructional phases in Singapore Tamil classrooms and they were logically sequenced. But analysis of duration of some of these phases indicated that there were several short phases which resulted in abrupt phase shifts which interfered with proper task accomplishment and effective learning. Apart from these issues, the presentation will also examine the nature of specific phases which tend to have a bearing on student learning and use of the language in the classroom.
 தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் படிநிலை வளர்ச்சிகள் எவ்வாறு உள்ளது என்பதை இக்கட்டுரை ஆராய்கிறது. வெவ்வேறு பள்ளிகளில் உயர்நிலை மூன்று, தொடக்கநிலை ஐந்து ஆகிய வகுப்புகளில் 21 தொகுதிகள் ஆய்வுக்கு உட்படுத்தப்பட்டன. இத்தொகுதிகளில் 81 பாடங்கள் நடைபெற்றன. இந்த 81 பாடங்களில் 357 படிநிலைவளர்ச்சிகள் இடம்பெற்றன. இந்த ஆய்வு CRPP மேற்கொண்ட செயல் திட்டத்திற்காக மேற்கொள்ளப்பட்டது. பொதுவாகத் தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் படிநிலை வளர்ச்சிகள் படிப் படியாக இடம்பெற்றுள்ளதையும் பலவகையான படிநிலை வளர்ச்சிகள் விரவி வந்துள்ளதையும் ஆய்வு காட்டுகிறது. ஆய்வுக்குட்பட்ட பாடங்களில் காணப்பட்ட 357 படிநிலைகளில் 123 படிநிலைகள் ஐந்து நிமிடமோ அதற்குக் குறைவாகவோ அமைந்துள்ளன. சில வகுப்புகளில் ஆசிரியர்கள் ஒரு படிநிலையிலிருந்து அடுத்த படிநிலைக்கு மிக விரைவாகப் போகும் போக்கினையும் தமிழாசிரியர்கள் மூன்று வகையான படிநிலை வளர்ச்சிகளை அதிகமாகக் கையாண்டுள்ளதையும் ஆய்வு காட்டுகிறது. பொதுவாகத் தமிழ் வகுப்புகளில் இடம்பெற்றுள்ள 9 வகையான படிநிலை வளர்ச்சிகளைப் பற்றி ஆய்வு கூறுகிறது.
YearTitle
AuthorType
2020Chenwei and the Tradition of Chinese Classical Learning in Republican China: An Analysis from the Perspective of Chen Pan's Research on Chenwei.

Neo, P.F. (2020). Chenwei and the Tradition of Chinese Classical Learning in Republican China: An Analysis from the Perspective of Chen Pan's Research on Chenwei. Zhongguo Jingxue (Chinese Classical Learning), 27.

梁秉賦〈陳槃的讖緯研究〉,彭林主編《中國經學》第二十七輯(桂林:廣西師範大學出版社,2020年12月)。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This paper approaches the studies on Chinese classics from the perspective of Chen Pan's research on Chenwei.
 本想研究以陳槃的谶纬研究角度切入,进一步对中国经学进行探讨。
2020Studies on Chinese Language Education in Singapore

Neo, P. F. (2020). Studies on Chinese Language Education in Singapore (pp. 128). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

梁秉赋《新加坡华文教育研究》(北京:北京语言大学出版社,2020年6月)。
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 "Studies on Chinese Language Education of Confucius Institute and Overseas Language Education Book Series" is a set of academic works on overseas language teaching. This book is a monograph on Chinese education in Singapore. The whole book elaborates on the history and status quo of Chinese education in Singapore. It specifically introduces the history of the origin, development and transformation of Chinese schools in Singapore, and the historical contribution of Chinese education to Singapore’s overall education ecology. The background of this turning point in Chinese teaching has reflected the connotation, and made a rational and objective evaluation of the Singapore Chinese teaching model.
 “孔子学院汉语教育与海外语言教育研究书系”是一套研究海外语言教学的学术著作。本书是一本新加坡华文教育的专著。全书详细论述了新加坡华文教育的历史和现状,具体介绍了新加坡华文学校的起源、发展和转型历史,华文教育在新加坡的整体教育生态中所做出的历史贡献等情况,分析了从华文教育到华文教学这一转折出现的背景,折射的内涵,并对新加坡华文教学模式进行了理性、客观的评价。
2019Curriculum Framework and Materials Design for Online Basic Spoken Chinese Programme

Lim, S. L. (2019). Curriculum Framework and Materials Design for Online Basic Chinese Programme. In Tan, C. L., Choong, K.W.,A,R, Sivakumaran & Mohd, A. Subhan (Eds.), Innovative Practice, Practice Innovation (pp. 103-115). Singapore: NTU-SCCL Press.

在线基础汉语口语课程框架与教材设计
Lim Seok LaiBook Chapters
 The continued economic expansion of China over the past three decades is accompanied by a worldwide surge in demand for the teaching and learning of Chinese as an international language (TCIL), resulting in the production and publication of numerous course materials, both within and outside China, since the turn of the millennium. While choice aplenty, it has been observed that many of these materials have not been effective in meeting the needs of foreign language learners, one of the reasons being that they have been written mainly by target-native writers with a “target-native mindset”. Taking into consideration the uniqueness of the Chinese language with special reference to its written script, and building on the notion that a solid oral foundation forms the basis of all future learning, this paper proposes a curriculum framework for the teaching of basic spoken Chinese as a “truly foreign language” to English-speaking adult learners. The proposed framework could serve as a guide for the development, refinement and evaluation of elementary TCIL textbooks. Moving into the 21st century, rapid advancement in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and internet technology, coupled with the popular use and heavy reliance on mobile electronic devices including smartphones and tablets, has created a brand new online platform for daily communication and the transmission and exchange of information. This has in turn brought about tremendous changes to both teaching and learning. Anticipating a surge in demand for online learning, this paper illustrates with concrete examples how to make full use of multimedia resources and cutting-edge technology in designing e-materials that are effective in enhancing the development of both the listening and speaking skills, in support of online self-directed, self-paced learning.
 汉语热持续升温,近年来由汉语内外圈不同单位、机构研究开发的国际汉语教材数量大增,为教师与学习者提供了较多元的选择,虽在“量”方面基本满足了市场需求,但在“质”方面却还有很大的发展空间。任何教材要取得良好的学习效果,首先必须有明确的对象群并充分了解对象群的学习需要。本文从“汉语作为真正的外语的教学”(Teaching of Chinese as a Truly Foreign Language)的视角切入,充分考虑外圈英语背景成人学习者的需要,从理论上探讨汉语的特点与难点,并在其基础上初步建立有助于提高学习效率、加强学习效果的基础汉语口语课程与教材框架。这个框架可用来评析现行初级国际汉语教材,帮助我们了解教材的具体问题并寻求具针对性的解决方案,对优化教材设计有一定的借鉴意义。迈入21世纪,信息科技的日新月异,互联网的日益普及,移动电子设施如智能手机、平板电脑的渐趋普遍为信息的传送与接收创造了全新的平台,不仅改变了人与人之间的沟通模式,也大大改变了现代人的学习方式与习惯。大势所趋,教材与教学将配合21世纪学习模式走向电子化。本文根据所建立的课程与教材框架,通过示例讨论如何充分利用移动设备的强大功能辅助学习,对落实国际汉语口语教材的电子化有参考作用。
2019The May Fourth Movement and Anti-Colonialism in Singapore Chinese Schools.

Neo, P.F. (2019). The May Fourth Movement and Anti-Colonialism in Singapore Chinese Schools. In Wong, W.W., & Phua K.K. (Eds.), The May Fourth Movement in Southeast Asia (PP. 225-247). Singapore: Global Publishing.

梁秉赋〈“五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮〉,收入于王润华、潘国驹主编《五四在东南亚》(新加坡:八方文化创作室,2019年5月),页225-247。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 The "May Fourth Movement" and the anti-colonial thoughts of Singapore Chinese school students caused the "left-wing political activities" of Singapore Chinese school students in the 1950s. At that time, the anti-colonial ideology of the Chinese school students in Singapore went from "May Fourth" new cultural ideas through "anti-imperialist" to "anti-aggression" and then to "anti-colonialism." This trilogy was internalized and became an important ideological resource in the post-war anti-colonial movement in Singapore and Malaysia.
 “五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮的“左翼政治活动”是 1950 年代新加坡华校学潮中国“五四”新文化思想经由“反帝国主义”到“反侵略”,再到“反殖民主义”这三部曲之演化。这内化为战后新、马反殖民主义运动中的一项重要的思想资源。
2019“On May Fourth Movement and the Chinese Community in Singapore and Malaya: An Educational Perspective”

Neo, P. F. (2019, March). International Conference on Lun Xun and the Centennial History of May Fourth Movement. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, “On May Fourth Movement and the Chinese Community in Singapore and Malaya: An Educational Perspective”, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

梁秉赋〈“五四”与新马华社:一个教育史的视角〉,“鲁迅与五四运动一百周年纪念国际学术研讨会”主题演讲,马来西亚吉隆坡,2019年3月。
Neo Peng Fu Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 The "May Fourth Movement" and the "Left-wing political activities" of the anti-colonial thoughts of Chinese school students in Singapore were the evolution of the new cultural ideas of the Chinese "May Fourth Movement" in the 1950s through a trilogy of "anti-imperialist" to "anti-aggression" and then to "anti-imperialist". This was internalized as an important ideological resource in the anti-colonial movement of Singapore and Malaysia after the war.
 “五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮的“左翼政治活动”是 1950 年代新加坡华校学潮中国“五四”新文化思想经由“反帝国主义”到“反侵略”,再到“反殖民主义”这三部曲之演化。这内化为战后新、马反殖民主义运动中的一项重要的思想资源。
2018A Case Study on Promoting the Applicational Awareness of Beginning Teachers in Using Local Textbooks in Chinese Language Teaching

Paper presented at Symposium on Innovative Teaching and Learning of Mother Tongue Languages, Singapore (2018, Mar)

新手教师教材应用意识培养个案研究—以新加坡2015年版听说教材为例
Chau Sook Kuan Conference Presentations (without publication)
 The bilingual policy has always been the cornerstone of Singapore’s education system, requiring students to study the English language and their respective mother tongues. To ensure the effectiveness and relevance of the bilingual policy with the changing language environment in Singaporean homes, the curriculums of mother tongue languages were revamped following a review in 2010. In line with the recommendations of the review, the Ministry of Education (MOE) introduced the new Chinese Language Syllabus in 2014 and implemented a new curriculum “Huanle Huoban” in primary schools in the following year. One of the significant changes in the new curriculum “Huanle Huoban” included a greater emphasis on interaction skills and oral literacy to enhance pupils’ abilities to connect and communicate with others using their mother tongue languages, with the descriptive conceptualization being to first build the oralcy foundation of the students before learning reading and writing. The stipulated approaches and strategies for each lesson stated in the teacher’s guide are crafted by MOE, the curriculum center, from a national-level perspective. However, the descriptive conceptualization can be altered or even lost when transpiring from the curriculum center (MOE) to the teachers (J Goodlad, 1979). This research aims to 1) identify the gaps in applicational awareness of beginning Chinese Language teachers when using the “Huanle Huoban” textbooks and teaching materials in frontal teaching, and 2) suggest possible modifications to enhance effectiveness in meeting the learning needs of students. This research adopts a case study approach and the subjects of this research are trainee teachers who enrolled in the training module of “Teaching of Language Skills in Chinese: Speaking and Listening”.
 自建国以来,双语政策始终是新加坡教育中不变的重要基础,英语与母语,也就是三大民族的族群语言,包括华语、马来语、淡米尔与以及其他印度族群的母语是10年免费教育中核心科目。为适应21世纪教育变革与新加坡学生家庭背景的变化,课程与教材适时每五年都会更新。以最新的发展情况来说,新加坡教育部于2014年5月根据母语课程检讨报告书发布了新课程标准,翌年推行了新教材《欢乐伙伴》。《欢乐伙伴》最大的特点就是“听说、读写分流并进,有机关联”,即先听说后读写,旨在分散难点。教师先进行听说技能的教学,学生掌握了口语词和句式后,再进行读写技能的教学。重视语言技能训练可说是新加坡小学母语教学重要变革。根据古德拉(J Goodlad,1979),课程从设计、制定到落实,分为五个阶段:理想课程(专家)、正式课程(教育部)、知觉课程(教师)、运作课程(课堂)以及经验课程(学生),而这五种课程在转化的过程中存在着一定的落差,更具体一点说,是存在递减的现象,即每一种课程都无法完全实现前一种课程所包括的所有内容。不但正式课程无法完全落实理想课程的内容,而且教师所感知到的正式课程也不可能百分之百符合课程设计者的初衷。换言之,课程递减是必然的。教师课程知觉与课堂运作有赖于其课程意识,包括主体意识、资源意识与生成意识。为帮助教师有效落实技能教学,教育部也进一步制定了单元化课堂导学系统:“引、学、练、用、评”,并提出具体化的课堂教学流程,例如“分段三看三说”为听说教学方法。本研究将以2017年国立教育学院职前培训中的听说技能教学课程为个案,反思在培养新手教师教材应用意识过程所遇到的挑战,进而提出如何以新课程教学目标为大前提,以学生为课堂学习主体,以教师为课堂教学主体来调适新教材,有效落实课堂教学。
2018Instructional Materials for Online Basic Spoken Chinese Programme: Design of Language Drills and Exercises for Listening and Speaking

Lim, S. L. (2018, October). Instructional Materials for Online Basic Spoken Chinese Programme: Design of Language Drills and Exercises for Listening and Speaking. Paper presented at The 10th International Conference of Chinese Language Teaching in Asia-Pacific, Kenting, Taiwan.

在线基础汉语口语教材编写:听说练习的题型与设计
Lim Seok LaiConference Presentations (without publication)
 Moving into the 21st century, rapid advancement in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and internet technology, coupled with the popular use and heavy reliance on mobile electronic devices including smartphones and tablets, has created a brand new online platform for daily communication and the transmission and exchange of information. This has in turn brought about tremendous changes to both teaching and learning. Anticipating a surge in demand for online Chinese langauge programmes and instructional materials, this paper illustrates with concrete examples how to design various types of drills and exercises for the effective development of the listening and speaking skills, tapping on the powerful audio, visual and AI affordances of modern technology. The discussion took into consideration both the "Act" and "Fact" components of language learning and made reference to both the ACTFL and CERF guidelines.
 迈入21世纪,信息科技的日新月异,互联网的日益普及,移动电子设施如智能手机、平板电脑的渐趋普遍为信息的传送与接收创造了全新的平台,不仅改变了人与人之间的沟通模式,也大大改变了现代人的学习方式与习惯。大势所趋,教材与教学也将配合21世纪学习模式的更新而走向电子化。本文着重探讨在线基础汉语口语教程中聆听与说话练习的题型与设计。要取得最佳学习效果,不管聆听或者说话教学都需要个人化的指导和练习。由于人力资源以及课时等局限,线下语言课堂很难落实个人化口语学习,不过这些局限在资讯科技高度发达的互联网时代已得到解决。和读写技能相比,信息通信科技对训练听说二技的辅助作用更为显著。随着移动网络覆盖面急速扩大,网络速度不断提高,使用功能日益复杂的移动电子器材日益普遍,成为网络一族最基本、常用的学习与社交平台。这些具有强大多媒体功能的移动电子器材,特别是视频、录音以及配合最新的高智能人机对讲功能而产生的在线“语音操控个人助理”如Siri、chatbot等,都将对口语学习带来天翻地覆的改变。任何外语课程都必须兼顾两个方面的学习内容:和知识有关的“语言事实”(fact),以及和应用能力有关的“言语行为”(act)。“言语行为”让学习者在实际的操练与应用中“知其然”,真实体验目的语的操作;“语言事实”的输入则让学习者“知其所以然”,理解目的语的内部规律与特点。输入“语言事实”的手段是“解说”;培养“言语行为”的管道是“练习”。有效的练习分为三个阶段:1、进行机械式操练以内化语言点;2、在受控制的语境中进行应用性练习以促进语言点的迁移;3、在真实语境中进行交际性练习。本文综合美国ACTFL《为世界做好准备的外语标准》(World Readiness Standards)的3M交际模式以及欧盟CEFR的语言活动类型的特点,从课上与课下语言练习设计的角度切入,先概括出基础汉语外语口语课程需涵盖理解诠释、表达演示、人际交流以及中介四种语言交际模式,进而分析这四种交际模式和语言技能、学习者角色与信息流向之间的关系。在此基础上,本文举例说明在线听说教程中操练题(Drills),包括替换、转换、反应、扩展、组合五个小类、应用型练习(Application Exercise),包括聆听理解、转述及英汉转码、非互动性说话以及以及交际型练习(Communicative Exercise),包括角色扮演以及任务型练习应如何设计,以实现按需学习的目标,提高学习效果。
2018A Study on the Curriculum Framework for Basic Spoken Chinese

Lim, S.L. (2018). A Study on the Curriculum Framework for Basic Spoken Chinese.

