The colloquium on 22 January 2020 was jointly organised by IAS and the Graduate Students' Club of SPMS.
The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost: the fabric of life on which we all depend is unravelling rapidly. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature's benefits are unequally distributed. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action that starts without delay and addresses the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature's deterioration.