Computer Graphics and Applications

The subject is an introduction to computer graphics and applications. It covers graphics concepts and basic techniques for operating with two- and three-dimensional objects and overview a few typical applications of computer graphics.

Upon completion of this subject, the student should be able to:

1. Understand and apply the basic principles, techniques, and algorithms for generating and interacting with simple graphical objects on a display screen.
2. Gain awareness of common computer graphics software.
3. Use VRML for creating sophisticated scenes and virtual environments.

Total number of lecture hours: 39 hours

Text book
A.Sourin, Computer Graphics. From a small formula to Cyberworlds, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2005.

Course Details

Part I, Basics of Computer Graphics (21 hours)

1. Introduction (3 hours)
The development of computer graphics; Applications of modern computer graphics; Objectives, principles, and structure of the course. How the graphics display works.

2. Graphics Pipeline and Coordinate Systems (2 hours)
Coordinate systems and coordinate transformations; Output primitives and their attributes; Interaction; Objects, operations, relations; Viewing in 2D and 3D space.

3. VRML (3 hours)
Virtual Reality Modelling Language.

4. Shapes (3 hours)
2D and 3D geometric shapes. Classification. Explicit, implicit and parametric definitions. Volume graphics.

5. 2D Transformations and viewing (3 hours)
Euclidean and Affine Geometry; Coordinate representation of point. Matrix representation of point transformations; Homogeneous coordinates; Composition of 2D transformations; Basic rules and conventions of matrix transformations. Window-to-viewport coordinate transformation in matrix form; Clipping operation; Cohen-Sutherland clipping algorithm.

6. 3D Transformations (3 hours)
General matrix transformation equation in 3D space; Translation, scaling and rotation in 3D; Composition of 3D transformations;

7. 3D Viewing (3 hours)
The viewing pipeline. Affine and perspective geometry. Projection transformation; Orthographic projections; Axonometric projections; Perspective transformations; Stereographic projection.

8. Illumination and Shading (2 hours)
Light sources; Empirical illumination: Ambient, diffuse and specular models; Shading models: Flat, Gouraud and Phong shading models; Texture mapping.

Part II Computer Graphics Applications (15 hours)

9. How Computer Animation works (3 hours)
Introduction to animation; Traditional animation; Computer-assisted animation; Computer animation: key-framing, procedural and behaviour animation; Dynamics of numbers.

10. How Real-time Rendering works (3 hours)
Hierarchy of coordinate systems; Modelling transformations and transformations of coordinate systems; Spatial partitioning; Bounding boxes; Level of detail; Current transformation matrix.

11. How Graphical User Interfaces work (3 hours)
Designing user interfaces; state diagrams; Visual design rules.

12. How Virtual Reality Works (3 hours)
Definitions; Generic VR system; VR hardware and software; Sensory conflict in VR; VR applications.

Revision (3 hours)

Tutorials
10 tutorials.

Laboratories:
VRML programming: "Implicit Fantasies and Parametric Metamorphoses in Cyberworlds"
(10 hours)

Self-study mandatory activity:
Multi-user community  Virtual Campus of NTU