基础汉语口语教程框架研究
Lim Seok LaiOthers
 The continued economic expansion of China over the past three decades is accompanied by a worldwide surge in demand for the teaching and learning of Chinese, resulting in the production and publication of numerous course materials, both within and outside China, since the turn of the millennium. While choice aplenty, the quality of the swiftly produced materials remains a major concern. The uniqueness of its written script makes Chinese a “truly foreign language” (Jorden & Walton, 1987). An effective Chinese program needs to take into consideration the challenges faced by its learners, especially during the beginning stage of learning. This thesis aims at developing a curriculum framework for the teaching of basic spoken Chinese as a “truly foreign language” to English-speaking adult learners. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the research background, stating its purpose, scope and methodology. Chapter 2 reviews pertinent research findings in the fields of linguistics, psycholinguistics and second language learning; describes the construction of a flexible framework for the teaching of Chinese to foreign learners; and includes the design of a comprehensive checklist for the evaluation of a beginning Chinese program. This is followed by the in-depth analysis and discussion in Chapters 3 to 5, of 3 sets of renowned representative Chinese language textbooks, viz., New Practical Chinese Reader Textbook, Integrated Chinese and Basic Spoken Chinese, with the help of the evaluation checklist. Chapter 6 proposes a curriculum framework for the development of an online program for Basic spoken Chinese, based on the discussion in the preceding chapters. It also recommends a hybrid model, which taps on the expertise of ICT engineers, textbook editors, base-native and target-native Chinese language instructors, for the teaching of Chinese as an international language. Chapter 7 summarizes the main contributions of this thesis and outlines pertinent research projects that could be undertaken in future.
 千禧年以来,由中国经济腾飞所引发的汉语热持续升温。近年来内外圈不同单位、机构研发的国际汉语教材数量大增,为教师与学习者提供了较多元的选择,虽在“量”方面基本满足了市场需求,但在“质”方面却还有很大的发展空间。任何教材要取得良好的学习效果,首先必须有明确的对象群并充分了解对象群的学习需要。本论文从“汉语作为‘真正的外语’”(Chinese as a truly foreign language)的独特视角切入,充分考虑外圈英语背景成人学习者的需要,从理论上探讨汉语的特点与汉语学习的难点,并在其基础上初步建立有助于提高学习效率、加强学习效果的在线基础汉语口语课程与教材框架。论文共分七章。第一章介绍研究背景,并从汉语作为真正外语的视角切入,提出研究问题与目的,界定研究范围,介绍研究方法并阐述研究意义。第二章先结合语言学、心理语言学、外语教学理论探讨何以对印欧语系背景学习者而言汉语是“真正的外语”,分析汉语的特点并据此提出具有弹性的国际汉语课程总框架,继而论述开发基础汉语口语课程的必要性,初步建构“理想”的基础汉语口语外语课程的架构与内容,再从课程结构、课程内容、教学方法以及呈现形式四个方面设计基础汉语教程检测清单,作为分析现行汉语教材的工具。第三至第五章借助所研发的教程检测清单,分别从宏观及微观视角对三套具有代表性的国际汉语教材,即《新实用汉语课本》、《中文听说读写》以及《基础汉语:听与说》的课程结构及教材设计进行深入分析。第六章在三套国际汉语教材的讨论基础上,提出“理想”的初级汉语外语口语教程设计理念,建立教程与样课框架,继而探讨课程执行管理以及建立跨境“协作组合模式”的必要性。第七章结论,阐明本研究的原创性,并阐述后续研究的前景与展望。
2018Chinese Schools and Adult Education in Singapore: 1951-1957.

Neo, P.F. (2018). Chinese Schools and Adult Education in Singapore: 1951-1957. The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies, 10(2), 47-60.

梁秉赋〈华校与新加坡的成人教育:1951-1957〉,《华人研究国际学报》第十卷第二期(2018年12月),页47-60。
Neo Peng Fu Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 This paper details the historical link between Chinese language schools and adult education in Singapore. This is another important aspect of Singapore's Chinese language history.
 新加坡的英国殖民地政府在1950年12月,成立了一个 “新加坡成人教育咨询委员会” (Singapore Council for Adult Education), 开始关注成人教育的问题,其主要目标在于扫除文盲。然而,政府虽然有此良好构想,但如何落实这项政策仍然是极具挑战的。因为以扫除文盲、提升劳动力的知识文化水平为宗旨的成人教育,在当时的新加坡仍是一项全新的社会工程。许多相关的问题都需要作细致的规划。比如,教师、教材从何而来,上课的地点如何安排?其次,这项规划虽然用意至善,但是否能通过有效的宣导以获得民众的支持?本文拟指出,华文教育界当时曾积极地参与这项工作,协助政府实现其目标。华校校长和教师们,在成立于1946年的 “新加坡华校联合会” 的领导下,曾为这项影响深远的社会工程作出重大的贡献。
2018Language for Mobilization or Language for Development: A Case Study of Singapore

Neo P. F. (2018, October). 2018 International Conference on Science, Technology, Education, Arts, Culture and Humanity. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, “Language for Mobilization or Language for Development: A Case Study of Singapore”, Surabaya, Indonesia.

梁秉赋〈为动员群众还是为发展经济?国别语言政策研究之新加坡个例〉,“科学、科技、教育、艺术、文化与人文国际学术研讨会”主题演讲,印度尼西亚泗水,2018年10月。
Neo Peng Fu Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 This paper examines the important role assigned to language in Singapore. It highlights the link between language and progress.
 本文探讨新加坡语言的重要角色,并强调语言与国家发展的关联性。
2018Confucian Scholarship with Regional Characteristic: A Critical Analysis

Neo P. F. (2018, August). International Conference on Confucian Entrepreneurs. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, Confucian Scholarship with Regional Characteristic: A Critical Analysis, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

梁秉赋〈论区域化儒学〉,“儒商国际学术研讨会”主题演讲,马来西亚新山,2018年8月
Neo Peng Fu Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 This paper provides an analysis on the development of Confucianism in the north-western part of China in the period from late Qin to early Han dynasties.
 本文探讨了中国西北地区,从秦朝末期至汉代初期儒学的发展。
2018A History of the Singapore Chinese Schools' Conference: The First Decade--1946 to 1956

Neo, P. F. (2018). A History of the Singapore Chinese Schools' Conference: The First Decade--1946 to 1956 (PP. 146). Singapore: The Society of Chinese Education Singapore.

梁秉赋《新加坡华校联合会史纲——千里之行始于足下:1946-1956》(新加坡:新加坡华文教育学会,2018年8月)。
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 From the beginning, Chinese language schools in Singapore had shown a keen interest in developing themselves continuously. This paper furnishes detailed information on conferences organised by the Chinese language schools, providing an insight to the history of Chinese language in Singapore from 1946 to 1956.
 新加坡华校联合会在成立后的短短几年内即建立起良好声誉,甚受公众赏识与器重。它以“研究教育问题,期健全华校行政机能,提高教育效率,及增进会员学校教职员之福利”为宗旨。它在战后的1940年代末,作为当时“本坡华校唯一之联合团体”,且“组织健全、宗旨纯正”,社会人士对它都“寄予莫大希望”。校联会在1950年代中后期到底曾为新加坡的华文教育事业做出了什么贡献,这些功业对当时的社会曾发挥过怎样的影响?又是什么因素造成它需要在这些方面付出努力,为之尽心尽力?我们又得以从校联会这首十年的发展历程之中,窥见新加坡的华文教育事业在此历史阶段中面对着什么困难和被赐予什么机遇?本书拟从校联会如何关怀学生福祉、发展教师福利、推动民众教育,及针对教育政策建言等四方面切入,来认识它在新加坡教育史上的定位。
2017Supporting Primary School Mother Tongue Languages Beginning Teachers in the Teaching of Character and Citizenship Education

Paper presented at NIE TE Forum, Singapore (2017, May)

提升小学母语新晋教师《好公民 好品德》的教育素养
Chau Sook Kuan Conference Presentations (without publication)
 The new Character and Citizenship Education (CCE) syllabus for primary schools was launched in 2014, providing clear directives for every school to adopt a total curriculum approach. While the distinctive role of Mother Tongue Languages (MTLs) teachers as CCE subject teachers remains unchanged, with more components added to the CCE syllabus, they are also assuming other CCE-related responsibilities such as Form Teacher Guidance Period lessons, school-based CCE lessons and programmes. MTLs teachers are now also “character coaches” who infuse teaching values in their own subjects, co-curricular activities or daily interactions with students.

The series of new initiatives and different facets of expectations in CCE brought significant changes to the traditional role played by primary school MTLs teachers. MTLs beginning teachers must thoroughly understand and embrace these changes for them to be effective in the teaching of CCE. Thus, it is essential for teacher-mentors to place greater emphasis on supporting MTLs beginning teachers in this aspect.

This paper aims to discuss effective strategies to support MTLs beginning teachers in the teaching of CCE and to help them play the role of “character coaches” well, with reference to the “3H Strategies” adopted by this researcher, an NIE lecturer, for training Chinese Language student teachers. The “3H Strategies” include (i) using specific tools to understand the pre-conceptions and perspectives of the student teachers, and to identify their learning needs; (ii) providing authentic experiential learning opportunities to address their misconceptions and learning needs; (iii) tracking conceptual change through observation and learners’ reflections.
 新的小学《好公民好品德》教育 (CCE) 教学大纲于2014年推出,为每所学校采用全面课程方法提供了明确的指示。母语 (MTL) 教师作为CCE学科教师的独特角色保持不变。但随着CCE教学大纲中增加更多的组成部分,母语教师也承担起了其他 CCE相关的职责,例如级任老师辅导课、CCE校本课程和相关活动。这就代表母语教师作为“品德教练”的职责将贯穿课程、课外活动或与学生的日常互动中。

CCE的一系列新举措和不同层面的期许给小学母语教师的传统角色带来了巨大变化。母语新晋教师若要有效地兼任好公民好品德教师,就必须彻底理解和接受这些变化。因此,教师导师必须更着重为新晋教师提供这方面的辅助。本文旨在探讨为母语新晋教师提供CCE教学中的有效策略,以提升他们作为“品德教练”这一职责的能力。本项研究参考了该研究员(NIE讲师)进行母语教师培训课程时所采用的“3H策略”。 “3H 策略”包括 (i) 使用特定工具来了解学生教师的先入之见和观点,并确定他们的学习需求; (ii) 提供真实的体验式学习机会来解决他们的误解和学习需求; (iii) 通过观察和学习者的反思来跟踪概念变化。
2017Images of "Thong Chai" in the Chinese Press: On the Compilation of an Electronic Data Base for Research on Thong Chai Medical Institution in Singapore

Neo, P. F. (2017). Images of "Thong Chai" in the Chinese Press: On the Compilation of an Electronic Data Base for Research on Thong Chai Medical Institution in Singapore. In Toh, N. H. & Neo, P. F. (Eds.), Collected Essays on the 150 Years' History of Thong Chai Medical Institution in Singapore: 1867-2017(PP. 254-261). Singapore: Thong Chai Medical Institution, Singapore.

梁秉赋〈存于报章文献中的同济 ∙ 建立新加坡同济医院新闻资料库工作报告〉,收入于杜南发、梁秉赋主编《同济医院150周年文集》(新加坡:同济医院,2017年9月),页254-261。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 This article presents a compilation of the coverage received by Thong Chai Medical Institution in its long history in Singapore. It focusses on the image of "Thong Chai" as presented by the Chinese press over the years.It was published on the 150th anniversary of the founding of Singapore Thong Chai Medical Institution (STCMI) . STCMI adheres to the tenet of "“providing free medical consultation and TCM to all regardless of race, religion and nationality", and has set the record of "the oldest existing medical institution" and the "largest free medical institution". This chapter contains news materials about STCMI, the oldest medical institution, and thus reflects the role and status of STCMI in different historical periods over the past 150 years.
 〈存于报章文献中的同济 ∙ 建立新加坡同济医院新闻资料库工作报告〉出版于同济医院建院150周年。同济医院秉持着“不分种族、宗教、国际,一视同仁、施医赠药、分文不收”的宗旨,创下了‘现存最悠久的医疗机构’以及‘规模最大的免费医疗机构’记录。这一章节收录了这一所最悠久的医疗机构同济医院的新闻资料,从而体现出了同济医院150年来在不同历史时期的角色和地位。
2017Chenwei and the Tradition of Chinese Classical Learning in Republican China: An Analysis from the Perspective of Jiang Zhongkui's Research on Chenwei.

Neo, P. F. (2017). Chenwei and the Tradition of Chinese Classical Learning in Republican China: An Analysis from the Perspective of Jiang Zhongkui's Research on Chenwei. Zhongguo Jingxue (Chinese Classical Learning), 20, 115-124.

梁秉賦〈姜忠奎的讖緯觀〉,彭林主編《中國經學》第二十輯(桂林:廣西師範大學出版社,2017年6月),頁115-124。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 In his book, Jiang Zhongkui elaborated on the "variable changes" of "Wei Xue" (divination) during the different dynasties. He likened some Confucian scholars in the past who were dogmatic and who viewed Chenwei as a cause in splitting the study of Confucian classics to modern scholars who were critical about Confucianism and who preferred to link it to the Yin-Yang School. Born during the late Qing Dynasty and grew up when the country became Republic of China, Jiang explained that the studies of classics and divination are two wings that complement each other. This not only provided a new perspective when looking at Chenwei, but also allowed the world see Jiang’s faith in the classics. From the historical point of view, Jiang have a special place in the development of Confucian classics during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.
 姜忠奎《纬史论微》一书详述“纬学”在历代所曾迭经之“数变”相较于一些经生因拘守门户而使经学的大体亦为其谶纬观所裂,和部分现代学人为了批判孔学而以其谶纬观强将儒学与阴阳家连为一体,生于清末长于民初的姜忠奎,通过高揭经学和纬学自有各具的学术旨趣,来阐明经、纬之互为两翼、相得益彰.其意义,不仅在给予谶纬一个新的诠释,可能更为重要的是让世人看到他对经学的一种信仰.从历史的视角来看,姜忠奎在清末民初这一经学发展史上的特殊时期应占有一席之地.
2017Collected Essays on the 150 Years' History of Thong Chai Medical Institution in Singapore: 1867-2017.

Toh, N. H. & Neo, P. F. (Eds.). (2017). Collected Essays on the 150 Years' History of Thong Chai Medical Institution in Singapore: 1867-2017 (PP. 468). Singapore: Thong Chai Medical Institution, Singapore.

杜南发、梁秉赋主编《同济医院150周年文集》(新加坡:同济医院,2017年9月)
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 This paper traces the history of Thong Chai Medical Institution from analysing the press reports published over the decades.
 本文对这几十年来关于同济医院的媒体报道进行了分析,道出同济医院的历史。
2016Confucianism Curriculum in the Chinese Schools Textbooks in Singapore.

Neo, P. F. (2016). Confucianism Curriculum in the Chinese Schools Textbooks in Singapore. In Ngoi, G. P. & Park S. J. (Eds.), Construction and Practice of Confucianism in Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia (PP. 105-128). Singapore: Centre for Chinese Language and Culture, Nanyang Technological University.

梁秉赋〈新加坡华校语文课本中的儒家思想教材〉,收入于魏月萍、朴素晶主編《东南亚与东北亚儒学的建构与实践》(新加坡:南洋理工大学中华语言文化中心,2016年12月),页105-128。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 This paper selected some representative texts related to Confucianism within the "Huawen" textbook used by the Singapore Chinese Secondary School, to trace how Singaporeans receive the enlightenment of Confucian classics, and Singapore education's influence on "Junzi confucionism". This chapter specifically points out that through the selection of quotations from Confucius and Mencius, textbook editors deliberately inculcate the idea that society triumphs personal self.
 本章以新加坡华文中学曾经统一使用的《华文》课本为分析文本,拣选与儒家思想有关的代表性课文作重点分析,追溯新加坡学生如何接受儒学原典的启蒙,以及新加坡教育对“君子儒”的培养。本章具体指出,通过论学、做人以及对国家尽忠的孔孟语录的筛选,课本编纂者有意灌输“个人其成就生命之最大意义与价值的道德场域”, 应是社稷而非私我的思想。
2016The State of Tianren zhi xue in the Three Kingdoms through Jin and Song Dynasties Period: An Analysis Based on Sources from the Monographs on Five Phases.

Neo, P. F. (2016). The State of Tianren zhi xue in the Three Kingdoms through Jin and Song Dynasties Period: An Analysis Based on Sources from the Monographs on Five Phases. In Yang, C.L. & Liu, B. H. (Eds.), Classical Learning in the Wei-Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties Period: Collected Papers (PP. 847-865). Taipei: Academia Sinica.

梁秉賦〈三國晉宋時期的天人之學——從《五行志》考察〉,收入于楊晉龍、刘柏宏主编《魏晋南北朝经学国际研讨会论文集》上下册(台北:中央研究院中国文哲研究所,2016年11月),页847-865
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 "Tianren zhi xue" was a learning developed by Han dynasty scholars, founded on the belief that there is a relationship of "resonance" or ganying, between the celestial and terrestrial spheres. Specifically, the school believes that if irregular celestial movement appears in heaven or visitation ans prodigy are seen in the natural world, it signifies that men (the ruling class in particular) had done something seriously wrong. That is because the improper deeds of men had upset the balance of wuxing or the five primal forces of nature, thus created these irregularities or anomalies. This is the rationale which explains the inter-relatedness or corresponding relationship between the celestial and terrestrial worlds. Such a belief essentially implies that every strange phenomenon observed in the heavenly or natural world could (and therefore also has to be) be explained by an un-approving act committed by men. The "Monographs on Five-Phases" (wuxingzhi, sometimes known as lingzhengzhi or zaiyizhi) seen in 14 of the 24 Standard Histories are a rich sources for the study of tianren zhi xue. Scholars have pointed out that such a matching correspondence between the celestial and terrestrial worlds are most apparent in the wuxingzhi of the Standard Histories composed during the times from the Han to Tang dynasties. However, the wuxingzhi in the Standard Histories composed during and after the Song dynasty have a common attribute: they would focus more on recording irregular celestial movements and anomalies but pay less attention on explaining the human misconducts believed to have caused these abnormal phenomena to occur. Such a development seems to indicate that from the Song dynasty onwards the tianren zhi xue began to suffer a decline, as the belief on which the learning was grounded, that there is a corresponding relationship between the celestial and terrestrial worlds, was no longer being taken seriously. This paper, however, argues that this development in fact was already evident in the wuxingzhi or lingzhengzhi and zaiyizhi of the various Standard Histories composed during the post-Han and pre-Song period, with the exception of that compiled in the time of the Eastern Jin dynasty. And in regard to this observation, it analyses the state of the "tianren zhi xue" learning in the time of Three Kingdoms through Jin and [Liu] Song dynasties.
 汉儒有一种期以灾异警戒人主的天人之学。其以为,天人之间有一种“感应”的关系,因此自然灾异之征,必有其人事之应。历代正史中的<五行志>,实可作为我们窥探这门学术之大体的其中一种文献。自班固作《汉书》首例<五行志>以来,编纂于两晋南北朝时期,以及完成于唐、宋年间和之后的国史类著作都列有<五行志>或<灾异志>。学界目前的研究重在指出,纂成于汉、唐之间的正史中的<五行志>,似有一共同的书写模式,即对所记录的自然灾异必诠释其人事之应。然而,在宋代及其后完成的<五行志>中,则一般只单纯记录所见之自然灾害及物异之实,而不对其如何附会人事再作解读。这样的改变似乎表明从中晚唐至宋初开始,人们对天人之间的感应关系已不复有以往之信仰。本文首先指出,其实“着其灾异,而削其事应”的处理手法,早在编著于三国、晋宋年间的<五行志>中已见其端。因此,如果<五行志》中所陈的灾异纪事之变化可以作为窥探天人之学的兴衰消长的一个凭借的话,那么在汉、魏之际以降直至整个南北朝时期,天人之学受重视的程度已不复昔日之盛;其次说明,唯独在东晋时代,也就是干宝等人的活跃时期,这门穷究天人之间交感关系的学术可能曾有过一段短暂的回潮。
2016Pre-Qin Confucianism: Comparative Perspectives.

Neo, P. F. & Li, C. Y. (Eds.). (2016). Pre-Qin Confucianism: Comparative Perspectives (PP. 301). Singapore: Confucius Institute, Nanyang Technological University.

梁秉赋、李晨阳主编《比较视野下的先秦儒学——国际学术研讨会论文集》(新加坡:南洋理工大学孔子学院,2016年)。
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 Is Confucianism a traditional discipline that only focuses on moral obligations and preachings, as well as an absolute respect and distinctions based purely on the superiority? Is there a rich spirit of keeping pace with the times, as well as a fundamental compatibility with the values of modern society within Confucianism? Professor Li specializes in Chinese and Western Comparative Philosophy, while Dr. Neo has considerable research in the fields of classics and intellectual history. In this book, they worked together to introduce the vitality a traditional discipline – Confucianism.
 儒学是否是一门只专注于讲纲常名教、重尊卑辈分之分的传统学问?儒家思想之中是否也蕴有丰厚的与时并进之精神,以及与现当代社会之价值观深刻契合的基因与内涵?李晨阳教授于中西比较哲学有专精研究,梁秉赋博士则在经学与思想史方面颇有钻研。两位在本书中为大家介绍了儒学这门传统学问中富生命力的一面。
2015Revolution, Reform, Civil Service Examination, Technical and Vocational Schools: On the Origins of Modern Chinese Education in Singapore and Malaysia.

Neo, P.F. (2015). Revolution, Reform, Civil Service Examination, Technical and Vocational Schools: On the Origins of Modern Chinese Education in Singapore and Malaysia. In Chong S.W. (Ed.), New Horizons of Malaysian Chinese Studies (PP. 81-96). Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Chinese Studies Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.

梁秉赋〈新、马华教起源的几个相关历史因素的讨论——革命、维新、科举、学堂〉,收入于张晓威主编《传统与前瞻:马来西亚华人研究的新视界》(吉隆坡:拉曼大学中华研究中心,2015年4月)。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Singapore and Malaysia Chinese School started with Wu Fu Shu Yuan in 1896. Chinese Education originated from traditional private schools in China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, a large number of Chinese immigrants came to the south. They naturally pushed to continue the traditional private schools education for their children. That sowed the seeds for the Chinese education in Singapore and Malaysia. The origins of these Chinese schools are closely related to the history of China. The Chinese Revolution, the Reformation, the imperial examinations, and the Chinese schools in China all influenced Chinese education. This chapter will review several relevant historical factors of Chinese education in Singapore and Malaysia.
 新马华校从1896年的五福书院开篇。华教起源于中国传统私学或私塾。明清时期,大量中国移民南来,自然延续私塾为子女的童盟教育,也为新马华教播下了种子。这些华校的起源与中国的历史息息相关。中国革命、维新、科举和学堂都影响着华教。本章将一一综述新马华教的几个相关历史因素。
2015The Historical Contributions of Chinese Schools in Singapore: 1945-1987.

Neo, P.F. (2015). The Historical Contributions of Chinese Schools in Singapore: 1945-1987. In Kua, B.L. (Ed.), A General History of the Chinese in Singapore (PP. 415-424). Singapore: Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations.

梁秉赋〈开智启蒙、薪尽火传:从华文教育到华文教学〉,收录于柯木林主编《新加坡华人通史》(新加坡:新加坡宗乡联合总会,2015年11月),页415-424。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Through the years of being a British colony to becoming a sovereign country, Chinese education and Chinese teaching have always occupy a prominent position in the overall educational structure of Singapore. However, in terms of the nature and objectives of the content, it is constantly adapting or changing in response to changes in the political economy and social environment, as well as changes in the overall situation of the times, thus developing a unique Chinese education system. The main purpose of this chapter is to summarize this development process.
 从作为一个英国殖民地到成为一个主权国家,华文教育及华文教学在新加坡的整体教育结构中始终占有一个显著的地位。然而,在内容性质和目标上,它也不断地因应着政治经济与社会环境的变迁以及时代大局的变化而作出调适或改变,从而发展出一个自成一格的华教体系。本章的主旨即为此发展历程作一综述。
2015Confucianism and Contemporary Politics: An Analysis on the Rise of a New Class of Confucian Literati during the Period of Early Han Dynasty.

Neo, P.F. (2015). Confucianism and Contemporary Politics: An Analysis on the Rise of a New Class of Confucian Literati during the Period of Early Han Dynasty. In Liu, J. (Ed.), Confucianism: On Global Peace and Development (PP. 206-217). Beijing: Jiu Zhou chubanshe.

梁秉赋〈儒学与当代政治——汉初历史的一些启示〉,收入于滕文生、季塔连科主编《儒学:世界和平与发展》全四卷(北京:九州出版社,2015年5月),卷一,页206-217
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 The ideological value of Confucianism laid the foundation for a shared vision towards common development as well as the shared belief of world peace in today’s world. This is because Confucianism still has lasting vigor and vitality. Beginning with the emperor of the early Han Dynasty, Liu Bang, Confucianism gradually entered the political field, providing a series of political ideas for society stability in the early Han Dynasty. Confucianism played an indelible role in the prosperity of the Han Dynasty. Taking the history of the early Han Dynasty as a mirror, this chapter further explores Confucianism and contemporary politics.
 儒学的思想价值在当今世界可为各国各地区的共同发展、世界和平的维护定下基础。这是因为,儒学至今仍具有持久不衰的生机和活力。汉初自汉高祖刘邦起,儒家思想逐渐进入政治领域,为汉初稳定社会提供了一系列的政治理念。儒家思想对汉朝的强盛起到了不可磨灭的作用。以汉初历史为鉴,本章节进一步探讨儒学与当代政治。
2015Revolution, Reform, Civil Service Examination, Technical and Vocational Schools: On the Origins of Modern Chinese Education in Singapore and Malaysia.

Neo, P.F. (2015). Revolution, Reform, Civil Service Examination, Technical and Vocational Schools: On the Origins of Modern Chinese Education in Singapore and Malaysia. Asian Culture: Journal of the Singapore Society for Asian Studies, 39, 73-83.

梁秉赋〈新、马华教起源的几个相关历史因素的讨论——革命、维新、科举、学堂〉,新加坡亚洲研究学会学报《亚洲文化》第三十九期,2015年8月,页73-83。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 Singapore and Malaysia Chinese School started with Wu Fu Shu Yuan in 1896. Chinese Education originated from traditional private schools in China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, a large number of Chinese immigrants came to the south. They naturally pushed to continue the traditional private schools education for their children. That sowed the seeds for the Chinese education in Singapore and Malaysia. The origins of these Chinese schools are closely related to the history of China. The Chinese Revolution, the Reformation, the imperial examinations, and the Chinese schools in China all influenced Chinese education. This chapter will review several relevant historical factors of Chinese education in Singapore and Malaysia.
 新马华校从1896年的五福书院开篇。华教起源于中国传统私学或私塾。明清时期,大量中国移民南来,自然延续私塾为子女的童盟教育,也为新马华教播下了种子。这些华校的起源与中国的历史息息相关。中国革命、维新、科举和学堂都影响着华教。本章将一一综述新马华教的几个相关历史因素。
2014Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Gu Jiegang's Research on Chenwei.

Neo, P.F. (2014). Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Gu Jiegang's Research on Chenwei. In Lin, C.C. & Chiang C.H. (Eds.), Classical Scholars and Classical Learning in Republican China: 1912-1949 (PP. 455-471). Taipei: WanJuanLou Books Co. Ltd.

梁秉赋〈變動時代的經學——從顧頡剛的讖緯觀考察〉收入于林慶彰、蔣秋華總策劃,台灣高等經學研討論集叢刊《變動時代的經學和經學家——民國時期(1912-1949)經學研究》全四冊(臺北:萬卷樓,2014年12月)之第三冊,頁455-471
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Gu Jiegang's research is one of the most important studies in the 1920s and 1930s. Gu Jiegang was hailed as the person who paved the way for the future Wei Shu research. He has authored a book devoted to the discussion of Chenwei, discussing the thoughts and social background of its formation, and discussing its influence on the Eastern Han Dynasty. Its novel angle paved a new path for future research on Chenwei, and it also grasped the essence of Chenwei. This chapter explores the development and breakthrough of the study of Confucian classics in a changing era by investigating Gu Jiegang's view of Chenwei.
 顾颉刚的研究是二十世纪二、三十年代较为重要的研究之一。顾颉刚被誉为“为后来的纬书开辟了道路”的人物。他曾著有专门论述谶纬的著作,对谶纬形成的思想和社会背景都有所论述,并讨论了其对东汉的影响。其新颖的角度为后世谶纬研究开辟了新道路,更抓住了谶纬的实质。本章节便通过考察顾颉刚的谶纬观来探讨那个变动时代下经学研究的发展与突破。
2014Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Zhou Yutong's Research on Chenwei.

Neo, P.F. (2014). Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Zhou Yutong's Research on Chenwei. In Lin, C.C. & Chiang, C.H. (Eds.), Classical Scholars and Classical Learning in Republican China: 1912-1949(PP. 439-453). Taipei: WanJuanLou Books Co. Ltd.

梁秉赋〈變動時代的經學——從周予同讖緯研究的視角考察〉收入于林慶彰、蔣秋華總策劃,台灣高等經學研討論集叢刊《變動時代的經學和經學家——民國時期(1912-1949)經學研究》全四冊(臺北:萬卷樓,2014年12月)之第三冊,頁439-453
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Zhou Yutong’s research on Chenwei was one of the more important studies in the 1920s and 1930s. The content of his research on Chenwei showed great advancement, representing the highest level of research on this area. His research was during the turbulent era. As one of the representative figures in the study of Chenwei at that time, his works can reflect the theory of Chenwei in such turbulent times. This chapter explores Zhou Yutong’s research perspective to reveal the development of Confucian classics in the turbulent times.
 周予同的谶纬研究是二十世纪二、三十年代较为重要的研究之一。他的谶纬研究内容有较大的推进,代表了中国学术界研究经学史的最高水平。这个时代正处中国的变动时代。作为当时谶纬研究的代表人物之一,其著作可体现出变动时代的谶纬之学。本章节通过考察周予同的研究视角,来揭示变动时代的经学发展。
2014On Wu Teh Yao.

Neo, P.F. (2014). On Wu Teh Yao. In Ho, K.L. (Ed.), Malaysian Chinese Historical Personalities (PP. 1238-1241). Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Chinese Studies Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.

梁秉赋〈吴德耀传〉,收录于何启良主编《马来西亚华人人物志》(吉隆坡:拉曼大学中华研究中心,2014年11月),页1238-1241。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 “On Wu Teh Yao” tells the life of Wu after he moved to live with his relatives in Penang, Malaya at the age of nine. It records the prominent events in Wu’s life, thus highlighting his participation in, and responsibility and contribution to education. At the same time, this chapter also records his ideology, unique character, and place in history. This chapter is included in the “Malaysian Chinese Historical Personalities” which seeks to use the experiences of every outstanding Chinese in Malaysia to represent the epitome of the Malaysian Chinese society.
 <吴德耀转〉讲述了吴德耀先生九岁到马来亚滨城与亲戚同住后的一生经历。其中内容包括了吴德耀先生的生平和其所经历的重要事件,从而突出其在教育领域的责任、参与和贡献。同时,这一章节也记录了吴德耀先生的思想情操、性格特点,以及历史地位。这一章节收录于《马来西亚华人人物志》,力求从一个个马来西亚杰出华人的经历体现出马来西亚华人社会史的缩影。
2014A Review on the Relation between Nanyang University and Singapore Governments: 1953-1968 by Zhou Zhaochen, and the State of Research on Nanyang University.

Neo, P.F. (2014). A Review on the Relation between Nanyang University and Singapore Governments: 1953-1968 by Zhou Zhaochen, and the State of Research on Nanyang University. The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies, 6 (1), 115-118.

梁秉赋〈评周兆呈著《语言、政治与国家化:南洋大学与新加坡政府关系1953-1968》〉,《华人研究国际学报》第六卷第一期(2014年6月),页115-118。
Neo Peng Fu Editorships, Published Reviews
 Dr Zhou Zhaocheng's book "Language, Politics and Nationalization: Nanyang University and Singapore Government Relations 1953-1968" mainly talks about the founding of Nanyang University. At that time, Nanyang University positioned itself as an institute that aims to maintain and promote Chinese language and culture. Being in post-war Singapore and under a United Kingdom and the United States dominated cold war world, Nanyang university was bound to face friction from the "mainstream" nation-building direction and transnational ideologies of that time. Therefore, the establishment and development of Nanyang University will inevitably be affected by political forces. This book details how Nanyang University overcame the pressure from the government. This article reviews the book from the aspects of literature, research orientation, analysis depth, etc. In all respects, this book is undoubtedly a must-read publication.
 周兆呈著《语言、政治与国家化:南洋大学与新加坡政府关系1953-1968》一书的主要讲述的是南洋大学的创办。当时,南洋大学以维系与发扬华族的语言文化为自身定位。这样的一所高等学府,在战后的新加坡以及由英美主导的国际新秩序下的冷战格局中,欲贯彻其宗旨,自然要和当时的“主流”建国思想和跨国意识形态发生碰撞。所以,南大的成立与发展,势必受到政治力量的干扰。此书便详述了南大自创立以来如何一直面对来自政府的压力。本文从文献、研究取向、分析高度等方面评述了此书,并提出其中的特出之处。从各方面来看,此书无可置疑地是一本必读专著。
2014Chinese Language Teaching and Learning in Singapore: 1999-Present

Neo, P.F. (2014). Chinese Language Teaching and Learning in Singapore: 1999-Present. Asian Culture: Journal of the Singapore Society for Asian Studies, 38, 35-43.

梁秉赋〈新加坡华文教学的现况:1999年至今〉,新加坡亚洲研究学会学报《亚洲文化》第三十八期,2014年8月,页35-43。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This chapter traces the major changes that had taken place in the teaching and learning of Chinese Language in Singapore. It covers a span of 15 years starting from 1999 and combines various social factors to summarize the status of Chinese education.
 1999年,李显龙副总理在国会宣布新的华文教学政策,解释了培养华文精英的愿景。所谓的华文精英不是纯粹接受华文教育的人才,而是双语教育下,仍保持较高华文水平的一群人,也就是双语制度下真正的双语人。自那以后,华文教育的发展便受到高度关注。本章结合各个社会因素,对1999年至今的华文教育状况进行了综述。
2013Lee Kong Chian and Chinese Education in Singapore: 1946-1950.

Neo, P.F. (2013). Lee Kong Chian and Chinese Education in Singapore: 1946-1950. In Li, Z.S., & Chen, X.G. (Eds.), Lee Kong Chian Memorial: Collected Essays (PP. 98-110). Xiamen: Haixia Chuban Jituan.

梁秉赋〈李光前与新加坡的华文教育〉,李兆生、陈小钢主编《李光前先生纪念文集》(厦门:鹭江出版社,2013年10月),页98-110。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Mr Lee Kong Chian has made a valuable contribution to Singapore education. His belief of “giving back to the society” guided him to contribute actively to schools building and talents cultivation. In 1934, Mr Lee Kong Chian served as the chairman of The Chinese High School, responsible for the school's annual funding, construction costs and etc.. At the same time, he also served as the director of nine other secondary schools and more than a dozen clan association. These schools included SJKC Nan Yik “Lee Rubber” School, Tao Nan School, Dao Qiao School, Kong Hwa School, and Qiao Nan School. In 1953, Mr Lee Kong Chian responded actively to the sponsorship towards the establishment of Nanyang University, emphasizing that Nanyang University was run to inherit and develop excellent Chinese culture. He has contributed both money and efforts to Chinese education throughout his life, and has made an indelible contribution to the development of Chinese education.
 李光前怀着“取诸社会,用诸社会”的宗旨,兴学办学,乐育英才,为新加坡教育事业作出了可贵的贡献。1934年,李光前曾担任南洋中学的董事长,负责学校每年的经费、建筑费等,修建校舍,新建国专图书馆。同时,他也兼任南益学校、道南学校、导侨学校、光华学校、桥南学校等九所中学和十几家会馆的董事。这都是为了能够帮忙教育。1953年,李光前积极响应给予赞助南洋大学的建立,强调南洋大学办学是为了继承和发展优秀的中华文化。他一生为了华文教育出钱出力,对华文教育的发展有着不可磨灭的贡献。
2013Ly Sing Ko and his Editorials on Chinese Education.

Neo, P.F. (2013). Ly Sing Ko and his Editorials on Chinese Education. In Ho, K.L. (Ed.), Centennial Tracing: A Study of Historical Personalities in Malaysia and Singapore (PP. 173-189). Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Chinese Studies Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.

梁秉赋〈李星可及其论华文教育之社论〉收入于何启良编《百年寻绎——马新历史人物研究》(吉隆坡:拉曼大学中华研究中心,2013年5月),页173-189。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Mr Lye Sing Ko (1914-1996) was a famous journalist in Singapore. He was born and raised in Beijing and he received French education since childhood. During the eight years of China’s Anti-Japanese War, Mr Kye Sing Ko served in the China Aviation Committee, the Military Supplies Department and the Central News Agency, working in the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. Around 1950, he moved to Singapore and served as the editor-in-chief of the " Social Welfare" newspaper and assisted L'Agence France-Presse in the establishment of its Southeast Asia head office. Mr Lye Sing Ko once taught at Chung Cheng High School, and is also a part-time lecturer at Nanyang University and Singapore Teacher Training Institute. He is also active in the literary field and has a certain influence on Chinese education in Singapore. This chapter will further explore Mr Lye Sing Ko’s editorial on Chinese education.
 李星可(1914-1996)是新加坡的著名报人。 他出生、成长于北京,自小接受法文教育,曾留学比利时与法国。中国八年抗战期间,李星可任职于中国航空委员会,军需署与中央社,在印支半岛工作。1950年前后移居新加坡,任《益世报》总编辑,并协助法新社在本地创办其东南亚总分社。李星可曾执教于中正中学,也在南洋大学与新加坡师资训练学院兼任讲师,亦是一位文坛健将。他对新加坡的华文教育有着一定的影响力。本章节将进一步探讨这位作为曾担任教育者的著名报人对华文教育的社论。
2013The Teaching of Chinese Language and Culture at the Tertiary Institutions in Singapore.

Neo, P.F. (2013). The Teaching of Chinese Language and Culture at the Tertiary Institutions in Singapore. In Hong, L.J. (Ed.), Chinese Language Teaching in Universities Abroad in a Context of Globalization (PP. 250-280). Shanghai: Xuelin Chubanshe.

梁秉赋〈新加坡高校中的中华语言与文化教学〉,收入于洪历建主编《全球语境下海外高校汉语教学》(上海:学林出版社,2012年,12月),页250-280。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Chinese education in overseas tertiary education around the world emphasizes the relationship between Chinese language and local culture. The Chinese courses in tertiary colleges of various countries have their particularities, and further exploration must be conducted in the local context to find the most effective teaching method. This chapter discusses the relationship between the Chinese language and culture education in Singapore tertiary institutions and the Singaporean context and society, thereby revealing the most suitable Chinese language courses for the locals.
 全球海外高校汉语教学强调汉语言与当地文化间的关系。各国高校的汉语课程都有其特殊性,必须在当地语境下进一步探究,才能找到最有效的教学方式。本章节探讨的便是新加坡高校的中华语言与文化教学与新加坡语境和社会的关系,从而揭示最适合本地高校的汉语课程。
2013Reflections on Singapore Elements in Singapore’s Primary School Chinese Textbook

Overseas Chinese Education, No.2, 113-123.

有关新加坡小学华文教材中新加坡元素的若干思考
Xu Feng Journal-Refereed
 Singapore’s Chinese teaching under the umbrella of bilingual education policy is different from the Chinese teaching in China. It is also distinguished from the teaching of Chinese as a second language. The noteworthy features of Singapore’s Chinese teaching could be regarded as Singapore elements. This paper attempts to explore these elements in relation to the primary Chinese textbook currently used in the country. The textbook must differentiate Singapore culture, Chinese culture and cultures in the other parts of the world and present relevant cultural content at different levels and in various ways. It is claimed that the modular approach in exiting textbook does not meet the needs of different types of learners. Singapore education authority emphasizes that Chinese has to be a living language for students to be used and valued. In this case, the way of using standard language in Chinese textbook should be reviewed to reflect the features of Chinese actually used in Singapore. This paper suggests that the integration of formal written Chinese and informal oral Chinese in textbook is the way to solve this problem.
 新加坡双语教育政策之下的华文教学是一种既不同于中国语文教育,也不同纯粹外语学习的第二语言教学。新加坡华文教育的种种特异之处可称之为新加坡元素,本文拟就新加坡小学华文教材中的新加坡元素进行探讨。认为应处理好华族文化和本地文化及世界文化多样性的选择问题,同时注意教材中文化呈现的层级性及呈现方式;现行教材的单元教学模式尚未真正反映不同学习者类型差别的不同需求,而新加坡华文教材语言如何协调核心规范标准与学习活的语言、使用活的语言这一新教改目标需要重新思考,华文教材的语言应适当体现地域化特点。结合新加坡的实际情况,本文提出教材中应采用口语从宽和书面语从严的解决策略。
2012Biographies of "Chuang Chu Lin", "Lye Sing Ko" and "Wu Teh Yao".

Neo, P.F. (2012). Biographies of "Chuang Chu Lin", "Lye Sing Ko" and "Wu Teh Yao". In Leo, S. (Ed.), Southeast Asian Personalities of Chinese Descent: A Biographical Dictionary (PP. 198-201, 728-731, 1299-1301.). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Chinese Heritage Centre.

梁秉赋撰〈庄竹林传略〉、〈李星可传略〉、〈吴德耀传略〉,廖建裕总主编《东南亚杰出华人人物志》(新加坡:东南亚研究院、华裔馆联合出版,2012年)。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 "A History of Outstanding Chinese in Southeast Asia" was compiled by scholars from various countries in Southeast Asia, and contains biographies of many Chinese in Southeast Asia. These include the Singaporean educator Mr. Lin Zhuang who was born in Huian, Fujian, the Singaporean journalist Li Xingke who was born in Beijing, and the Singaporean scholar Wu Deyao who was born in Wenchang, Hainan. These three chapters record the special experiences of these three outstanding Chinese from China to Southeast Asia, and then tell the details of their lives in Southeast Asia, which reflect the various aspects of Southeast Asia.
 《东南亚杰出华人人物志》由来自东南亚各国学者共同编写,收录了多位东南亚华人的传记。其中包括出生于福建惠安的新加坡教育家庄主林先生、出生于北京的新加坡新闻记者李星可先生以及出生于海南文昌的新加坡学者吴德耀。这三个章节记录了这三位杰出华人的中国到东南亚的特殊经历,便讲述了他们在东南亚生活的点滴,从中体现出了东南亚的多种面貌。
2012Chen Jen Hao (1908-1976): A Biography.

Neo, P.F. (2012). Chen Jen Hao (1908-1976): A Biography. In Ke, M.L. (Ed.), Prominent Figures of the World Fujian Communities (PP. 51-53). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan.

梁秉赋〈陈人浩〉,收入于柯木林主編《世界福建名人录:新加坡篇1819-2012》(新加坡:新加坡福建会馆,2012年11月),页51-53。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 "Prominent Figures of the World Fujian Communities – The Singapore Chapter 1819-2012", published by the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, contains the deeds of 150 Singaporean Hokkien scholars and their contributions to the country. The chapter on Chen Jen Hao introduces the life of the pioneer. Chen served as the principal of Kallang West Government Chinese Middle School (now Dunman High School) in 1956 and retired in 1969. During his time as the principal, Chen inculcated a strong interest in calligraphy amongst the students. This chapter integrates Chen's legendary life as an educator, calligrapher and painter, and reveals his lasting impact on the Singapore society.
 由新加坡福建会馆出版的《世界福建名人录:新加坡篇1819-2012》收录了150个新加坡闽籍先贤的事迹与其对本国的贡献。其中<陈人浩>这一章节便介绍了陈人浩先驱的一生。陈人浩先驱曾于1956年担任加冷西政府华文中学(现德明政府中学)的校长,为校服务直至1969年才退休。在这期间,陈人浩校长让校内的莘莘学子对书法产生浓厚的兴趣。这一章节整合了陈人浩先驱作为教育家、书法家与画家等多重身份的传奇一生,并道出了其对新加坡社会的持久影响。
2012Chinese and their Ethnic Languages in Singapore

Neo, P.F. (2012). Chinese and their Ethnic Languages in Singapore. CHC Bulletin: A Publication of Chinese Heritage Center, 18, 10-11.

梁秉赋〈新加坡的华族与华语〉,《华裔馆通讯》第18期,页10-11。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 Chinese children in Singapore must learn Chinese Language, but they can choose to master different levels of the language according to their learning ability and family background. In this environment where most Chinese speak Chinese Language to varying degrees, Singapore’s discourse also has its own characteristics. This chapter discusses the special relationship between Singapore Chinese and the Chinese Language, and summarizes Singapore Chinese Language that belongs to Singapore Chinese. Chinese ethnic language or heritage language refers to dialects such as Hokkien, Teochew and Cantonese. This paper examines the link between language and identity in the Chinese community.
 新加坡华族子弟必须要学习华文,但是他们可以根据自己的学习能力和家庭背景选择掌握不同水平的华文。在这个大部分华族说着不同程度华语的环境下,新加坡的华语也具有特色。本章探讨了新加坡华族与华语的特殊关系,并综述了这属于新加坡华人的新加坡式华语。
2012Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Gu Jiegang’s Research on Chenwei.

Neo, P.F. (2012). Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Gu Jiegang’s Research on Chenwei. Classics Research Forum, 1, 293-311.

梁秉賦〈變動時代的經學——從顧頡剛的讖緯觀考察〉,《經學研究論壇》2012年第一期(臺北,蘭臺出版社),頁293-311。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 Gu Jiegang's research is one of the most important studies in the 1920s and 1930s. Gu Jiegang was hailed as the person who paved the way for the future Wei Shu research. He has authored a book devoted to the discussion of Chenwei, discussing the thoughts and social background of its formation, and discussing its influence on the Eastern Han Dynasty. Its novel angle paved a new path for future research on Chenwei, and grasped the essence of Chenwei. This chapter explores the development and breakthrough of the study of Confucian classics in a changing era by investigating Gu Jiegang's view of Chenwei.
 顾颉刚的研究是二十世纪二、三十年代较为重要的研究之一。顾颉刚被誉为“为后来的纬书开辟了道路”的人物。他曾著有专门论述谶纬的著作,对谶纬形成的思想和社会背景都有所论述,并讨论了其对东汉的影响。其新颖的角度为后世谶纬研究开辟了新道路,更抓住了谶纬的实质。本章节便通过考察顾颉刚的谶纬观来探讨那个变动时代下经学研究的发展与突破。
2011Overseas Chinese schools or Chinese schools? Chinese Education at a Crossroads in Post-war Singapore.

Neo P.F. (2011). Overseas Chinese schools or Chinese schools? Chinese Education at a Crossroads in Post-war Singapore. In Leo Suryadinata & Neo P.F. (Eds.), Chinese Immigrants and Globalization: Migration, Indigenization and Interaction (PP. 271-288). Singapore: Chinese Heritage Center.

梁秉赋〈“华侨学校”还是“华文学校”?新加坡的中文教育在战后面临的历史抉择〉,收入廖建裕、梁秉赋主编《华人移民与全球化:迁移、本土化与交流》(新加坡:华裔馆,2011),页271-288。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 After the war, the Chinese schools in Singapore had to make a decision on its name and positioning. Can Singaporeans still be called overseas Chinese? Should the Chinese ancestors in Singapore, who are Chinese immigrants, accept a more local choice, and thus weaken their overseas Chinese status, and choose to use the Chinese language school as the name? The two names are essentially closely related to the identity of the Chinese in Singapore after the war. This chapter will further explain this important decision that affects history.
 战后,新加坡的华校在其名称和定位上需作出抉择。新加坡华人是否还能称之为华侨?作为华人移民的新加坡华人先辈是否要接受更为本土的抉择,减弱其华侨的身份,选择以华文学校为名称?两个名称本质上和战后新加坡华人的身份认同息息相关,本章节将进一步说明这影响历史的重要抉择。
2011The May Fourth Movement and Anti-Colonialism in Singapore Chinese Schools.

Neo, P. F. (2011). The May Fourth Movement and Anti-Colonialism in Singapore Chinese Schools. In Lee, G. K. (Ed.), May Fourth Movement and its Contemporary Impact (PP. 201-231). Singapore: Centre for Chinese Language and Culture, Nanyang Technological University.

梁秉赋〈“五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮〉,收入于李元瑾编《五四运动的当代回想》(新加坡:南洋理工大学中华语言文化中心,2011年12月),页201-231。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 The "May Fourth Movement" and the anti-colonial thoughts of Singapore Chinese school students caused the "left-wing political activities" of Singapore Chinese school students in the 1950s. At that time, the anti-colonial ideology of the Chinese school students in Singapore went from "May Fourth" new cultural ideas through "anti-imperialist" to "anti-aggression" and then to "anti-colonialism." These trilogy were internalized and became an important ideological resource in the post-war anti-colonial movement in Singapore and Malaysia.
 “五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮的“左翼政治活动”是 1950 年代新加坡华校学潮中国“五四”新文化思想经由“反帝国主义”到“反侵略”,再到“反殖民主义”这三部曲之演化。这内化为战后新、马反殖民主义运动中的一项重要的思想资源。
2011Student Movement and the Establishment of Government Chinese Middle Schools in Singapore, 1954-1956: A Historical Analysis (revised edition).

Neo P.F. (2011). Student Movement and the Establishment of Government Chinese Middle Schools in Singapore, 1954-1956: A Historical Analysis (revised edition). In Cheah C.M. (Ed.), Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language Series, volume 7 (PP. 343-369). Singapore: EPB Pan Pacific, an imprint of Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited.

梁秉赋〈新加坡1950年代的学生运动与政府华文中学的设立:1954-1956〉(修订版),收入于谢泽文主编《新加坡华文教学论文七集》(新加坡:新加坡华文研究会,2011年),页343-369。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 In the 1950s, Singapore experienced turmoil in the Chinese schools. In response, the government established four government Chinese schools. The ambition of these schools is to allow students to continue their studies in a conducive environment. But the establishment of these schools has another important historical significance, that is to facilitate the redistribution of educational resources after the war. This article will classify and discuss the establishment of such government Chinese schools.
 新加坡1950年代由于华校的动乱,设立了四所官办的华校。这些学校的志向是让学生得以有一个较单纯的环境继续求学。但是这些学校创办其实还有另一层重要的历史意义。那就是促成战后教育资源的重新分配。本文将以此切入,探讨政府华校的创立。
2011The May Fourth Movement and Anti-Colonialism in Singapore Chinese Schools.

Neo P.F. (2011). The May Fourth Movement and Anti-Colonialism in Singapore Chinese Schools. Asian Culture: Journal of the Singapore Society for Asian Studies, 35, 92-109.

梁秉赋〈“五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮〉,新加坡亚洲研究学会编《亚洲文化》第三十五期,2011年7月,第92-109。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 The "May Fourth Movement" and the anti-colonial thoughts of Singapore Chinese school students caused the "left-wing political activities" of Singapore Chinese school students in the 1950s. At that time, the anti-colonial ideology of the Chinese school students in Singapore went from "May Fourth" new cultural ideas through "anti-imperialist" to "anti-aggression" and then to "anti-colonialism." These trilogy were internalized and became an important ideological resource in the post-war anti-colonial movement in Singapore and Malaysia.
 “五四”与新加坡华校生的反殖民主义思潮的“左翼政治活动”是 1950 年代新加坡华校学潮中国“五四”新文化思想经由“反帝国主义”到“反侵略”,再到“反殖民主义”这三部曲之演化。这内化为战后新、马反殖民主义运动中的一项重要的思想资源。
2011The State of Tianren zhi xue in the Three Kingdoms through Jin and Song Dynasties Period: An Analysis Based on Sources from the Monographs on Five Phases.

Neo P.F. (2011). The State of Tianren zhi xue in the Three Kingdoms through Jin and Song Dynasties Period: An Analysis Based on Sources from the Monographs on Five Phases. Journal of Sinological Studies (published by the Department of Chinese Studies, University of Malaya), 2, 140-162.

梁秉赋〈三国晋宋时期的天人之学——从《五行志》考察〉,《汉学研究学刊》(马来亚大学中文系)第二卷,2011年10月,页140-162。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 "Tianren zhi xue" was a learning developed by Han dynasty scholars, founded on the belief that there is a relationship of "resonance" or ganying, between the celestial and terrestrial spheres. Specifically, the school believes that if irregular celestial movement appears in heaven or visitation and prodigy are seen in the natural world, it signifies that men (the ruling class in particular) had done something seriously wrong. That is because the improper deeds of men had upset the balance of wuxing or the five primal forces of nature, thus created these irregularities or anomalies. This is the rationale which explains the inter-relatedness or corresponding relationship between the celestial and terrestrial worlds. Such a belief essentially implies that every strange phenomenon observed in the heavenly or natural world could (and therefore also has to be) be explained by an un-approving act committed by men. The "Monographs on Five-Phases" (wuxingzhi, sometimes known as lingzhengzhi or zaiyizhi) seen in 14 of the 24 Standard Histories are a rich sources for the study of tianren zhi xue. Scholars have pointed out that such a matching correspondence between the celestial and terrestrial worlds are most apparent in the wuxingzhi of the Standard Histories composed during the times from the Han to Tang dynasties. However, the wuxingzhi in the Standard Histories composed during and after the Song dynasty have a common attribute: they would focus moe on recording irregular celestial movements and anomalies but pay less attention on explaining the human misconducts believed to have caused these abnormal phenomena to occur. Such a development seemsto indicate that from the Song dynasty onwards the tianren zhi xue began to suffer a decline, as the belief on which the learning was grounded, that there is a corresponding relationship between the celestial and terrestrial worlds, was no longer being taken seriously. This paper, however, argues that this development in fact was already evident in the wuxingzhi or lingzhengzhi and zaiyizhi of the various Standard Histories composed during the post-Han and pre-Song period, with the exception of that compiled in the time of the Eastern Jin dynasty. And in regard to this observation, it analyses the state of the "tianren zhi xue" learning in the time of Three Kingdoms through Jin and [Liu] Song dynasties.
 汉儒有一种期以灾异警戒人主的天人之学。其以为,天人之间有一种“感应”的关系,因此自然灾异之征,必有其人事之应。历代正史中的<五行志>,实可作为我们窥探这门学术之大体的其中一种文献。自班固作《汉书》首例<五行志>以来,编纂于两晋南北朝时期,以及完成于唐、宋年间和之后的国史类著作都列有<五行志>或<灾异志>。学界目前的研究重在指出,纂成于汉、唐之间的正史中的<五行志>,似有一共同的书写模式,即对所记录的自然灾异必诠释其人事之应。然而,在宋代及其后完成的<五行志>中,则一般只单纯记录所见之自然灾害及物异之实,而不对其如何附会人事再作解读。这样的改变似乎表明从中晚唐至宋初开始,人们对天人之间的感应关系已不复有以往之信仰。本文首先指出,其实“着其灾异,而削其事应”的处理手法,早在编著于三国、晋宋年间的<五行志>中已见其端。因此,如果<五行志》中所陈的灾异纪事之变化可以作为窥探天人之学的兴衰消长的一个凭借的话,那么在汉、魏之际以降直至整个南北朝时期,天人之学受重视的程度已不复昔日之盛;其次说明,唯独在东晋时代,也就是干宝等人的活跃时期,这门穷究天人之间交感关系的学术可能曾有过一段短暂的回潮。
2011The Orthodox and Esoteric Learning of Han Confucianism: An Analysis from the Traditions of Yiwei Learning.

Neo P.F. (2011). The Orthodox and Esoteric Learning of Han Confucianism: An Analysis from the Traditions of Yiwei Learning. Journal of Historical China Studies (published by the Institute of History, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences), 8, 111-124.

梁秉賦〈經學與緯學——論《易緯》研究的一些新觀點〉,《傳統中國研究集刊》(上海社會科學院)第八輯,2011年4月,頁111-124。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This paper approaches the studies on Chinese classics from an anlysis on Yiwei or Han Apocryphal Texts on the Book of Changes.
 本文从对《易纬》的细究进一步探讨经学与纬学。
2011Chinese Immigrants: Indigenization and Globalization

Leo Suryadinata & Neo P.F. (2011). Chinese Immigrants: Indigenization and Globalization. CHC Bulletin: A Publication of Chinese Heritage Centre, NTU, 16 & 17, 9-11.

廖建裕、梁秉赋〈华人移民:本土化与全球化〉,《华裔馆通讯》,第16与17期,2010年11月暨2011年5月,页9-11。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This paper presents the diasporic migration patterns of the Chinese in a globalised world. It examines how the Chinese who migrate from their homeland assimilate into the host country.
 本文以全球化世界下华人移民的趋势为题,探讨华人移民如何融入到其他国家社会里。
2011Chinese Immigrants and Globalization: Migration, Indigenization and Interaction.

Leo Suryadinata & Neo P.F. (Eds.). (2011). Chinese Immigrants and Globalization: Migration, Indigenization and Interaction (PP. 338). Singapore: Chinese Heritage Center, Nanyang Technological University.

廖建裕、梁秉赋主编《华人移民与全球化:迁移、本土化与交流》(新加坡:华裔馆,2011)
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 The book is a collection of essays documenting the history of Chinese migration on a global scale.The wave of globalization has had a huge impact on overseas Chinese. Traditional views and perceptions must be re-examined as to the migration, localization of the Chinese, the relationship with the country where they live or emigrate, and the exchanges with China. The 13 essays in this book re-examine these issues from a regional and global perspective, especially the challenges faced by overseas Chinese in the fields of politics, economy, language, culture, education, and religion. These papers also focus on comparing these challenges with the historical experience of overseas Chinese in order to better understand the current situation of overseas Chinese so that future prospects can be made.
 全球化浪潮对海外华人产生了巨大的影响。对于华人之迁移、本土化、与在地国或移居国之间的关系、以及与中国之间的交流,传统的看法与认知都必需予以重新检视。本书的13篇论文,从区域乃至全球视角,重新审视这些议题,尤其是海外华人在政治、经济、语言、文化、教育及宗教等领域所面临的挑战。这些论文也关注到把这些挑战与海外华人的历史经验进行比较,以更好地了解海外华人目前的状况,便可作出未来展望。
2010Lee Kong Chian and Chinese Education in Singapore: 1946-1950.

Neo, P.F. (2010). Lee Kong Chian and Chinese Education in Singapore: 1946-1950. In Leo, Suryadinata. (Ed.), Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian in the Making of Modern Singapore and Malaysia (PP. 231-249). Singapore: Chinese Heritage Centre, Tan Kah Kee Foundation, National Library Board.

梁秉赋〈李光前先生与新加坡的华文教育:1946-1950〉,收入于廖建裕主编《陈嘉庚、李光前与现代新马》(新加坡:华裔馆、陈嘉庚基金、新加坡国家图书馆联合出版,2010年6月),页231-249。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Mr. Lee Kong Chian’s educational background, economic background, and social status determined his contribution to Chinese education. His donation to Nanyang University and the aid given to non-Chinese primary school students to learn Chinese, etc., can reflect his contribution to Chinese education. These contributions were especially prominent in the post-war period during the 20th century. Such phenomenon is also the tradition of the Chinese in Southeast Asia.
 李光前先生的教育背景、经济背景、社会地位等决定了李氏对华文教育的贡献。他对南洋大学的捐助和通过援助非华族小学生学习华文等方面,都可反映出了他对华文教育的贡献。这些贡献尤其体现在20世纪战后。这种现象也正是东南亚华人的传统。
2010Schools Founded by the Hokkien Clansmen in Singapore

Neo, P.F. (2010). Schools Founded by the Hokkien Clansmen in Singapore (PP. 132). Singapore: Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan.

梁秉赋《阮的学堂:新加坡福建人创办的学校》(新加坡:新加坡福建会馆,2010年11 月)。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 "Prospering education and running schools" is one of the main social services developed by the Hokkien community in Singapore in the past 180 years. Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan (SHHK) established the first institution under its control, Chongwen Ge in 1849. It was also the earliest private Chinese school in Singapore. Over the years, SHHK has successively established Chui Eng Free School, took over Tao Nan School and Ai Tong School, founded Chong Hock Girls’ School, Nan Chiao Girls’ High School and affiliated primary schools, and Kong Hwa School. In 1953, Mr. Tan Lark Sye, then chairman of the SHHK, suggested donating 523 acres of land in Yunnan Garden to establish Nanyang University, which laid the foundation for Nanyang Technological University, the top university in the region. The schools founded by the Hokkien community in Singapore are not limited to the ones mentioned above. This book collects information from a total of 58 Hokkien-affiliated colleges, summarizing the history of local Hokkienese running schools.
 “兴教办学”是新加坡福建社群近 180年来主力发展的社会服务之一。福建会馆于1849年成立的属下第一所学府——崇文阁, 也同时是新加坡最早的民办华教学府。多年来,会馆陆续创建了萃英书院,接办道南学校和爱同学校,创立了崇福女学校、南侨女子中学并附属小学以及光华学校。1953年,福建会馆时任主席陈六使先生建议捐献云南园523英亩的土地创办南洋大学,奠定了现今区域顶尖大学——南洋理工大学的基础。而新加坡福建社群所创办的学校其实并不止上面所提到的这几所。本书就搜集到共计58所闽属学府的资料,综述了本地福建人办学的历史。
2009From a Demigod to a Sage: Du Yu and his Commentary on the Confucius' Mythology of "Xishou huolin".

Neo, P.F. (2009). From a Demigod to a Sage: Du Yu and his Commentary on the Confucius' Mythology of "Xishou huolin" (Du Yu yu xishou huolin). In Fang, G.H., Peng, L. (Ed.), Collected Essays on Chinese Classical Learning (Zhongguo jingxue lunji) (PP. 543-561). XiAn: Shanxi Renmin Chubanshe.

梁秉賦〈中世學人的讖緯觀:從杜註、孔疏管窺〉收入于方光华、彭林主编《中国经学论集》(西安:陕西出版集团、陕西人民出版社,2009年10月),頁543-561
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Du Yu in the Jin dynasty and Kong Ying Da in the Tang dynasty both made remarkable contributions to the explanatory notes on the classics. Both scholars put forward their exposition on the five classics and their notes have a significant influence on the circulation of the classics. This chapter analyses their views according to their notes on the classics, thus reflecting the research and development of the divination theory at that time.
 晋杜预和唐孔颖达二人对经书注释做出了显著的贡献,杜预注、孔颖疏提出了他们对五经正义的解释。这两位学者的注释对经书流传至今有着举足轻重的影响。本章节根据二人对经书的注释来解析他们的谶纬观,从而反映出当时谶纬之学的研究与发展。
2009A Review of the book Lixiang yu xianshi and the field of research on Nanyang University.

Neo, P.F. (2009). A Review of the book Lixiang yu xianshi and the field of research on Nanyang University. The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies (Huaren yanjiu guoji xuebao), 1, 137-140.

梁秉赋〈书评:丘淑玲《理想与现实:南洋大学学生会研究1956-1964》〉,《华人研究国际学报》创刊号,2009年6月,页137-140。
Neo Peng Fu Editorships, Published Reviews
 In this book, Qiu Shuling focuses on the development of Nanyang University Student Union in the first eight years from its establishment to its suspension by the school in 1964. Topics such as their activities, organisational structure, philosophy were analysed. She also commented on their merits and demerits. This article reviews the contents of this book, and points out the central topic and some key contents of this book. Qiu Shuling's research may not have clearly clarified some key doubts, but it inspires us to make more in-depth analysis and more balanced thinking on this inherent historical issue.
 邱淑玲在《理想与现实:南洋大学学生会研究1956-1964年》 一书中以南洋大学学生会自成立直至1964年被校方冻结活动的首八年发展历程为焦点,追述其活动,分析其组织,阐释其理念,评议其功过。本文就这一书里内容进行了评述,指出此书的中心论题以及一些重点内容。丘淑玲的研究也许还没有清晰地澄清一些关键的疑点,但它启发我们应该对固有的历史问题作更深入的剖析与更均衡的思考。
2008Chenwei and the Tradition of Classical Learning in Late Qing and Early Republican China.

Neo, P.F. (2008). Chenwei and the Tradition of Classical Learning in Late Qing and Early Republican China (Qingmo minchu xueren de chenwei guan). In Lo, Y.K., Neo, P.F. (Ed.), A Multi-perspectives Approach to Chinese Classical Learning (Jingxue de duoyuan, mailuo) (PP. 355-375). Taipei: Student Book (Xuesheng shuju).

梁秉赋〈清末民初學人的讖緯觀:1890-1930〉,收入于勞悅強、梁秉賦合編《經學的多元脈絡——文獻、動機、義理、社群》(臺北:臺灣學生書局,2008年10月),頁355-375
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 This chapter discusses the differences in the concepts within Chinese Classics, focusing in Chenwei. Chenwei by its name, seemed to be a rather clear concept. However, during the comparative study, this clarity was actually quite ambiguous in the interpretation of the Scriptures from the past dynasties. From 1890 to 1930, the scholars of Chinese Classics in the late Qing Dynasty revealed their ideological bias, which reflects the characteristics of contemporary scholars' research on ancient classics.
 这一章节探讨了经师学对谶纬这一类与经学相关的文献在观念认知上的差异。在对比的过程中,便可发现谶纬这一看似概念甚为清楚的名词,其实在历代经生的诠释中是颇有歧义的。而1890年至1930年清末民主经学学子的谶纬观便可提现出其对谶纬思想意识上偏向,从而反映出当代学者对古代经学研究的特点。
2008Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Chenwei Study

Neo, P.F. (2008). Classical Learning in a Turbulent Age: An Analysis from the Perspective of Chenwei Study (Biandong shidai de jingxue: cong chenwei yanjiu de shijiao kaocha). Bulletin of Studies on Chinese Canons (Jingxue yanjiu jikan, published by the Ching Hsueh Institute of National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan), 4, 93-103.

梁秉赋〈變動時代的經學——從讖緯研究的視角考察〉,《經學研究集刊》(國立高雄師範大學經學研究所)第四期,2008年5月,頁93-103。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This study examines Chinese canonical works from the perspective of Chenwei Study. It attempts to link studies of the Chinese canon with the turbulent socio-historical context.
 这项研究将从谶纬研究的角度探讨经学发展,并从中找到其与动荡时代下的历史社会因素之间的联系。
2008A Multi-perspectives Approach to Chinese Classical Learning.

Lo, Y.K. & Neo, P.F. (Eds.). (2008). A Multi-perspectives Approach to Chinese Classical Learning (Jingxue de duoyuan mailuo) (PP. 376). Taipei: Student Book (Xuesheng Shuju).

勞悅強、梁秉赋合編《經學的多元脈絡——文獻、動機、義理、社群》(臺北:臺灣學生書局,2008年10月)。
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 The ten papers in this book were originally published at the inaugural “International Symposium on Chinese Classics” that was jointly organized by the Department of History of Tsinghua University in Beijing and the Department of Chinese Studies at the National University of Singapore on 5th to 6th November 2005. This book compiled the papers written by overseas scholars, exploring the study of Confucian classics from multiple perspectives. Therefore, the papers in this book have one thing in common, that is, they all belong to the second order of research. In other words, what the author analyzed is basically the study of the scriptures by scholars of the past generations, not the study of the scriptures themselves. Based on these comparisons, the essays in this book can reflect the characteristics of scholars' research on ancient classics in the 21st century.
 本书的十篇论文原来都是北京清华大学历史系与新加坡国立大学中文系于2005年11月5-6日合办之“首届中国经学学术研讨会”上发表。本书将海外学者的论文结集成书,从多元角度探讨经学研究。因此本书的论文都有一个共同之处,就是它们都属于第二序的研究。换言之,作者所分析的基本上都是历代经生学者对经书的研究,而非对经书本身的研究。再此对照下,本书的论文可反映二十一世纪学者对古代经学的研究的特点。
2007Religious Knowledge and Moral Education: A Case Study in 1980s Singapore

Neo, P.F. (2007). Religious Knowledge and Moral Education: A Case Study in 1980s Singapore (Zongjiao zhishi yu gongmin jiaoyu). Journal of the South Seas Society (Nanyang xuebao), 61, 13-24.

梁秉赋〈《宗教知识》与公民教育:新加坡1980年代一项触礁的尝试之解读〉,《南洋学报》第六十一卷,2007年12月,页13-24。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 The Singaporean government announced on January 16, 1982 that, starting from the 1984 school year, it will implement a policy of allowing students to take a compulsory "Religion Knowledge" course during their Secondary Three and Secondary Four years as a part of the moral education curriculum. Then, "Confucianism and Ethics" was added as an option to this course, so that students who are unwilling to take the original five religious teaching courses have one more choice. This undoubtedly provides a cultural foundation for civic education in Singapore.
 新加坡政府于1982年1月16日宣布,从1984学年开始,落实在全国的中三、中四这两个年级中让学生修读一门必修的《宗教知识》课的政策,以之作为学校里道德教育课程的组成部分。而后,又将“儒学伦理”加入到这一个课程的选项中,供不愿选修原有的五种宗教教义课程的学生有多一个选择。这无疑为新加坡公民教育提供了一个文化的镇基之物。
2007Student Movement and the Establishment of Government Chinese Middle Schools in Singapore, 1954-1956: A Historical Analysis.

Neo, P.F. (2007). Student Movement and the Establishment of Government Chinese Middle Schools in Singapore, 1954-1956: A Historical Analysis. Asian Culture, 31, 18-31.

梁秉赋〈学生运动与新加坡政府华文中学的设立:1954-1956〉,新加坡亚洲研究学会编《亚洲文化》第三十一期,2007年,第18-31页。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 In the 1950s, Singapore experienced turmoil in the Chinese school. In response, the government established four government Chinese schools. The ambition of these schools is to allow students to continue their studies in a conducive environment. But the establishment of these schools has another important historical significance, that is to facilitate the redistribution of educational resources after the war. This article will classify and discuss the establishment of such government Chinese schools.
 新加坡1950年代由于华校的动乱,设立了四所官办的华校。这些学校的志向是让学生得以有一个较单纯的环境继续求学。但是这些学校创办其实还有另一层重要的历史意义。那就是促成战后教育资源的重新分配。本文将以此切入,探讨政府华校的创立。
2007Chenwei and the Tradition of Classical Learning in Late Qing and Early Republican China.

Neo, P.F. (2007). Chenwei and the Tradition of Classical Learning in Late Qing and Early Republican China (Qing mo Min chu xueren de chenwei guan). Zhongguo Jingxue (Chinese Classical Learning), 2, 342-356.

梁秉賦〈清末民初學人的讖緯觀:1890-1930〉,彭林主編《中國經學》第二輯(桂林:廣西師範大學出版社,2007年5月),頁342-356。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This chapter discusses the differences in the concepts within Chinese Classics, focusing in Chenwei. Chenwei by its name, seemed to be a rather clear concept. However, in the comparative study, this clarity was actually quite ambiguous in the interpretation of the Scriptures from the past dynasties. From 1890 to 1930, the scholars of Chinese Classics in the late Qing Dynasty revealed their ideological bias, which reflects the characteristics of contemporary scholars' research on ancient classics.
 这一章节探讨了经师学对谶纬这一类与经学相关的文献在观念认知上的差异。在对比的过程中,便可发现谶纬这一看似概念甚为清楚的名词,其实在历代经生的诠释中是颇有歧义的。而1890年至1930年清末民主经学学子的谶纬观便可提现出其对谶纬思想意识上偏向,从而反映出当代学者对古代经学研究的特点。
2007Research on Chenwei: Prospect and Retrospect.

Neo, P.F. (2007). Research on Chenwei: Prospect and Retrospect. Journal for Contemporary Studies of Confucianism (Dangdai ruxue yanjiu), 2, 231-238.

梁秉賦〈讖緯研究的現況與展望〉,《當代儒學研究》(中央大學)第二期,2007年7月,頁231-238。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 Chenwei ideologies created a form of Confucianism that divinify Chinese Classics.This ideology was based on the ancient river map, the myth in Luoshu, the theory of Yin and Yang and the five elements, and Dong Zhongshu's theory of celestial interactions. These mystified nature phenomena. It had a significant impact on the worship rituals in the Eastern Han Dynasty. There are still a number of researches on the study of Chenwei today. This chapter sorts out the current research on Chenwei and summarizes the research prospects of this ideology, hoping to play a guiding role in the research of Chenwei.
 谶纬之学使中国两汉时期出现一种把经学神学化的儒家学说。其主要以古道的河图、洛书的神话、阴阳五行说、以及董仲舒的天人感应说为理据,将自然界的偶然现象神秘化。其对东汉以及后国家祭祀的确立有着明显的影响。今日仍进行着谶纬之学的研究。本章节便针对目前谶纬之学研究的状况进行了整理并总结出此一学说的研究展望,盼得以对谶纬之学研究起到指导作用。
2007From a Demigod to a Sage: Du Yu and his Commentary on the Confucius' Mythology of "Xishou huolin"

Neo, P.F. (2007, August). The Second International Conference on Chinese Classical Learning (Di er jie Zhongguo jingxue guoji xueshu yantaohui). KEYNOTE ADDRESS, From a Demigod to a Sage: Du Yu and his Commentary on the Confucius' Mythology of "Xishou huolin" (Du Yu yu xishou huolin), Xian, China.

梁秉赋〈杜预与“西狩获麟”〉,第二届中国经学国际学术研讨会大会发言,中国西安,2007年8月
Neo Peng Fu Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 The 2nd International Symposium on Chinese Economics gathered 50 representatives from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, the United States, Singapore, and other countries.This keynote addresses various aspects of Chinese Classics, Studies of a Confucian school of idealist philosophy of the Song and Ming Dynasties, and the academic history of the Chinese Classics . The speech of "Du Yu and "Capture Female Kylin in Hunting West " is based on one of the historical allusions "Capture Female Kylin in Hunting West"(“Xishou Huolin”) in "Spring and Autumn". According to legend, Confucius ended up with this historical allusion and stopped writing "The Spring and Autumn". Therefore, although the record of this incident in "Spring and Autumn" is very brief, there is still much room for interpretation. This keynote further dissects Du Yu's analysis and discusses the views of the academic community on this record.
 第二届中国经学国际学术研讨会聚集了来自中国大陆、香港、澳门、台湾以及日本、韩国、美国、新加坡等国家的代表五十人,就经学和理学、经学学术史等内容,从多个侧面进行探讨和交流。〈杜预与“西狩获麟”〉的发言,以《春秋》的其中一则历史典故《西狩获麟》。据传,孔子以此历史典故为结,便不再继续著作《春秋》。因此虽然《春秋》里对此事件的记载十分简短,却仍有许多解析空间。此次分享便进一步剖析了杜预的解析,并探讨学界对此记载的看法。
2006Bilingual Education in Singapore: 1965-2005.

Neo, P.F. (2006). Bilingual Education in Singapore: 1965-2005. In Ho, K.L., Thock, K.W., & Onn, H.J. (Eds.), Social Changes in Malaysia and Singapore (1965-2005) (PP. 89-121). Johor: Southern College Malaysia.

梁秉賦〈新加坡的双语教育:1965-2005〉,收入何启良、祝家华、安焕然编《马来西亚、新加坡社会变迁四十年》(新山,马来西亚:南方学院、新加坡亚洲研究学会,2006年10月),页89-121。
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Since Singapore’s independent in 1965, it has established a policy of bilingual education. At that time, the Singapore government allowed the coexistence of English schools and mother tongue schools of all ethnic groups, and offered mother tongue classes in English schools and English classes in Mother Tongue schools. In the early days of Singapore’s independence, Singapore’s bilingual policy were affected by speeches and campaigns organised by the government. After 40 years of bilingual education, Singapore has created a privileged position for English and had successfully unified Mother Tongues for all four races.
 新加坡自1965年独立以来,便确立了双语教育的方针。当时新加坡政府允许英语学校和各民族母语学校并存,并在英语学校开设母语课,在各民族母语学校开设英语课。建国初期,新加坡的双语政策配合着讲话与运动,影响着新加坡的双语教育。双语教育历经四十年,造就了英语的特权地位,同时也对统一各民族母语有着显著的效果。
2006Mythology in the Classical and Apocryphal Texts of Ancient China.

Neo, P.F. (2006). Mythology in the Classical and Apocryphal Texts of Ancient China (Jingzhuan yu chenwei zhong de shenhua). In Chung, Y.Y. (Ed.), Religion, Literature and Society (Zongjiao, wenxue yu rensheng) (PP. 47-80). Taipei: Yuan Ze University, Department of Chinese Languages and Literature.

梁秉賦〈瑞獸、聖人、王者:經傳與讖緯中的神話〉,收入于鍾雲鶯主編《宗教•文學與人生》(臺灣:元智大學中國語文學系,2006年12月),页47-80
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 “Shanhai Jingzhuan” is an important ancient book in the pre-Qin period filled with myths and legends. It is based on the Confucian Divination Theology and contains both Chinese ancient mythology and religion which feature auspicious animals, saints and lords. This paper will analyse the auspicious animals, saints and lords in the scriptures and the Confucian Divination Theology, and further explore the religion, literature and life integrated into the myths.
 《山海经传》是先秦的重要古籍,也是一部赋予神话传说的古老奇书,儒家谶纬神学有着纯粹的华夏远古神话与宗教色彩。两者都记录了有关瑞兽、圣人和王者的神话。本文将会探析经传和儒家谶纬神学神话中的瑞兽、圣人和王者,并进一步探讨融于神话的宗教、文学与人生。
2006Confucianism in Singapore.

Neo, P.F. (2006). Confucianism in Singapore. In Koh, T. (Ed.), Singapore: The Encyclopedia (PP. 141-142). Singapore: Editions Didier Millet & the National Heritage Board of Singapore.

梁秉赋〈新加坡的儒学与儒教〉,许通美主编《新加坡大百科》(新加坡:新加坡文物局、Editions Didier Millet联合出版,2006年)
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 A brief description of how Confucian values and ideologies were embraced in Singapore.
 本章节将简述新加坡如何接受儒家思想与儒家价值观。
2006On the Disciplines of Classical Learning and History: A Comparison of Kang Youwei and Qian Mu.

Neo, P.F. (2006). On the Disciplines of Classical Learning and History: A Comparison of Kang Youwei and Qian Mu (Jing shi zhijian: Qiantan Kang Youwei yu Qian Mu de jingxue yanjiu). Chinese Culture Research, 51, 11-13.

梁秉赋〈经、史之间:浅谈康有为与钱穆的经学研究〉,《中国文化研究》(北京語言大學)2006年2月春之卷(总第51期), 页 11-13
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 From the end of the Qing Dynasty to the beginning of the Republic of China, the study of Chinese Classics had a historiographical development trend, and the academic circles have already understood this. One manifestation of the historiographicalization of Chinese classics is the restoration of classics issues in history. Qian Muke is said to be a representative of this aspect. Qian's writings are vast, covering various aspects of Chinese Classics. Although his works involving the category of Chinese classics do not occupy much weight in his overall treatise, he wrote directly on the controversy of classics. The Chronicle of Liu Xiangxin and His Son, published in 1930, has caused great repercussions and far-reaching influence. Although Qian Mu has made unique achievements in the study of Chinese classics, he is still generally regarded as a famous historian. Although The foundation of Qian's research lies in history, his study of Chinese classics has broken grounds and created his own distinguishing features.
 从清末到民初,经学研究有史学化的发展趋向,学界对此已多有认识.经学史学化的一个表现,便是把经学问题作史的还原.钱穆可说是这一方面的代表.钱氏著述丰富,所论涵盖经、史、子、集诸部.他涉及经学范畴的作品虽然在其总体论著之中所占分量并不太重,但他直接针对经学问题的争议所作的文章,即发表于1930年的<刘向歆父子年谱>,却曾引起重大的回响与深远的影响.钱穆虽然在经学与子学(<先秦诸子系年>)方面特有建树,但一般仍以他为史学名家.钱氏学问的根基既在史学,其经学研究乃有"以史治经"或"以史实破经说"的特色.
2006Studies of Chinese Overseas in the National University of Singapore

Neo, P.F. (2006). Studies of Chinese Overseas in the National University of Singapore. CHC Bulletin: A Publication of Chinese Heritage Center, 7 & 8, 46-49.

梁秉赋〈新加坡国立大学的华人研究〉,《华裔馆通讯》,第7与8期,2006年,页46-49。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This paper introduces the works by researchers at the National University of Singapore specializing in the field of Studies of Chinese Overseas.
 本文分享了新加坡国立大学海外华人研究学者的研究著作。
2005Chenwei and the Tradition of Classical Learning in Qing Dynasty China

Neo, P.F. (2005). Chenwei and the Tradition of Classical Learning in Qing Dynasty China (Qing dai jingshi de chenwei guan). In Peng, L. (Ed.), Culture and Classical Learning in the Qing Dynasty (Qing dai jingxue yu wenhua) (PP. 387-408). Beijing: Peking University Press.

梁秉赋〈清代经师的谶纬观〉,收入于彭林编《清代经学与文化》(北京:北京大学出版社,2005年11月), 页 387-408
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 Chenwei (Divination combined with mystical Confucianist belief) – a kind of political prophecy, is a popular school of thought during the Qin and Han dynasties. Rather than being considered as a classical ideology, it uses theology to analyse Confucian classics. This school of thought collided with the study of classics during the Qing dynasty and influenced the research of scholars then. The analysis of Chenwei by the Qing scholars formed the Chenwei ideology. This chapter will further explore the Chenwei ideology, which opposes to and integrates with the study of Confucian classics, and thus revealing the culture of Qing dynasty.
 谶纬是秦汉代重要的社会思潮。谶纬之学是一种对政治的预言,其相对于经学,以神学附会,并以此解析儒家经书。这一思想与清代经学碰撞,影响了清代学者的研究。因此,清代学者对谶纬之学的解析,便形成了清代的谶纬观。本章节将进一步探讨这一个与经学相对又融合的谶纬观,并从而揭示清代文化。
2005On the Mistake of a Calendar Constant seen in the Han Apocryphay Texts of the Book of Changes.

Neo, P.F. (2005). On the Mistake of a Calendar Constant seen in the Han Apocryphay Texts of the Book of Changes. In Xiong, T.J., & Zhao, G. H. (Eds.), Studies on the Intellectual History of Qin and Han Dynasties (Qin Han sixiang wenhua yanjiu) (PP. 411-422). Singapore: Hope Publishing House.

梁秉赋〈偷天换“月”:《易纬》“六十四卦主岁”错用朔实小考〉,收入于熊铁基、赵国华主编《秦汉思想文化研究》(中国/新加坡:希望出版社,2005年7月),页411-422
Neo Peng Fu Book Chapters
 This paper provides an analysis on a particular Yiwei text by pointing out that a calendrical constant was wrongly applied in the text.
 本文分析了《易纬》“六十四卦主岁”的内容,探讨其日历常数使用的弊病。
2005Chinese Language Teaching in Singapore: An Analysis of Recent Developments.

Neo, P.F. (2005). Chinese Language Teaching in Singapore: An Analysis of Recent Developments. Asian Culture, 29, 24-40.

梁秉赋〈新加坡华文教学的现况剖析〉,新加坡亚洲研究学会编《亚洲文化》第二十九期,2005年,第24-40页。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 This paper provides an analysis of the major reforms on Chinese language teaching in Singapore schools launched by the MOE in 2004.
 本文分析了新加坡的华文教育并探讨自2004年以来教育部所进行的华文教育改革。
2004Singapore Bilingual Education in 2004: Refinement or Erosion of Past Policy?.

Neo, P.F. (2004). Singapore Bilingual Education in 2004: Refinement or Erosion of Past Policy?. Asian Culture, 28, 40-53.

梁秉赋〈对2004年新加坡双语教育之变革的一个分析〉,新加坡亚洲研究学会编《亚洲文化》第二十八期,2004年,第40-53页。
Neo Peng Fu Journal-Refereed
 In 2004, the Ministry of Education's statistics on the commonly used language of Chinese primary one families showed that in the future, Chinese families will experience a language shift from Chinese to English. In February of the same year, the Ministry of Education established the "Chinese Language Teaching Reform Committee" and presented the "White Paper on Chinese Language Teaching Reform" in November of the same year, emphasizing that the bilingual policy is the cornerstone of Singapore's education system. At the same time, it also emphasizes maintaining students' interest in learning Chinese and making Chinese their life language. This chapter will analyze and summarize a series of bilingual education reforms after the presentation of the 2004 white paper.
 2004年,教育部华族小一新生家庭常用语的统计数字显示未来华族家庭用语正在“脱英入华”。同年二月,教育部成立了“华文教学改革委员会”,并在同年11月提呈了《华文教学改革白皮书》,强调双语政策为新加坡教育制度的基石。同时,也强调保持学生对华语的学习兴趣,让华语成为他们的生活语言。本章将便以2004年白皮书出示后的一系列双语教育变革进行分析综述。
2001Commercializing Arts: A Strategic Analysis of the Marketing of Arts in Singapore

Tan, C. L. (2001, November). Commercializing Arts: A Strategic Analysis of the Marketing of Arts in Singapore, 189.

艺术商业化:新加坡艺术市场的战略性分析
Tan Chee Lay Others
 This strategic analysis attempts to investigate and evaluate the innumerable and diversified critical issues facing the Singapore arts market. It includes researches on the various factors contributing to the low current primary demand in the Singapore arts market, a strategic analysis of their cause and economic effect, as well as an examination of the determinants of potential demand, with close reference to strategic and operational marketing.
 该战略分析试图调查和评估新加坡艺术市场面临的无数多样化的关键问题。这其中包括研究导致新加坡艺术市场当前低需求的各种因素,对其原因和经济影响的战略分析,以及对潜在需求的决定因素的考察,并密切参考战略和运营营销理论。
2000A Study of the Auxiliary Texts of the Book of Changes [Yiwei]

Neo, P.F. (2000). A Study of the Auxiliary Texts of the Book of Changes [Yiwei] (PP. 381). Ann Arbor: ProQuest (UMI Dissertations Publishing).

《易纬研究》,ProQuest 学位论文出版社(美国:密西根,2020年)。
Neo Peng Fu Scholarly Book (Refereed)
 The Yiwei are component of the corpus of literature called chenwei, or weishu, which originated in Han Dynasty China (206 B.C.–220 A.D.) and have generally been referred to as the “Apocryphal” or “apocrypha and prognostication writings” in Western sinological works. This dissertation suggests that the chenwei be rendered as the “auxiliary texts of the Confucian classics.” The Yiwei therefore are the “Auxiliary Texts of the Book of Changes,” a set of writings meant to complement the Yijing. This dissertation accounts on the transmission of the Yiwei and outlines their major contents. Its focus of analysis, however, is on a particular concern of the writings: the attempt to correlate the Yijing with the calendar. The endeavor to establish symbolic correlation between the Yijing and the calendar is mainly accomplished by the creation of certain models of correlative scheme that delineate the supposed correspondences between the components of the Yijing and the units of the calendar. Much of these correlative schemes embodied in the Yiwei have been recognized as closely related with the teachings of two prominent Yijing masters active during the mid-Former Han, Meng Xi and Jing Fang. Hence, it is generally believed that the Yiwei were mainly composed by the followers of the two masters and were sources exemplifying this particular school of Yijing learning. This study, however, attempts to identify within the passages of Yiwei certain ideas or concepts which possibly originated before the time of Meng Xi and Jing Fang. It argues that these ideas represented the thought of early Han Yijing scholars and were a reflection of their effort of responding to the major intellectual currents of their time. This dissertation, therefore, proposes that one should not be bounded by the tradition of seeing the Yiwei as primarily derived from the teachings of Meng Xi and Jing Fang, but should see it instead as a repository of the concepts or ideas evolved within Yijing studies through the span of time ranging from the post-Yizhuan (Appendices of the Book of Changes) to the mid-Former Han.
 易纬是“ 谶纬”或“ 纬书”的组成部分。其起源于中国汉代(公元前206年至公元220年)。在西方汉学作品中,易纬常被称为“伪经”或“伪经和预后著作” 。本文提出将谶纬翻译为“儒家经典的辅助文本”。因此,《易纬》便可被视为《易经》的辅助著作,旨在补充《易经》。本文对易纬的传播进行了论述,并概述了其主要内容。但是,本文的分析主要关注的问题是试图将《易经》与日历联系起来。本文通过创建方案模式来建立《易经》和日历之间的符号相关性。这些模式描述了《易经》的组成部分与日历单位之间的假定对应关系。《易纬》中体现的许多这些相关方案已被认为与两位活跃于汉代初期和中期的易经大师,孟喜和京房的教义密切相关。因此,人们普遍认为易纬主要是由两位大师的追随者组成的,也因此主要起源于该《易经》的学习流派。然而,本研究试图在《易纬》的段落中找出某些起源于孟喜和京房之前的思想或观念。笔者认为,这些思想代表了汉初起《易经》学者的思想,反映了他们为响应当时主要思想流派所做的努力。因此,本论文提出,应突破《易纬》主要源于孟熙和景芳的研究视的束缚,将其视为通过《易经》研究演变而来的概念或思想的结晶。
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2020The Bulan Bahasa Report Card – A Critical Discourse Analysis

Muhammad Irwan Jamal (2020). The Bulan Bahasa Report Card – A Critical Discourse Analysis. In Mohamed Aidil Subhan (Ed.), Issues in Malay Language Planning: Heart Truths. Singapore: Partridge.

Kad Laporan Bulan Bahasa - Satu Kajian Analisis Wacana Kritis
Muhammad Irwan JamalBook Chapters
 This article focuses on the discursive construction of cultural identity through an article that reports on development of the Malay language campaign called the Bulan Bahasa for the past 30 years in the journal, Sekata. Guided by the theoretical framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and utilizing methods developed by Michael Halliday, it provides a close analysis of the article, which puts forth and ascertain the discursive strategies deployed in the Bulan Bahasa to achieve its aims and the ideologies that underpin those strategies. In addition, certain patterns linked to the type, extent and impact of the different agentive roles attributed to the people, government and language are also unveiled. In analyzing the article, the ideational meaning is described using Halliday’s (1994) Transitivity System. Findings from this microanalysis is then mapped onto the larger sociocultural context of Singapore, which then forms the macro analysis of this study.
 Artikel ini memberi tumpuan kepada pembinaan identiti budaya yang ada dalam sebuah artikel yang melaporkan tentang perkembangan kempen bahasa Melayu sepanjang 30 tahun. Artikel ini terdapat dalam jurnal Sekata. Terpandu dengan rangka teoritis Analisis Wacana Kritis dan memanfaatkan kaedah analisis yang dibangunkan oleh Michael Halliday, strategi diskursif yang digunakan dalam wacana Bulan Bahasa dapat dikesan, termasuk ideologi-ideologi yang mendasarinya. Tambahan lagi, corak-corak tertentu yang berkaitaan dengan jenis, capaian dan kesan sesetengah agen dalam teks seperti agen rakyat, pemerintah dan bahasa juga dapat diperkatakan. Dalam menganalisis artikel ini, maksud ideasional akan dijelaskan dengan menggunakan Sistem Transitiviti Halliday (1994). Dapatan analisis mikro akan dipetakan dengan konteks sosiobudaya Singapura yang lebih luas.
2019Malay Language Campaign in Singapore: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Bulan Bahasa

Muhammad Irwan Jamal (2019). Kempen Bahasa Melayu di Singapura: Suatu Kajian Analisis Wacana Kritis. Singapore: National Institute of Education. (Unpublished Master of Arts Thesis)

Kempen Bahasa Melayu di Singapura: Suatu Kajian Analisis Wacana Kritis Bulan Bahasa
Muhammad Irwan JamalConference Presentations (without publication)
 In Singapore’s bilingual policy, English is intended to serve as the language of administration, commerce and technology while the Mother Tongue Languages (Malay, Mandarin & Tamil) are linked with one’s ethnic identity. With English being increasingly used in Malay homes, the Bulan Bahasa (Malay Language month/campaign) plays an even more important role in ensuring that “users of the Malay language are heirs of the rich Malay language, and can ensure the continuity of the language through continuous usage”. This research aims to ascertain the discursive strategies deployed by the government via the Bulan Bahasa to achieve its aims and the ideologies that underpin those strategies. The Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) framework is applied to examine the speeches given by the campaign’s chairperson and Guest-of-Honour at the opening ceremony of the Malay Language Month and the visual resources deployed for the campaign. In analyzing the speeches, the ideational meaning is described using Halliday’s (1994) Transitivity System whereas the mood and modality analysis will be utilized to articulate the interpersonal meaning of the text. In addition, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s (1994) Grammar of Visual Design is applied to link the visual with the linguistic analysis by examining the processes, participants and circumstantial information (ideational meaning) as well as the type of shot, perspective and relationship (interpersonal) meaning that can be drawn from the visual campaign resources. Findings in the research show the dominance of the Government in the material, mental and verbal processes as compared to the Community who are rather inactive, non-thinking and muted. In addition, a hybrid identity constructed in the use of pronoun “Kita” (We) was strategically deployed within the campaign discourse to serve a dual purpose of instructing as well as coaxing its readers. Findings from this microanalysis is then mapped onto the larger sociopolitical, economic, educational and sociocultural context of Singapore, which then forms the macro analysis of this study.
 Merujuk kepada dasar dwibahasa di Singapura, Bahasa Inggeris berfungsi sebagai bahasa pentadbiran, perdagangan dan teknologi sementara Bahasa Ibunda (Melayu, Mandarin dan Tamil) berfungsi sebagai bahasa identiti masyarakat penuturnya. Apabila penggunaan Bahasa Inggeris semakin meningkat di kalangan masyarakat Melayu, Bulan Bahasa mula memainkan peranan yang lebih penting untuk memastikan “pengguna-pengguna Bahasa Melayu menjadi pewaris bahasa yang kaya dan menentukan kesinambugan bahasa dengan penggunaan yang berterusan”.

Penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk memastikan strategi diskursif yang diguna pemerintah melalui Bulan Bahasa untuk mencapai ketujuan dan ideologi yang menyokong strategi tersebut. Kajian Analisis Wacana Kritis digunakan untuk memeriksa ucapan-ucapan yang dibuat oleh ketua pengerusi dan tetamu kehormat semasa majlis perasmian Bulan Bahasa Melayu dan sumber visual yang dikerahkan bagi kempen tersebut. Semasa menganalisis ucapan-ucapan, makna ideologi digambarkan dengan menggunakan Transitiviti Sistem daripada Halliday (1994); analisis mood dan modaliti akan digunakan untuk mengartikulasi makna interpersonal teks. Selain itu, Tatabahasa Reka Bentuk Visual (1994) daripada Kress dan Leeuwen digunakan untuk menghubungi visual dan analisis linguistik dengan memeriksa proses, peserta-peserta dan informasi bersahaja begitu juga dengan jenis gambar, perspektif dan makna hubungan yang dapat diambil daripada sumber kempen visual.

Penemuan daripada penyelidikan menunjuk penguasaan pemerintah dalam proses-proses bahan, mental dan lisan apabila dibanding dengan masyarakat yang tidak aktif, tidak berfikir dan senyap. Selain itu, identiti hibrid yang dibina dalam kata ganti “Kita” telah digunakan dengan strategi dalam kempen untuk melayani dua tujuan; mengarah dan memujuk pembaca-pembaca. Penemuan daripada analisis mikro ini dipetakan ke konteks sosiopolitik, ekonomi, pendidikan dan sosiobudaya Singapura yang lebih besar, yang membentukkan analisis makro pengajian ini.
2018Bilingualism and Malay Language Planning in Singapore

Bilingualism and Malay Language Planning in Singapore. Partridge Publishing Singapore

Bilingualisme dan Perancangan Bahasa Melayu di Singapura
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor University Textbooks or Professional Books
 This book details concerns, both perceived and real, among the Malay language community against a background of language shift and changing attitudes toward the language as a result of the bilingual policy and to analyze the impact of the English-knowing and Mandarin-led bilingual system. This research will list selected educational review reports and relate it to its impact on Malay language planning and offer a response in terms of pedagogical approaches required to address the changing demographics and language shift among Malay language learners.
 Buku ini menjelaskan pandangan masyarakat mengenai perubahan terhadap penggunaan Bahasa Melayu berdasarkan perubahan kepada sikap masyarakat pengguna kerana dasar dwi-bahasa yang berpusatkan Bahasa Inggeris dan mengikut bahasa Mandarin. Kajian ini akan menjelaskan bagaimana laporan semakan yang dipilih memberi kesan terhadap perancangan bahasa dan kemudian memberi laluan kepada penggunaan pendekatan pengajaran yang tertentu dan sesuai dengan perubahan demorafik serta perubahan penggunaan bahasa di kalangan pengguna Bahasa Melayu.
2017One Vision, One Identity, One Community: The role of Malay Language in Singapore and its effect as a language of knowledge in the ASEAN Community

Malay Language Council of Brunei, Indonesia & Malaysia (MABBIM) Academic Conference.

Satu Wawasan, Satu Identiti, Satu Masyarakat: Perenan Bahasa Melayu di Singapura dan kesan Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa ilmu di masyarakat ASEAN
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Conference Presentations (without publication)
 Singapore celebrated its’ 50th year of independence last year. Since independence, Singapore has been practicing a system of bilingualism which plays a specific role with regards to the four Official Languages, namely, English Language, Malay Language, Mandarin and Tamil. Malay Language as the Official Language as well as the National Language plays a vital role as the medium to preserve Malay culture and national identity. In 2015, ASEAN, will formally establish the ASEAN Community with business opportunities as much as US$2.6 trillion for the 622 million people and thus, ensuring that the economy becomes the third largest in Asia and the seventh largest in the world. Through the establishment of the ASEAN Community and the ASEAN Community Vision 2025: Forging Ahead Together, population integration becomes the key focus in the region’s development. This paper aims to review Singapore’s experience in the planning of Malay Language for the past 50 years and evaluate how this experience can benefit the ASEAN Community and head towards the vision for ASEAN 2025: Forging Ahead Together.
 Singapura pada tahun lalu menyambut SG50 – sambutan 50 tahun kemerdekaannya yang diraih pada tanggal 9hb Ogos 1965. Semenjak kemerdekaan, Singapura telah mengamalkan sistem dwi-bahasa yang memberi peranan tertentu kepada empat Bahasa Rasminya, iaitu Bahasa Inggeris, Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Cina dan Bahasa Tamil. Bahasa Melayu sebagai Bahasa Rasmi dan juga Bahasa Kebangsaan memainkan peranan penting sebagai Bahasa pengekalan budaya Melayu dan identiti negara Singapura. Pada tahun 2015, ASEAN sebagai sebuah entiti serantau secara rasmi menubuhkan Komuniti ASEAN dengan peluang perniagaan pasaran sebanyak US$2.6 trilion di kalangan penduduk seramai 622 juta orang dan sekaligus menjadi ekonomi ketiga terbesar di Asia dan yang ketujuh di dunia. Melalui penubuhan Komuniti ASEAN dan dalam menuju visi ASEAN 2025: Maju Bersama, integrasi penduduk menjadi satu fokus penting dalam pembangunan rantau ini. Kertas kerja ini akan meninjau pengalaman Singapura dalam perancangan Bahasa Melayu selama 50 tahun dan menilai bagaimana pengalaman ini dapat dimanfaatkan dalam Komuniti ASEAN dan menuju visi ASEAN 2025: Maju Bersama.
2015Translanguaging in a reading class

Viniti Vaish, Aidil Subhan. Translanguaging in a reading class. International Journal of Multilingualism, 12 (3), 338-357.

Translanguaging Dalam Suatu Kelas Membaca
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Book Chapters
 Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. The data comes from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP is an early intervention reading programme in English for students in lower primary school. Our key finding is that the broad goal of translanguaging in teacher talk was to mediate academic content. Specifically, the purposes for translanguaging in teacher talk were to aid comprehension (in 41% of switches) and translate vocabulary (in 39% of switches). The use of Malay changed interactional patterns by closing the gap in talktime between teacher and students: though the ratio of talktime between teacher and students on Day 1 was 76%:20%, this became a more democratic 47%:49% on Day 8. Finally, the scaffold of Malay changed the way the students attempted to answer questions.
 Menggunakan translanguaging sebagai asas teori, kertas kajian ini menganalis dapatan dari kelas membaca darjah 2 di kalangan pelajar yang pencapaiannya lemah. Di dalam kelas ini, pengajaran Bahasa Inggeris menggunakan elemen Bahasa Melayu sebagai perancah untuk mereka yang mengambil BM sebaga Bahasa Ibunda. Data didapati dari sebuah kelas yang menjalankan Program Sokongan Pembelajaran atau Learning Support Program (LSP) di sebuah sekolah rendah. LSP merupakan program intervensi bacaan Bahasa Inggeris di peringkat sekolah rendah bawah. Dapatan utama kami membuktikan bahawa objektif umum translanguaging dalam ucapan guru adalah sebagai perancah dalam pencapaian pengisian akademik. Khususnya, ucapan guru dalam translanguaging dapat menolong pemahaman pelajar dan meningkatkan kosa kata mereka. Penggunaan Bahasa Melayu juga merubah pattern interaksi pelajar. Masa bertutur antara pelajar dan guru semakin sama rata melalui penggunaan translanguaging. Akhirnya, penggunaan perancah ini tlah merubah cara pelajar menjawab soalan yang diajukan guru.
2015The History of Malay language In education Planning: Successes & Challenges.

Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor. The History of Malay language In education Planning: Successes & Challenges Malay Language Council of Singapore

Sejarah Perkembangan Bahasa Melayu dalam Perancangan Pendidikan: Kejayaan & Cabaran
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Others
 In Yang Terukir, a Malay Language coffee table book celebrates the 50 years of Singapore’s Independence. The Malay language has played a very important role in the lives of not only the Malay community in Singapore but also the Singaporean community at large. In the early years of Singapore’s independence, Malay was the language of unity and also the nation as well as one of the four official languages. Now, besides maintaining the last two mentioned status, Malay is a language used as a cultural ballast in an English-knowing bilingual system. It shares this role with the Chinese and Tamil language. This paper will look at the Malay language planning with emphasis on language in education planning. It will highlight the development in this area and look at how the language has benefitted from the bilingual system of education.
 Sejarah Perkembangan Perancangan Bahasa Melayu dalam Pendidikan: Kejayaan & Cabaran Bahasa Melayu telah lama memainkan peranan penting dalam kehidupan masyarakat Melayu di Singapura secara khusus dan masyarakat majmuk Singapura secara umum. Antara peranan yang telah dimainkannya adalah sebagai bahasa penyatuan pada tahun-tahun awal kemerdekaan Singapura, bahasa kebangsaan dan bahasa rasmi, dan kini sebagai bahasa pendinding budaya (cultural ballast) kepada penggunaan bahasa Inggeris yang semakin meluas. Kertas kajian ini berdasarkan tesis PhD penulis yang telah meninjau perkembangan bahasa Melayu di Singapura dari tiga sudut utama, iaitu perkembangan status bahasa Melayu, perkembangan korpus bahasa Melayu dan akhir sekali perkembangan perancangan pemerolehan bahasa Melayu dalam konteks dwi-bahasa Singapura. Kertas ini akan memberi pengkhususan terhadap perkembangan bahasa Melayu dari sudut pemerolehan bahasanya dalam konteks perancangan dalam pendidikan, dan sekaligus meninjau pencapaiannya dalam masa 50 tahun kemerdekaan Singapura.
2014Muslim Education in the 21st Century - Asian Perspectives

Sa'eda Buang, and Chew, P.G.L (Ed.). (2014). Muslim Education in the 21st Century - Asian Perspectives (PP. 210). New York: Routledge.

Pendidikan Muslim pada kurun ke-21 -Perspektif Asia
Sa’eda Buang Editorships, Published Reviews
 Muslim Education in the 21st Century reinvestigates the current state of affairs in Muslim education in Asia whilst at the same time paying special attention to Muslim schools’ perception of educational changes and the reasons for such changes. It highlights and explores the important question of whether the Muslim school has been reinventing itself in the field of pedagogy and curriculum to meet the challenges of the 21st century education. It interrogates the schools whose curriculum content carry mostly the subject of religion and Islam as its school culture. Typologically, these include state-owned or privately-run madrasah or dayah in Aceh, Indonesia; pondok, traditional Muslim schools largely prevalent in the East Malaysian states and Indonesia; pesantren, Muslim boarding schools commonly found in Indonesia; imam-khatip schools in Turkey, and other variations in Asia.

Contributed by a host of international experts, Muslim Education in the 21st Century focuses on how Muslim educators strive to deal with the educational contingencies of their times and on Muslim schools’ perception of educational changes and reasons for such changes. It will be of great interest to anyone interested in Asian and Muslim education.
 Buku ini membuat kajian semula tentang keadaan pendidikan Muslim di Asia masa kini di samping memberi perhatian pada persepsi sekolah agama terhadap perubahan-perubaan dalam pendidikan dan faktor-faktor perubahan tersebut. Buku ini mengetengahkan dan menjawab soalan utama sama ada sekolah agama telah melalui perekaan kembali dalam bidang pedagogi dan kurikulum demi menghadapi cabaran pendidikan kurun ke-21. Buku ini mengkaji sekolah agama yang mempunyai subjek agama dalam kurikulum dan menjadikan Islam sebagai budaya sekolah. Secara tipologi, sekolah yang dikaji termasuk madrasah tajaan nasional dan swasta, dayah di Aceh, Indonesia; pondok yang kebanyakannya terdapat di kawasan timur Malaysia dan Indonesia; pesantren, sekolah berasrama yang kebanyakannya terdapat di Indonesia; sekolah imam-khatip di Turkey, dan variasi sekolah agama yang lain.

Disumbang oleh pakar-pakar antarabangsa, buku ini memberi fokus pada cara bagaimana para pendidik berhadapan dengan cabaran dan persepsi sekolah terhadap perubahan pendidikan dan faktor-faktor perubahan tersebut. Buku ini sangat berguna kepada sesiapa sahaja yang berminat pada pendidikan Islam dan pendidikan di Asia.
2013History of Royal Family

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). History of Royal Family. Berita Minggu Singapore, 2 June, NIL, 4-5.

Sejarah Keluarga Diraja
Hadijah RahmatProfessional Publications
 This article discusses the history of the Singapore Malay Royal System from the Melakan Sultanate to Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga Sultanate until the British took over the country. It was published in Berita Minggu Singapore, in two parts. Part 1 on 2 June 2013 and Part 2 on 9th June 2013
 Esei ini menerangkan sejarah sistem kesultanan di Singapura dari zaman kesultanan Melaka hingga ke kesultanan Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga hingga diambilalih oleh penjajah British di Singapura. Esei ini diterbitkan di akhbar Berita Minggu Singapura dalam dua bahagian. Bahagian 1 pada 2 June 2013 dan Bahagian 2 pada 9 Jun 2013.
2013Two Early Prime Ministers of Singapore

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). Two Early Prime Ministers of Singapore. Berita Minggu Singapure,9 June 2013, Nil, 5-6

Dua Perdana Menteri Awal Singapura
Hadijah RahmatProfessional Publications
 This is part 2 of the article on the history of Singapore Malay Royal System. It discusses the role and functions of Bendahara or Prime Ministers and introduces the two political figures who performed this significant function in Singapore.
 Ini adalah bahagian 2 esei mengenai sejarah kesultanan di Singapura. Bahagian ini membincangkan peranan dan fungsi Bendahara atau Perdana Menteri dan memperkenalkan dua orang tokoh pemimpin yang melakukan tugas penting ini di Singapura.
2013Cries of the Heart - Social Face of the Malays reflected on Singapore TV screen

Hadijah Rahmat (2013). Cries of the Heart - Social Face of the Malays reflected on Singapore TV screen. (pp. xi-xxxviii). Singapore: Perkumpulan Seni.

Gerimis di Hati - Wajah Sosial Melayu dari cermin TV Singapura
Hadijah Rahmat, Mukhlis Abu Bakar, Roksana Abdullah (Ed.). (2011). University Textbooks or Professional Books
 The book is compilation of scripts of 10 episodes or series of tv drama written by 4 playrights in Singapore - Amanah Mustafi, Hartinah Ahmad, Hamed Ismail and Samsudin Said which were televised on national tv Suria, every Wednesday for 10 weeks from 12 August 2009 to 14 November 2009, from 930 -1030 pm. A/P Hadijah was invited to write the introduction for the book. She provides comprehensive background on development of Malay drama, process of tv production and analysis of the social content and values of the scripts. The book is the first book published for scripts for Malay tv series in Singapore.
 Buku ini adalah kumpulan 10 episod skrip siri drama tv yang ditulis oleh 4 orang penulis di Singapura - Amanah Mustafi, Hartinah Ahmad, Hamed Ismail dan Samsudin Said- yang telah ditayangkan di stesen tv Suria, setiap Rabu selama 10 minggu dari 12 Ogos 2009 hingga 14 Nov 2009, dari 930-1030 malam.A/P Hadijah diundang untuk menulis pengenalan untuk buku. Beliau memberikan latar belakang perkembangan drama yang menyeluruh, proses penerbitan dan analisa mendalam mengenai kandungan dan nilai drama ini. Buku ini adalah buku kumpulan drama tv yang pertama diterbitkan di Singapura.
2013Bilingualism and Its Effects On Malay Language Planning

Bilingualism and Its Effects On Malay Language Planning.
PhD Thesis. Singapore: Nanyang Technological University.

Dwi-bahasa dan Kesan Dwi-Bahasa pada Perancangan Bahasa Melayu
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Others
 Singapore’s bilingual policy has been dubbed an English-knowing bilingual system, in which English is the main language followed by a choice of any one of the three mother tongue languages: Mandarin, Malay, or Tamil. Among the three mother tongue languages, there is a perception that the language policy is Mandarin-inspired, especially given the opening up of China and the growing economic importance of learning Mandarin. There is also a worry among Malay speakers that inspite of its status as the national language and one of the four official languages, Malay has seen its role within Singapore diminish from that of a language of unity and wider communication to a language of cultural repository, which is largely symbolic in nature. This will in turn affect its stated role as a “cultural ballast” in Singapore’s bilingual framework.

Thus, there is a need for academic research that would detail these concerns, both perceived and real, among the Malay language community against a background of language shift and changing attitudes toward the language as a result of the bilingual policy and to analyze the impact of the English-knowing and Mandarin-led bilingual system. This research will list selected educational review reports and relate it to its impact on Malay language planning and offer a response in terms of pedagogical approaches required to address the changing demographics and language shift among Malay learners. Besides addressing these issues, this research attempts to audit the Malay language planning in terms of its status, corpus and acquisition planning using Cooper’s (1989) theoretical framework and accounting scheme. By doing so the researcher aims to highlight the positives and negatives of the bilingual policy on Malay language planning in Singapore.
 Dasar dwi-bahasa Singapura dikenali juga sebagai sistem yang berpaksikan Bahasa Inggeris, yang mana Bahasa Inggeris menjadi bahasa utama dalam setiap domain penggunaan diikuti Bahasa Ibunda yang lain, aiitu Mandari, Melayu dan Tamil. Di kalangan ketiga-tiga Bahasa ibunda itu pula, terdapat persepsi bahawa perancangan bahasanya berpaksikan Mandarin, Ini berlaku kerana kebangkita China sebagai kuasa besar ekonomi dan kepentingan Mandarin di seluruh dunia.Terdapat juga keprihatinan di kalangan penutur Bahasa Melayu bahawa walaupun Bahasa tersebut berstatus Bahasa Kebangsaan dan satu daripada empat Bahasa Rasmi, kepentingannya dalam konteks Singapura semakin mengecil. Pada mulanya ia berfungsi sebagai Bahasa kesatuan dan Bahasa luas penggunaan, tetapi kini ia berfungsi sebagai Bahasa pendinding budaya yang lebih bersifat simbolik. Pengecilan ini lama-kelamaan akan menjejas fungsinya sebagai repositori budaya dalam kerangka dwi-bahasa Singapura.

Maka terdapat keperluan untuk menjalankan kajian akademik yang meneliti kegusaran ini, sama ada yang diamati ataupun yang sebenarnya berlaku, di kalangan masyarakat Melayu di sebalik perubahan lanskap penggunaan Bahasa yang disebabkan oleh sistem dwi-bahasa yang berpaksikan Bahasa Inggeris dan dipimpin Bahasa Mandarin. Kajian ini akan menyenaraikan beberapa laporan semakan pendidikan dan kaitkannya dengan impak terhadap Bahasa Melayu. Impak ini berkait dengan perubahan kepada program serta pengajaran dan pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu. Selain daripada itu, kajian ini mengaudit perancangan Bahasa Melayu dengan menggunakan kerangka Cooper (1989). Pengkaji berharap untuk mengentenghakan aspek positif serta negative, jika ada, dasar dwi-bahasa terhadap perancangan Bahasa Melayu di Singapura.
2012A case for the importance of Malay Language, and the usefulness of English Language: The Teaching and Learning of Malay in an English-knowing Bilingual System

A case for the importance of Malay Language, and the usefulness of English Language: The Teaching and Learning of Malay in an English-knowing Bilingual System. Paper presented at the 16th Malay Regional Literati Conference.

Kes Untuk Kepentingan Bahasa Melayu dan Kegunaan Bahasa Inggeris: Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu dalam Sistem Dwi-Bahasa yang berbahasa Inggeris
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Conference Presentations (with publication)
 Singapore’s bilingual policy has been dubbed an English-knowing bilingual system, in which English is the main language followed by a choice of any one of the three mother tongue languages: Mandarin, Malay, or Tamil. Among the three mother tongue languages, there is a perception that the language policy is Mandarin-inspired, especially given the opening up of China and the growing economic importance of learning Mandarin. There is also a worry among Malay speakers that inspite of its status as the national language and one of the four official languages, Malay has seen its role within Singapore diminish from that of a language of unity and wider communication to a language of cultural repository, which is largely symbolic in nature. This will in turn affect its stated role as a “cultural ballast” in Singapore’s bilingual framework.

Thus, there is a need for academic research that would detail these concerns, both perceived and real, among the Malay language community against a background of language shift and changing attitudes toward the language as a result of the bilingual policy and to analyze the impact of the English-knowing and Mandarin-led bilingual system. This research will list selected educational review reports and relate it to its impact on Malay language planning and offer a response in terms of pedagogical approaches required to address the changing demographics and language shift among Malay learners. Besides addressing these issues, this research attempts to audit the Malay language planning in terms of its status, corpus and acquisition planning using Cooper’s (1989) theoretical framework and accounting scheme. By doing so the researcher aims to highlight the positives and negatives of the bilingual policy on Malay language planning in Singapore.
 Dasar dwi-bahasa Singapura dikenali juga sebagai sistem yang berpaksikan Bahasa Inggeris, yang mana Bahasa Inggeris menjadi bahasa utama dalam setiap domain penggunaan diikuti Bahasa Ibunda yang lain, aiitu Mandari, Melayu dan Tamil. Di kalangan ketiga-tiga Bahasa ibunda itu pula, terdapat persepsi bahawa perancangan bahasanya berpaksikan Mandarin, Ini berlaku kerana kebangkita China sebagai kuasa besar ekonomi dan kepentingan Mandarin di seluruh dunia.Terdapat juga keprihatinan di kalangan penutur Bahasa Melayu bahawa walaupun Bahasa tersebut berstatus Bahasa Kebangsaan dan satu daripada empat Bahasa Rasmi, kepentingannya dalam konteks Singapura semakin mengecil. Pada mulanya ia berfungsi sebagai Bahasa kesatuan dan Bahasa luas penggunaan, tetapi kini ia berfungsi sebagai Bahasa pendinding budaya yang lebih bersifat simbolik. Pengecilan ini lama-kelamaan akan menjejas fungsinya sebagai repositori budaya dalam kerangka dwi-bahasa Singapura.

Maka terdapat keperluan untuk menjalankan kajian akademik yang meneliti kegusaran ini, sama ada yang diamati ataupun yang sebenarnya berlaku, di kalangan masyarakat Melayu di sebalik perubahan lanskap penggunaan Bahasa yang disebabkan oleh sistem dwi-bahasa yang berpaksikan Bahasa Inggeris dan dipimpin Bahasa Mandarin. Kajian ini akan menyenaraikan beberapa laporan semakan pendidikan dan kaitkannya dengan impak terhadap Bahasa Melayu. Impak ini berkait dengan perubahan kepada program serta pengajaran dan pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu. Selain daripada itu, kajian ini mengaudit perancangan Bahasa Melayu dengan menggunakan kerangka Cooper (1989). Pengkaji berharap untuk mengentenghakan aspek positif serta negative, jika ada, dasar dwi-bahasa terhadap perancangan Bahasa Melayu di Singapura.
2012A case for the importance of Malay Language, and the usefulness of English Language: The Teaching and Learning of Malay in an English-knowing Bilingual System

A case for the importance of Malay Language, and the usefulness of English Language: The Teaching and Learning of Malay in an English-knowing Bilingual System. Paper presented at the 16th Malay Regional Literati Conference.

Kes Untuk Kepentingan Bahasa Melayu dan Kegunaan Bahasa Inggeris: Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu dalam Sistem Dwi-Bahasa yang berbahasa Inggeris
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Conference Presentations (with publication)
 The bilingual policy has been in place in Singapore since 1956 based on the All-Party Report. Since the implementation of the policy, the teaching and learning of Malay Language has encountered many changes taking into account the changing demographics of its users. The teaching and learning had to be made ‘easier’ and up-to-date. This paper will look into the changes which resulted from the implementation of the bilingual policy in the three education phases – survival-driven phase (1965 – 1978), efficiency-driven phase (1979 – 1991) and ability-driven phase (1992 till present). Lastly, this paper will make suggestions on the teaching and learning of Malay Language in the English-knowing bilingual system and towards 21st century competencies.
 Dasar dwi-bahasa di Singapura telah dilaksanakan semenjak tahun 1956 berdasarkan saranan All-Party Report yang diterima oleh pemerintah pada tahun yang sama. Semenjak perlaksanaan dasar tersebut, pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu melalui pelbagai perubahan untuk memudahkan pengajaran dan pembelajarannya mengikut keadaan semasa. Kertas kerja ini akan menyingkap perubahan-perubahan ini berdasarkan ketiga-tiga fasa pendidikan – fasa berteraskan penakatan (1965-1978), fasa berteraskan kecekapan (1979-1991) dan fasa berteraskan kebolehan (1992 hingga kini). Akhir sekali, kertas kerja ini akan membuat beberapa saranan pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu dalam kerangka sistem dwi-bahasa yang berlandaskan bahasa Inggeris menuju ke arah kemahiran yang diperlukan dalam abad ke-21.
2012Realistic Teaching and Learning in Islamic Education: The Singapore Experience

Sa'eda Buang (2012, MAR). Realistic Teaching and Learning in Islamic Education: The Singapore Experience. Keynote Address, International Seminar on Islamic Teaching and Learning; 8-9 March 2012, jointly organised by Faculty of Islamic Civilization (Universiti Tekonologi Malaysia), the KUPUSB (Brunei), and MARSAH (Johor), Johore Bharu, Malaysia.

Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran dalam pendidikan Islam secara realistik: Pengalaman Singapura
Sa’eda Buang Keynote Address at an International Conference (Singapore or Overseas)
 In this keynote address, I discuss the development of the madrasah in Singapore, the pedagogical approaches and methods employed by religious schools in Singapore. Pointers on effective teaching and learning were also put forth.
 Kertas ucaptama ini membincangkan perkembangan madrasah di Singapura, pendekatan pedagogi dan pelbagai kaedah yang digunakan oleh sekolah-sekolah agama di Singapura. Beberapa panduan mengenai pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang berkesan juga dikemukakan.
2011Standardization or Uniformity: In Pursuit of a Guide for Spoken Singapore Malay

Subhan, M.A. (2011, December). Standardization or Uniformity: In Pursuit of a Guide for Spoken Singapore Malay. Paper presented at 5th ASEAN Linguistics Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Proses Menstandarkan atau Keseragaman: Mencari Suatu Panduan untuk Sebutan Baku Melayu Singapura
Mohamed Aidil Subhan Bin Mohamed Sulor Conference Presentations (with publication)
 The standardization of spoken Malay has been mentioned in the corpus planning of Malay Language since 1956 with regards to the determination of the standard spoken form or "sebutan baku". Previous years has seen the Johor-Riau spoken variation as the standard based on the fact that the Johor-Riau area was the centre of Malay language and development then. In 1956, the 3rd Malay Language & Literary Congress passed a resolution determining that the Johor-Riau spoken variation should cease to be regarded as the standard. More than 30 years passed before the Malaysian government formally announced their shift from the standard Johor-Riau spoken variation to sebutan baku, which was to be used by educators and the mass media.

In 1993, Singapore’s Ministry of Education launched its standard spoken Malay Language program, Program Sebutan Baku Bahasa Melayu, which was based on the Malaysian model. In the year 2000, the Malaysian government retracted its support for sebutan baku and returned to using the Johor-Riau spoken variation. In spite of this development, Singapore still maintains its support for sebutan baku till today. This paper will track the historical development of Malay Language corpus planning with emphasis on the spoken variation in Malaysia and its impact on Singapore. This paper will also suggest some steps that can be considered by the Singapore authorities in this respect taking into account 21st century skills in the ever-changing educational landscape.
 Proses menstandardkan bahasa Melayu lisan telah diutarakan dalam perancangan korpus bahasa Melayu semenjak tahun 1956 mengenai isu sebutan standard atau sebutan baku. Loghat Johor-Riau telah digunakan sebagai standard pada tahun-tahun awal atas sebab kawasan Johor-Riau yang merupakan pusat bahasa Melayu dan pembangunan dahulu. Kongres Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu se-Malaya ke 3 pada tahun 1956 telah merumuskan bahawa loghat Johor-Riau tidak lagi sesuai sebagai standard. Selepas lebih dari 30 tahun, pemerintah Malaysia membuat anjakan dari sebutan standard mengikut loghat Johor-Riau kepada sebutan baku yang mereka ingin pendidik dan media massa gunakan.

Pada tahun 1993, Kementerian Pendidikan Singapura telah melancarkan Program Sebutan Baku Bahasa Melayu yang menggunakan Malaysia sebagai modelnya. Pada tahun 2000, pemerintah Malaysia menarik semula sokongan terhadap sebutan baku dan kembali pada loghat Johor-Riau sebagai standard. Walaupun terdapat perubahan tersebut di Malaysia, Singapura tetap mengekalkan penggunaan sebutan baku sehingga dewasa kini. Kertas ini bertujuan untuk menyingkap sejarah pembinaan korpus bahasa Melayu dengan membuat penelitian pada impak variasi lisan bahasa Melayu di Malaysia terhadap Singapura. Kertas ini juga akan membuat saranan-saranan tentang langkah-langkah yang boleh diambil oleh pemerintah Singapura untuk menerapkan kemahiran abad ke-21 dalam dunia pendidikan yang kerap berubah.
2011Islamic education tradition through teaching and learning of ‘Nilai’ (values)

Sa'eda Buang (2011). Penerusan tradisi pendidikan Islam melalui pengajaran dan pendidikan ‘Nilai’. In Hadijah Rahmat, Abdul Rahman Napiah & Kartini Anwar (Eds.), Citra Murni Seorang Insan (pp. 1-11). Singapore: Pustaka Melayu Publisher.

Penerusan tradisi pendidikan Islam melalui pengajaran dan pendidikan ‘Nilai’
Sa’eda Buang Book Chapters
 This paper primarily discusses values education championed by Dr Haji Abbas Mohd Shariff and its relation with Islamic education tradition. This paper also articulates the views of early Muslim scholars on Islamic education theories that are in tandem with the ‘nilai’ (values) professed by Abbas.
 Keperihatinan Dr Haji Abbas Mohd Shariff terhadap aspek pendidikan ‘nilai’ dan kaitannya dengan tradisi pendidikan Islam menjadi teras perbincangan kertas ini. Dengan mengemukakan pandangan para sarjana Islam awal, kertas ini mengaitkan konsep ‘nilai’ pegangan Dr Abbas yang terbukti sehaluan dengan beberapa teori pendidikan Islam.
2011Kitab Jawi as Migratory instrument of Thoughts and Pedagogy of Cultural Reproduction of the Malays in the pre-Independence Era

Sa'eda Buang (2011, March). Kitab Jawi as Migratory instrument of Thoughts and Pedagogy of Cultural Reproduction of the Malays in the pre-Independence Era. Merantau: Imagining Migration in the Malay World. International Seminar in Honour of Prof. E. U. Kratz, 1, 1-15.

Kitab Jawi sebagai wahana perantauan bagi pemikiran dan pedagogi pengeluaran semula budaya orang Melayu pada era pra-kemerdekaan
Sa’eda Buang Conference Presentations (with publication)
 This paper